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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (Jan.-Dec. 1909)"




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zmmmik state library. 

SACRAMENTO 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

A book may be kept for three weeks and renewed 
for two weeks longer. 

A fine of five cents a day will he- charged on over- 
due books. 



JUN 30 191« 




MAR 18 1911 




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OCT 4 - 1911 




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BRICKBVEDER 




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ARCHIIECVRAL 

MONTHIY 




PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
IIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER— INDEX. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Architect. Building and Location. 

Adams, William House, Lawrence, L. I., N. Y 

Alden & Harlow House, Pittsburg, Pa 

Atterbury, Grosvenor Natatorium in Phipps Building, Pittsburg, Pa 

Atterbury, Grosvenor and W. L. 

Walker, Associated House, Montclair, N. J 

Barber, Donn Railway Station, Chattanooga, Tenn 

Barber, Donn New Lotos Club, New York City 

Bliss & Faville House, Bishop of California, San Francisco 

Boynton, Louis Stores and Apartments, Cedarhurst, L. I 

Bragdon, Claude F House, Rochester, N. Y 

Carrire &: Hastings and T. E. 

Blake, Associated St. Mary's Church, New York City 

Comes, John T St. Mary's R. C. Church and Rectory, McKeesport, Pa 

Coolidge & Carlson Squash Court, North Easton, Mass 

Cope & Stewardson Office Building, College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pa 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y 127 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson Parish House, Unitarian Church, West Newton, Mass 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson and 
George H. Williamson, Asso- 
ciated Trinity Memorial Church, Denver, Colo 

Delano & Aldrich Russell Sage Hall, Northfield, Mass 

Fisher, Richard Arnold House, Cambridge, Mass 

Gilbert, Cass Madison High School, Madison, Wis 

Grant, Charles C House, Herkimer, N. Y 

Green & Wicks House, Kennebunkport, Me.. 

Groves, Albert B 'J'uscan Temple, St. Louis, Mo 

Harding & Seaver Town Building, Lenox, Mass 

Hoppin, Koen & Huntington .... House, Lenox, Mass 

Keen, Charles Barton House, Bryn Mawr, Pa 

Keen, Charles Barton House, Villa Nova, Pa 

Kirchhoflf & Rose House, Milwaukee, Wis 

Kohn, Robert D House, Lake Forest, 111 

Lehman & Schmitt Excelsior Club, Cleveland, Ohio 

Lord & Hewlett and Pell & Corbett, 

Associated Masonic Temple, Brooklyn, N. Y. 91, 92, 

MacLaren & Thomas House, Broadmoor, Colorado 115 

MacLeod, James Alan House, St. Paul, Minn. 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan St. Catherine's Church, Somerville, Mass 

Magonigle, H. Van Buren Meter House and Works Office, Brooklyn Gas Company 

Marsh & Peter Margaret Edes Home, Washington, D. C 

Marsh & Peter Henry D. Cooke School, Washington, D. C 

Mauran, Russell & Garden House, Clarksville. Mo 

Mauran, Russell & Garden , . .... House, St. Louis, Mo. . , 

Mauran, Russell & Garden House, St. Louis, Mo. 

McKim, Mead & White Free Christian Church, Andover, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White Railway Station, Waterbury, Conn .-. . . 1 19, 120 

McKim, Mead & White and Bear- 
den & Foreman, Associated . . Presbyterian Church, Chattanooga, Tenn 

Mills, George S Hotel Secor, Toledo, Ohio 

Newhall & Blevins Municipal Gymnasium and Public Baths, E. Boston, Mass 

Newhall iV Blevins Odd Fellows Hall, Maiden, Mass 

Newman iSc Harris House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Newman & Harris House, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa 

Olds & Puckey Irem Temple, Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

Palmer & Hornbostel School of Mines Building, W. U. of Pa. Pittsburg, Pa 

Parish & Schroeder House, Richmond, Va 

Parish & Schroeder Dining Hall, Mount Hermon, Mass 

Peabody & Stearns Town Hall, Clinton, Mass 

Pell & Corbett N. Y. School of Applied Design, New York City 

Perkins, Dwight H Tilton School, Chicago, 111 

Piatt, Charles .\ House, New London, Conn 

Piatt, Charles A House, Katonah, N. Y 

Pond & Pond Women's Home Mission Society, Chicago, 111 

Pond & Pond House, Chicago, 111 •. 

Purdon, James House, Dover, Mass 

Ripley & Russell Dining Hall and Dormitory, Wheaton Seminary, Norton, Mass 

Robins & Oakman House, Williamstown, Mass 

Rosenheim, A. F House, Los Angeles, Cal 

Ross, Albert Randolph Library, Fairmount College, Wichita, Kan ■ 

Sabin, William Warren Library at Willoughby, Ohio 

Schweinfurth, Charles F House, Cleveland, Ohio 

Schweinfurth, Charles F House, Cleveland, Ohio 151, 

Sears, Willard T House, Milton, Mass 

Shaw, Howard Van D Dining Hall, Lake Forest, 111 

Sherer, Samuel L House, St. Louis, Mo 

Steele, William & Sons Company . Pavilion, Base Ball Club, Philadelphia, Pa 

Stratton & Baldwin St. Francis Home, Detroit, Mich 

Thomas, Churchman & Molitor . . Fraternal Order of Eagles, Camden, N. J 



Plate No. 


Month. 


29 


March 


103 


August 


30 


March 


104, 105 


August 


13. 14 


January 


22, 23, 24 


February 


167 


December 


124 


September 


25, 26 


February 


125 


September 


IS. 16, 17 


February 


144 


November 


i34> 13s 


October 


, 128, 129, 130 


October 


143 


November 


131, 132 


October 


164, 165, 166 


December 


18 


February 


49. 50, 51 


April 


III, 112 


August 


19, 20, 21 


February 


97 


July 


•59 


December 


27, 28 


February 


161 


December 


160 


December 


57.58 


May 


99, 100 


August 


69, 70 


May 


. 93. 94, 95. 96 


July 


, 116, 117, 118 


September 


6,7 


January 


76, 77. 78. 79 


lune 


32.33 


March 


114 


September 


142 


November 


108 


.\ugust 


1 10 


.\ugust 


109 


August 


I 


January 


, 121, 122, 123 


September 


63, 64, 65 


May 


66, 67, 68 


May 


81 


June 


98 


July 


11,12 


January 


149. 150 


November 


85, 86, 87 


July 


3. 4, S 


January 


34. 35 


March 


'58 


December 


'55- 156. 157 


December 


47. 48 


April 


141 


November 


8, 9, 10 


January 


36, 37 


March 


54. 55. 56 


April 


T02 


August 


162, 163 


December 


43. 44 


April 


168 


December 


59. 60, 6r 


May 


136 


October 


133 


October 


38, 39 


March 


152, 153, 154 


November 


106, 107 


August 


31 


March 


2 


January 


75. 80 


June 


45. 46 


April 


62 


May 



1 '30 JlX) 



THE BRICKBUILDER— INDEX. 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued. 

Architect. Building and Location. 

Thomas, Churchman & Molitor . . St. Paul's Memorial Church, Philadelphia, Pa 

Trowbridge & Livingston ...... New York Dispensary, New York City 

Trumbauer, Horace Maloney Home, Scranton, Pa 

Watterson & Schneider House, Cleveland, Ohio 

Welch, Smith & Provot and B. B. 

Smith, Associated House, Paterson, N.J 

Wheelwright & Haven Boston Opera House, Boston, Mass 145, 

Wood, Donn & Deming Masonic Temple, Washington, D. C 

Zimmerman, W. Carbys House, Lake Forest, 111 



Plate No. 
126 
"3 

52. 53 

lOI 

41, 42 

146, 147, 148 

88, 89, 90 

40 



FRONTISPIECES — FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI, DEL. 



Title. 

The Temple of Muses, Rome 

The Temple of Mater Matuta in the Piazza Bocca Delia 

Verita, Rome 

Architectural Details from Ancient Roman Buildings . . . 
Capitals and Other Architectural Details from Ancient 

Roman Buildings 

Capitals and Other Architectural Details from Ancient 

Roman Buildings 



Month. 
January 

February 
March 

April 

May 



Title. 

The Vaulted Drain of the Roman Forum 

The So-Called " Tempio Delia Tosse," near Tivoli 

Architectural Details from Ancient Roman Buildings . . . 

Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla — Rome 

Church of St. Urbano, Rome 

The Temple of Vesta and the Temple Tiburtine Sibyl, 

at Tivoli 

Remains of a Reservoir Belonging to the Emperor Dom- 

itian's Villa in the Alban Hills near Rome 



MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include illustrations made in connection with articles nor those of terra cotta details. 
Title and Location. , Architect. 

Apartments, Chicago Borst & Hetherington 

Apartments, Parkview, New York City Harde & Short 

Apartments, Studio, New York City Harde & Short 

Apartments, Chicago H. R. Wilson 

Car Barn, Baltimore Simonson & Pietsch 

Casino, Deal Beach, N. J David Ach 

Church, Congregational, St. Paul Clarence H. Johnston 

Church, German Lutheran, New York City G. W. Conable 

Church, Methodist, New Orleans Diboll & Owen 

Clubhouse, University, Chicago Holabird & Roche 

Courthouse, Marysville, Tenn Bauman Bros 

Factory Building, Henderson Lithographing Co., Cincinnati Tietig & Lee 

Factory Building, Two at Chicago Hill & Waltersdorf 

Factory Building, Nelson Machine Co., Bridgeport, Conn Meloy & Beckwith 

Fireplace Charles W. Buckham 

Fireplace Cudworth & Woodworth 

Garage, Chicago Robert C. Berlin 

Garage, New York City F. H. Kimball 

Historical Building, Sawin Memorial, Dover, Mass Howard & Henderson 

Home, McGregor Memorial, Cleveland Badgley & Nicklas 

Hospital, St. Luke's, Cleveland F. W. Streibinger 

Hotel, Grand Rapids, Mich Williamson & Crow 

Hotel, Blackstone, Chicago Marshall & Fox 

House, Cleveland Bohnard & Parsons 

House, Residence of F. J. Sterner, Architect, Dining Room and Open Court ..-..' 

House, Ingram, Pa F. J. Osterling 

House, St. Paul Clarence H. Johnston 

House, Cleveland Watterson & Schneider 

House, Brookline, Mass Henry F. Keyes 

House, Rochester, N. Y Claude F. Bragdon 

House, Pittsburg 

House, Columbus Frank L. Packard 

House, Washington, D. C Marsh & Peter 

House, St. Paul Clarence H. Johnston 

Houses Submitted in Competition for a Brick House . . ". 209, 2 \ 

House and Stable, Milton, Mass Zerrahn and Stickney & Austin 

Library, Hamline University, St. Paul Clarence H. Johnston . . 

Mission Building, New York City Werner & Windolph : 

Monument, Douglas County Memorial Wells & White 

Office Building, The Fleming, Des Moines D. H. Burnham & Co 

Office Building, Royal Insurance, New York City Howells & Stokes 

Office Building, for Indianapolis Star, Indianapolis, Ind Vonnegut & Bohn 

Office Building, The White, Seattle, Wash Howells & Stokes 

Office Building, Corn Exchange Bank, Chicago Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 

Office Building, The Dickson, Norfolk, Va Ferguson & Calron 

Office Building, Pacific Mutual Life Ins. Company, Los Angeles Parkinson & Bergstrom 

Office Building, Borland Block, Chicago Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 

Office Building, The Rector, Chicago Jarvis Hunt 

Office Building, The Empire, Birmingham Carpenter & Blair and Warren & Welton 

Office Building, The McCormick, Chicago Holabird & Roche 



Month. 

September 

September 

April 

August 

March 
November 

July 

March 



Month. 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



age. 


Month. 


63 


March 


83 


April 


174 


August 


219 


October 


130 


June 


84 


April 


152 


July 


166 


August 


217 


October 


84 


April 


19 


January 


.S8 


March 


.S8 


March 


62 


March 


63 


March 


I. SO 


July 


153 


July 


196 


September 


.S7 


March 


108 


May 


150 


July 


20 


January 


261 


December 


18 


January 


37 


February 


107 


May 


108 


May 


165 


August 


164 


August 


192 


September 


197 


September 


197 


September 


212 


October 


241 


November 


21 1 


October 


163 


August 


41 


February 


104 


May 


39 


February 


21 


January 


22 


January 


.S8 


March 


61 


March 


8.S 


April 


86 


April 


129 


June 


130 


June 


I.S2 


July 


'9.S 


September 


217 


October 



THE BRICKBUILDER — INDEX. 



MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS — Continued. 

Title and Location. Architect. 

Office Building, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, San Francisco . . . N. Le Brun & Sons 

Parochial School, Main Entrance, Brookline, Mass F. J. Untersee 

Post Office, Marion, Ind James Knox Taylor 

Power Station, Charleston, S. C 

Railway Station, Newburg, Ohio R. Trimble 

Railway Station, Augusta, Ga Frank P. Milburn 

Refectory Building, Humboldt Park, Chicago Schmidt, Garden & Martin 

Schoolhouse, Indianapolis Brubaker & Stern 

Schoolhouse, South Bend, Ind Freyermuth & Maurer 

Schoolhouse, Chicago Dwight H. Perkins 

Schoolhouse, Roselle Park, N.J Pierce & Bickford. 

Schoolhouse, Danville, 111 Jenney, Mundie & Jensen 

Schoolhouse, Milwaukee Van Ryn & De Gelleke 

Schoolhouse, Minnesota State Agricultural Clarence H. Johnston 

State Fair, Manufacturers' Building, Minnesota State Fair Grounds Clarence H. Johnston 

Store Building, Detroit B. C. Wetzel 

Store Building, The Kessner, Chicago Jenney, Mundie & Jensen 

Store Building, Philadelphia William Steele &: Sons 

Store Building, Chicago Marshall & Fox 

Store Building, The Oliver, Pittsburg MacClure & Spahr 

Store Building, The Longacre, New York City - Charles A. Piatt 

Swimming Pool, Worcester Academy 

Synagogue, New Orleans Emile Weil 

Tomb, Lake Forest, 111 James Gamble Rogers 

Y. M. C. A. 



Building, Indianapolis Foltz &: Parker 



'age. 


Month. 


260 


December 


43 


February 


196 


September 


174 


August 


63 


March 


129 


June 


240 


November 


18 


January 


42 


February 


62 


March 


106 


May 


130 


June 


173 


August 


194 


September 


62 


March 


22 


January 


6.S 


March 


86 


April 


106 


May 


107 


May 


i.Si 


July 


IS3 


July 


173 


August 


.S7 


March 


64 


March 



ARTICLES. 



American Institute of Architects, Resume of Annual Conven- 
tion 

Apartment Houses, The Development and Financing of . 

By Klisha Harris Janes 

Architectural Study in Western France, Suggestions for . . 

By Frederick Reed 

Architecture, The Pictorial Representation of. The Work of 

Guerin By Samuel Swift 

Brickwork, Carved — English Examples 

Burnt Clay in Architecture, Interesting Examples of the Use 

of By Charles II. Hughes 

Church, The Denominational — II. . By C. Howard Walker 
Columns, Tests of Brick and Terra Cotta Block . . . . . 

Ecole des Beaux Arts, Student Life at the 

By Walter D. Blair 

fJirard Estate's Operation of Eight Hundred Dwellings in 

Philadelphia 

Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment I. By M. B. Reach 
Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment II. By M. li. Reach 
Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment II I. By M. B. Reach 
(lymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment IV. By M. B. Reach 
Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment V. By M. B. Reach 
Hollow Tile Construction, Composite . By George S. Drew 
House, Competition for a Brick — Report of the Jury of Award 
House, Competition for a Terra Cotta Hdllow Tile — Esti- 
mated Costs 

House, Competition for a Terra Cotta Hollow Tile — Report 

of the Jury of Award 

Housing Problem — 1., The .... By George B. Ford 
Housing Problem - II , The .... By George B. Ford 
Housing Problem — III., The . . . . Hy George B. Ford 
Housing Problem — IV., The .... By George B. Ford 
Housing Problem — V., The . . . .By George B. Ford 
Little Wenham Hall 



Page. 



Month. 



14 


January 


10 


January 


30 


February 


«77 


September 


161 


.August 


15s 


August 


I 


January 


9S 


May 


S= 


March 


199 


Octol)er 


23 


February 


4S 


March 


67 


April 


89 


May 


114 


June 


254 


December 


208 


(Jctober 


121 


June 


120 


June 


26 


February 


76 


April 


100 


May 


144 


July 


18 s 


September 


59 


March 



Page. 

Plunge Baths, Combination Life Rail and Surface Drainage for 59 

Schoolhouse at Mount Vernon, N. V 229 

Schoolhouse at Newton, Mass 247 

Schoolhouses, Three Massachusetts 243 

Schoolhouses, Three New — Chicago 225 

Schoolhouses, Two New — Boston 221 

Specification, The By J. A. F. Cardiff 50 

Specifications for Otiice Buildings . By F. W. Winterburn 257 

Standard Architectural Books — IV 35 

Standard Architectural Hooks — V 55 



Standard Architectural Books — \T. 

Standard Architectural Books — VII 

Temple, Masonic — Brooklyn, N. V. By C. Howard Walker 
Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles for Walls of Houses 

By C. II. Hughes 

Terra Cotta : Its Character and Construction — I 

By Charles U. Thrall 

Terra Cotta: Its Character and Construction — II. . . . 

By Charles U. Thrall 

Terra Cotta : Its Character and Construction — III. . . . 

By Charles U. Thrall 

Thatched Roof Effects with .Shingles By Harrie T. Lindeberg 
Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hospital 

Buildings— I By D. D. Kimball 

Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hospital 

BuiUiinRS— II By D. I). Kimball 

Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hospital 

Buildings— III By 1). D. Kimball 

Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hospital 

Buildings — IV By D. D. Kimball 

Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hospital 

Buildings — V By D. 1). Kimball 

Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hospital 

Buildings — VI By D. D. Kimball 



167 

2'3 

148 

So 

204 

23' 

249 
^11 

95 



141 
169 
190 



EDITORIALS AND MISCELLANY. 



Page. Month. 

Architecture in America — Its Growth 261 December 

Baltimore's Architectural Commission 18 January 

Chicago, Plan for Beautification 238 November 

Chimney Throwing 173 August 

City Planning, Conference at Washington 127 June 

Civic Planning — " 1915" Boston Exposition 194 September 

Cleaning Brick Buildings 172 August 

Congressional .Scheme for a Lincoln Memorial in Washington 17 January 

Council of Fine Arts ..." 16 January 

Council of Fine Arts — First Meeting 61 March 

Co-operative Apartment Houses 237 November 

Damages Awarded a Tenant for Loss of Vault Privileges . . 106 May 

?"orestry Division Bulletin — Cutting of Timber 34 February 

Fund Established to Send Students to the Beaux Arts ... 62 March 
Harvard University Offers Scholarships to Members of Archi- 
tectural League of America 61 March 

High School, Madison, Wis. — Description 83 April 

Hospital Building Competition — Award of Prizes .... 22 January 



Page. 
Hospital Building Competition — Training of Successful Com- 
petitors 40 

Hotel Secor, Toledo — Description 107 

Incentive to Beauty 34 

Irem Temple, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. — Description 152 

L' Enfant —Removal of His Body to Arlington National 

Cemetery 107 

Lotos Club, New Vork City — Description 39 

Masonic Temple, Brooklyn — Description 149 

Masonic Temple, Washington, D. C. — Description . . . 150 

Measurements of the Greek Theater at Taormina .... 217 

National Fine Arts Board 16 

Non-Fireproof Buildings in which Government Documents 

Are Stored 34 

Pavilion for Philadelphia Base Ball Club — Description . . 127 

Power to Limit Buildings 105 

Public Schools 237 

State Art Commission for New Vork 61 

Torrens System in New Vork State 29 

Will of Charles F. McKim 216 



Month. 

March 

November 

December 

December 

November 

November 

March 

December 

I'ebruary 

March 

August 

October 

July 

April 

October 

November 

December 
July 

May 

June 
July 

August 

September 

October 



Montn. 

February 
May 

February 
July 

. May 

February 

July 

July 

October 

January 

February 

June 

May 

November 

March 

February 

October 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII JANUARY 1909 Numbkr I 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, van, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States. Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .................... 50 cents 

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To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



PA(;E 
Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV' 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

DONN BARBER; JAMES ALAN MacLEOD; McKIM, MEAD & WHITE; NEWMAN & HARRIS: 

PALMER & HORNBOSTEL; CHARLES A. PLATT; SAMUEL L. SHERER 

LETTERPRESS 

■■a(;b 
THE TEMPLIC OF MUSES, ROME Frontispiece 

THE DENOMINATIONAL CHURCH — II C. //(Kcnid iralkri 1 

THE DEVELOPMENT AND FINANCING OF APARTMENT HOUSES IN NEW YORK- II /7/\//„ //nrris Jaiirs 10 

FORTY-SECOND ANNUAL CONVENTION OI' THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE ol" ARCIHTICCTS 

— RESUME 14 

COUNCIL OF FINE ARTS 16 

THIi CONGRESSIONAL SCHEME FOR A LINCOLN MEMORIAL IN WASHINGTON 17 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 1" 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 18 NO. \ 



DEVOTEDTO •THE-lNTEREJrfOf -ARCHITECTYRE-IN MATERIALy-OFCLAY- 



JANUARY 1909 




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s 




The Denominational Church — II. 



BY C. HOWARD WALKER. 



IN CONSIDERINCt the building of a church its material 
is to be determined upon, and its proportions carefully 
studied before any accessories are considered. There are 
of course two methods of attack, first to produce a work 
of fine monumental character, which requires adequate 
funds to employ fine material and detail it in a manner 
worthy of the material, and second, to employ material 
incapable of receiving fine cutting or surfacing, and by 
the structural character give to it interest. All wooden 
churches should have delicate details, as the character 
and grain of the material justify it. All fine stone 
should have finely cut de- 
tails and surfaces. One of 
the principal errors in 
American architecture is in 
having fine stone with a 
broken surface, which sur- 
face could be better ob- 
tained in a cheaper, coarser 
material. The association 
of fine and coarse material 
is perfectly possible pro- 
vided each is treated ac- 
cording to its character. 
In using rubble stone, 
random broken ashlar, and 
seam face stone, etc., 
wooden forms coarsen to 
prevent too great a con- 
trast with the rough surface 
of the stone. This is not 
the case in using brick and 
wood together as the brick 
has a smooth surface which 
permits delicate detail in 
the work. Rough stone 
walls are best associated 
with porches, etc., which 
have heavy beams. 

The treatment of the 
termination of towers is one in which there is much dif- 
ference of taste and of opinion, this difference usually 
occurring in the choice of a tower or of a spire. The 
spire is merely to gain altitude without excessive cost 
and also without making the tower of too great mass for 
the body of the building. For these reasons low, square 
towers can often be improved by spires, and tall spires 
give an impression of delicacy and grace. 




MKKllNG HOUSK HILL CHURCH, liOSiON, iMASS. 



The connection of the base of the spire with the top of 
the tower often presents difficulties which have been over- 
come by parapets, by broaching the spire, and by corner 
pinnacles, each of which is successful if in harmony with 
the general design. While the top of the tower should 
appear to be lighter than its lower part, the mistake 
often appears of making the openings at the top of the 
tower too large in scale and especially too high. Louver 
boards obviate this to some extent but not entirely. 

On the interior of the church the ceiling or roof is the 
largest and most conspicuous surface, and as on account 

of its span it is carried on 
roof trusses, these can be 
made to form a decorative 
feature. 

The trusses of early 
churches were decorated 
carefully in color and are 
very effective, as for ex- 
ample in San Miniato in 
Florence. The denomina- 
tional church is usually of 
greater span than are the 
naves of the great cathe- 
drals and if it has a steeply 
pitched roof the trusses 
become disproportionate to 
the usual height of wall 
unless the collar beams are 
kept high. For this reason 
some variation of a ham- 
mer beam truss or of a 
scissors truss is advisable, 
l-'or inexpensive work, ordi- 
nary Howe trusses with 
trussed purlines are some- 
times effective. Paneled 
ceilings either of plaster or 
wood have been seldom 
adopted, but have very 
decorative effect. Apparently they have been considered 
somewhat secular. The ceilings of the Roman basilicas, 
Santa Maria in Trastevere, San Clemente, San Giovanni 
Laterano, are very beautiful and suggestive. 

The position and importance of the organ is a (piestion 
for serious consideration. It may be called a unique 
piece of furniture, and if at all conspicuous should be on 
the axis either of the church or of a transept. If it is 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



impossible to place it in such a position and it is 
necessarily put to one side, it should be made compara- 
tively inconspicuous. The decoration of the organ 
pipes is usually too brilliant and not sufficiently simple, 
as the scale of the tubes alone is larger than that 
of any other detail in the church and quite sufficient to 
make them conspicuous without additional effort. The 
decoration of the church itself should be in absolutely 
plain, flat color of pleasing tone. No patterns, stencils, 
borders, excepting perhaps a few finely ruled lines, should 
be necessary if the church is well proportioned and de- 
signed. The example of the restorations of (ierman 
churches in Cologne, of vSainte Chapelle in Paris, and of 



'F:^^'4\, 



cate tones and tints near at hand with but small intro- 
duction of strong color, and increasing the color as the 
window is placed high or far away from the eye. Plain 
leaded glass has the effect of delicate tracery, and is 
often preferable to the colored glass. Fortunately 
stained glass windows can be and are occasionally re- 
moved, for in most cases they serve more to injure than 
to improve the interior of American churches. 








UNITARIAN CHURCH TO BE liUILT NEAR BOSTON, MASS. 
Ernest N. Boyden, Architect. 



San Francesco in Bologna is sufficient to make decorators 
cautious. 

There remains the decoration of the windows, by both 
tracery and stained glass. If the church is of (iothic 
type and has mullioned and traceried windows the lines of 
the tracery alone should be sufficiently interesting to 
prevent their being seriously disturbed by violent color, 
and all glass within the tracery should have a large 
proportion of white or clear 
glass. Large openings 
form altogether too fre- 
quent opportunities for well 
intentioned gifts of memo- 
rial windows, which in 
most cases are merely 
luminous pictures attempt- 
ing realism in a material 
incapable of producing it, 
and which occasionally by 
a tour de force obtain a 
decorative effect too bril- 
liant and aggressive for the 
church. Stained glass is 
too powerful to be used in 
its full strength of color 
excepting where seen at a 
distance as in the great 
cathedrals. Near at hand 
it needs softening, toning, 
and subdivision into small 
pieces, otherwise it is 
brutal. And it can never 
express realism without 
theatrical effect. It is a 
transparent, translucent 
mosaic and should be 
treated as such, using deli- 




CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, BOSTON, MASS. 



In comparing the designs for denominational churches 
it is apparent that the chief faults are those which are 
largely eliminated in ecclesiastical church work by the 
established traditions of building and the relation of in- 
tegral parts to each other. In the established church 
each portion not only has its definite place but its propor- 
tionate importance, and we have found that this is by no 
means the case in other church work. The Sunday 

school may be so exagger- 
ated that it not only com- 
petes with the church in 
mass but overwhelms it, 
and the same is equally 
true of the social portion of 
the building. In some 
churches it is extremely 
difficult to separate one 
portion from another, and 
in a vain attempt to impart 
religious character to an 
heterogeneous group of 
units, all sorts of subter- 
fuges are adopted, usually 
borrowed from some edifice 
of either great picturesque- 
ness or of unmistakably 
ecclesiastical character. 
The elemental study of 
architecture is based on a 
thorough knowledge of 
geometric solids and their 
correlation with each other 
when grouped, and a very 
large proportion of the fail- 
ures in church architecture 
are due to an apparent 
ignorance of this science. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 




BAPTLST CHURCH, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

J. A. SCHWEINFURTH, ARCHITECT. 





—i 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 





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FIRST METHODIST CHURCH, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
J. Milton Dyer, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 
SUMMIT, N. J. 

DONN BARBER, ARCHITECT. 



BAPTIST CHURCH, 
ARLINGTON, MASS. 

CHARLES B. DUNHAM, 
ARCHITECT, 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 




PIL(;RIM congregational church, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 




^ 



CONGRKGATIONAL CHURCH, 
WEST MEDFORl), MASS. 

Urainerrl. Leeds ,'<• Russell, Architects. 




T n E B R I C K B U I L D E R 




UNITAKIAN CHURCH, HUFFALO, N 
E. A. & W. W. Kent, Architects. 






PRFSin TEKIAN CHLKCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
Bunts & Bliss, Architects. 



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MK'l'Homsl CHUkcH, UKASKk, 
Hodgens & Burns, Architects. 



I lit KLII, HUMUN, l^IA^S. 
C. Howard Walker, Architect. 





CHURCH, CH1CA(;0, ILL. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



CHLKCH, LANCASTER, MASS. 
Kichard Arnold I'isher, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



It is an excellent method therefore to frankly confess 
the intention of each portion of a composite building 
such as the denominational church has become to-day, if 
it is possible to do so, and if the features that are second- 
ary in character in intention can be made so in fact, a 
long step has been taken 
in the right direction. 

It is natural to assume 
that the church itself is to 
be considered of more im- 
portance than are its Sun- 
day schools and ladies' 
parlors, etc., and therefore 
it should have the more 
dignified and larger mass, 
or if this is impossible it 
should receive the greater 
attention and should be- 
come the most interesting 
portion of the design. It 
readily lends itself to such 
an intention, as it is capa- 
ble of receiving finer porch 
and window treatment than 
any other ])ortion, and has 
besides its belfry or tower 
to dignify it. It should 
have a more generous scale 
than the other portions of 
the building and should 
distinctly dominate them. 
When the designs for the 
other portions are consid- 
ered the usual fault is the 
casual planning of win- 
dows, which are attacked 
apparently entirely from 
a utilitarian point of view 
and from inside rather than 
out, which always seems a 
somewhat selfish procedure 
on th3 part of the people 
who are building. These 
windows are in nine cases 
out of ten entirely too large. 

There has arisen in 
America a sort of cult in 
regard to a blaze of light. 
Certainly not only has the 
dim religious light ceased 
to exist, but in its stead is 
a glare which is trying to 
the eyes and has constantly 
to be tempered with shades. 
The same mistaken idea 
in regard to window area occurs in the hard and fast 
requirements established in regard to schoolhouses. As 
a matter of fact, the eye adjusts itself readily to light 
and is refreshed and strengthened by an occasional so- 
journ in a place where the light is softened and even 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

r.Al'lIST CHURCH, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Hubbell & Benes, Architects. 



at times interesting to watch the care with which light is 
theoretically obtained on the plans only to be cut out by 
stained glass and by shades later. Certainly a church 
window should be beautiful within as well as without, 
but in both cases it can only be made so by studying its 

proportions in relation to 
the walls in which it is 
placed, not by assuming 
arbitrarily that greater or 
less area is required, when 
as a matter of fact the 
light can be both dimin- 
ished or augmented easily 
by changing the color on 
the walls. 

It has already been men- 
tioned that the spans of 
the large audience halls of 
churches exceed very con- 
siderably those of the 
naves of great cathedrals, 
and yet as a rule these 
large churches have much 
less light and shade and 
detail than the cathedral, 
and in comparison seem 
bald and austere. Deep 
embrasures, grouped piers 
and columns, vaulted ceil- 
ings, seldom occur and in 
their place are broad ex- 
panses of wall and vast 
areas of flat ceiling. The 
give and take of moldings, 
of light and shade, of 
minor detail, are absent, 
and it seems often a mis- 
taken idea for churches of 
this character to borrow a 
few odds and ends of archi- 
tecture from the rich 
treas-ury of the (Jothic 
merely to enhance the ap- 
pearance of architectural 
jwverty. Gothic is not 
preeminently an architec- 
ture of large unbroken 
surfaces, it is a balanced 
correlation of many parts 
and details. One must 
look to classic architecture 
for the existence of great 
plain areas framed by de- 
licate lines, and because 
of this fact alone it is worth 
considering whether the church with comparatively few 
traditions should not frankly avoid any pretense of tradi- 
tion and should build in simple wall and column and 
lintel and in arch where necessary and should then 
beautify these architectural factors as best it can, and it 



dim. A very small opening will light adequately a very will jirobably be found that when the building is erected 
considerable space provided that the walls and ceilings in this manner it will partake more of the architecture of 
have power of reflecting and difl"using the light. It is the Greek or of the Lombards than it does of the highly 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



cultivated and equally logical developed architecture of 
the ecclesiastical church. 

There is a tendency in denominational churches to grad- 
ually introduce architectural motives which are consistent 
with the traditions of Catholic and Episcopal churches, 
but seem at least exotic in other work. It is natural that 
there should be a response to the visual and symbolic ap- 
peal to the imagination, to the sentiment, and especially 
to the love of beauty that exists in the cathedrals. Depth 
of tone, dim mysterious recesses, columns which lift the 
great vaulted roofs into the heavens, multiplicity of de- 
tail, appropriateness of carving, of stained windows, of mo- 
saics, each and all lend a charm which creates a response 
either of wonder or of pleasure. Nor is the pleasure en- 
tirely sensuous ; there is associated with the representation 
of the great history of the Christain faith in stone and 
color a reverence and awe that is always unconsciously 
present. The constant telling of the story in Scripture 
and painting, whether it be in mere carved detail or in 
symbols, or in statues and bas-reliefs and in frescos, is in 
itself a sermon. A capital, a lunette, the bas-reliefs of 
Donatello on the chancel rail at San Antonio of Padua, or 
the winged angels over the transept portal at Sebenico all 
produce a desire to have similar works of art associated 
with religious worship at other shrines. 

The imitation in denominational churches of forms rep- 
resenting a different type of worship is the sincerest 
acknowledgment of the adequacy of these forms to 
express religious feeling. But the substance is often 
mistaken for the spirit, and exactly as we habitually 
ignorantly use the sacred symbols of another religion as 
a decoration of objects of the most utilitarian use, for in- 
stance the swastica of the Buddhist as a scarfpin, so we 
adopt from the established symbolism of the established 
church forms and objects that become incongruous in their 
new environment. There is a constant desire for instance 
to get the effect of a chancel without the purpose of a chan- 
cel, without the altar and retable, the reredos, and rood- 
screen, or the choir stalls. The arch above the chancel, 
ennobled in the great churches, becomes a mere frame 
about a niche, and it is difficult to overcome the meager 
appearance of shallowness behind the pulpit. There is of 
course no ambulatory and consequently no impression of 
space at this end of the church and the vision is closed by a 
high blank wall which is fortunate if it possesses windows 
to break its monotony. The transepts even, if announced 
in the roof, which does not always occur, are shallow, as 
pews at right angles to the body of the church are of 
comparatively small rental value. One of the favorite 
methods of imitating the effect of the cathedral nave is to 
build a long and broad central body of which the side 
walls are supported on arches and which corresponds to 
an actual nave and then to build a low roofed aisle upon 
either side, which is only the width of the church aisle, 
i.e. from 4.0 to 7.0. The church is then lighted prin- 
cipally by clerestory windows. While churches of this 
type are effective they have by no means the dignity of 
the cathedral plan, the nave being actually and relatively 
too broad for the aisles. They possess, however, that 
perpetual charm which is present in any interior in which 
one can walk among piers or columns; and the dignity 
of the uniform measured march of arches, which have 
always been effective even in the Roman acjueducts. 



There is no type of architectural plan which gives as 
great an opportunity for varied impressions produced by 
the slightest change of position as that of repeated 
colonnades and arcades, especially if these are doubled or 
tripled. The mosque at Cordova, the hall of a thousand 
columns at Constantinople, the double aisle of vSan Paolo 
fuori le mure at Rome, and the cathedrals at Seville and 
Cologne are all admirable examples of the fact. A high « 
nave with clerestory windows gives a much better op- 
portunity for stained glass than when the windows are 
near at hand. These churches retain enough of the 
character of the cathedral to be treated both on the 
interior and the exterior with long slender shafts and 
with buttresses, but they rarely require flying buttres- 
ses, the interval between the aisle and the nave wall 
being so slight that the buttress starting from the 
nave wall is merely perforated by the aisle. There 
are certain forms of parapets which appear in Europe 
in countries where the fall of snow is light that cannot 
be used where there is a heavy snowfall which would 
pack behind the parapet, and where eaves alone are 
preferable. Mention should also be made of brick 
churches, which are of great beauty in Italy and pic- 
turesque in north Germany. Brickwork with or with- 
out stone and terra cotta is capable of taking most 
interesting forms, as a study of Street's " Brick and Mar- 
ble Architecture in Northern Italy " and Strack's book 
on the same subject give ample evidence. Red brick with 
marble or with light terra cotta used in small masses and 
delicately detailed has great charm of contrast, and soft 
gray bricks are also attractive. The texture of brick- 
work is very effective, especially where the joints of the 
mortar show. There are also a number of suggestions in 
regard to brick muUions and window tracery and types of 
arches to be found in Spanish brickwork. 

It has already been recognized that mission work is 
appropriate in the states in which were Spanish colonies. 
The relation of the church to the already existing char- 
acter of its immediate surroundings, with which it should 
harmonize, is seldom considered. It can always be of a 
better material than its neighbors, but it should not be 
in violent contrast in style or color especially if the 
architecture near it is probably permanent. The scale 
and color of adjacent buildings are factors in the satis- 
factory solution of the problem, unless the church is 
sufficiently isolated to have its own setting of walls, 
terraces, grass, and trees. The problem therefore in the 
city is much more complicated than in a town, and 
especially is this the case where there is no law limiting 
the height of buildings. In New York and Chicago 
churches are pocketed amongst high buildings so that 
their towers and spires become ridiculous, and the gods 
of commerce are too evidently in the ascendant. In any 
such location, the only possible method is to design a 
noble portico or ]5orch and an end wall and window of 
great beauty so large and dignified in scale that competi- 
tion in the utilitarian buildings at hand is impossible. 
This is not arrogance but an acknowledgment of 
sovereignty. It is practically impossible for a church 
tower or spire to be adjacent to a tower building and 
retain its dignity, and the contingency of such an event 
should be foreseen in building churches in the midst of 
cities in America. 



In the articles to follow in this series, which are to be 
published at a later date, churches of the different de- 
nominations will be grouped for treatment. — Editors. 



lO 



THE B R I C K B U 1 L D E R 



The Development and Financing of Apartment Houses in 

New York — 11. 



r,V EI.ISHA HARRIS JANES. 



THE methods of financing the building of apartment 
houses may be divided into three classes: the first 
one, in which the building is erected by the capitalist or 
some estate, and in which no money need be borrowed 
during its construction; the second, by what is called the 
''Cooperative Building "; and the third, the "Building 
Loan." 

There is very little to be said in this article about the 
first method, as it is practically the same as in the erec- 
tion of any building or in the execution of any piece of 
work where the money is always in hand ready to meet 
obligations. 

The second method commonly used is the "Coopera- 
tive Building." In a form this was practised in the last 
centur}' in the so-called " Community Houses," although 
they resembled more the tenants banding together as a 
corporation to build and own their residences without the 
income properties. In this present system, however, it 
is distinctly novel and characteristic of modern financing 
in many features, and has only been in operation a few 
years. It developed because of people with modest 
amounts who wished to invest in apartment houses with- 
out having funds sufficient to meet the equity after the 
placing of the mortgage, but who did not care to hazard 
the speculative form of building with the Building Loan, 
which will be described later. 

There were also persons who wished to reduce their 
rent, but not their conveniences or size of living quarters. 
The scheme was therefore suggested to save the profit of 
the investor or owner of the apartment. It was too large 
an undertaking to get a sufficient number together for 
each apartment to be occupied by its part owner, so has 
resulted in being worked out on the following basis: 

A number of subscribers band together calling them- 
selves a corporation, although the features are more in 
the nature of a club, each one subscribes towards an 
amount to constitute a working capital large enough to 
equal the equity over the mortgage when the building is 
completed. The subscriptions are in proportion to the 
rental of the apartment each takes. This company owns 
the entire property, subject of course to whatever 
mortgage may be on it. The subscribers purchasing the 
stock receive certificates of stock as well as a lease in 
perpetuity of one or more apartments according to the 
amount of their stock. This they may occupy them- 
salves, sublet, or even sell at their option, only being re- 
stricted by the regulations of the association. These in 
substance stipulate that the members, individually, or as 
the company, have the first option to purchase or rent a 
vacant apartment, and that the company have the ap- 
proval of the new purchaser. The reasons and the justice 
of these restrictions are obvious. There are a number of 
apartments which are not to be sold. The revenue from 
these is applied to pay the carrying charges and cost of 
operation, and the balance is divided as dividends to the 
stockholders. After a shareholder pays his share toward 



the building, which gives him practically the ownership 
of the apartment in which he will live, he will not have to 
pay any rent, interest, taxes, coal bills, or any of the fixed 
charges on this building, but further receives at the end 
of the year some profit left over from the renting of the 
public apartments. 

The following figures taken from an apartment house 
in operation show how they would work out on a coopera- 
tive basis: 



Cost of land and building, 
Mortgage at 5 per cent, 



$260,000 
190,000 



Equity, $70,000 

This equity would be taken up by the issue of shares 
at the par value of $1,000 each. Supposing three of these 
apartments are divided among subscribers, each sub- 
scriber would have to pay $23,000. As the building con- 
tains fourteen apartments there would be the following 
income: 

11 public apartments at $2,000, $22,000 

Running expenses, 21,060 

Surplus, $940 

Thus each of the three subscribers would pay $23,000 
for one third of the number of shares, and would 
occupy his own apartment, get his rent, heat, and 
water free, and at the end of the year receive $310, 
as dividend; in other words, he would receive $2,310 
for $23,000 invested, or a little over ten per cent income. 
Should the subscriptions be unequal it would be divided 
among each of the shareholders according to the number 
of their shares. Or this surplus of $940 would be laid 
aside as a sinking fund to reduce the mortgage, or used 
for any purpose the stockholders might agree to. Should 
a greater number subscribe it might show an assessment 
instead of a surplus at the end of the year, as is shown 
by the following figures for the same building in which 
five stockholders each pay $14,000. 

Nine public apartments at $2,000, $18,000 

Running expenses, 21,060 

Deficit, $3,060 

In this case there would be an assessment against 
each stockholder of $61.S, deducting this from their 
rental of $2,000, leaves $1,185, as the income from an in- 
vestment of $14,000, or about eight and one half percent. 
Thus it will be seen that the fewer the number of share- 
holders the better the revenue is. There are some 
instances where shareholders have obtained as high as 
twenty-five per cent income on their money. 

Thus far this principle has only been applied in the 
rather expensive apartments and studio building. In 
this latter type it has exceptional advantage, as there is 
a great variety in size and types of apartments, allowing 
of small as well as large subscriptions. Besides the 
.suites are of a type easily sublet for a few months at a 



THE BR ICKBUI LDE R. 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE \. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 2. 





HOUSE, KINGSBURY PLACE, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Samuel L. Sherer, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 3. 




DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION. 

SCHOOL OF MINES BUILDING, WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PITTSBURG. PA. 

Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILD'ER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 4. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 5. 




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VOL. 18. NO. 1. 



PLATE 6. 




MAIN ENTRANCE. 



GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



T II K I^ I'll C K BU I L DE R. 

VOL. 18, NO. 1. PLATE 9. 




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•FmST FLOOP. PtJV^' 



■Secot^d Floor Pl^^tj ■ 




KROM TH£ ROAD. 

HOUSE AT NEW LONDON, CONN. 
Charles A. Platt, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 1. PLATE 10. 





J U L' iJ LI Ih ;^ w, U L i-i U "J M p W H M H ,H " i"! -t H '- '« - 

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VOL. 18. NO. 1. ■ PLATE M. 




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THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 12. 




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VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 13. 





RAILWAY STATION, CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 

DoNN Barber, Architect. 



THE B R I C K BU 1 LD KR. 

VOL. 18. NO. 1. PLATE 14. 




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THE BRl C K lU' I L D KR 



1 1 



time. In a modified form it is an operation in tenement 
houses where five or six members of buildino- trades 
band together, purchase a tenement house, remodel it, 
and live in it themselves until able to sell it at a profit. 

The third method is by far the most common one, and 
its origin would be difficult to trace. In practically its 
present form it has been in operation for over thirty 
years, slight improvements being made to meet the new 
demands as they have arisen. 

In general the principle is as follows: Mr. Operator 
buys a piece of property, arranges to sell it to Mr. Spec- 
ulative Builder at an advance, generally very substantial. 
He agrees to loan Mr. Speculative Builder a mortgage 
equal to the purchase value of the property, on the con- 
dition that the latter erect a certain kind of building. It 
is also in the contract that Mr. Operator is to advance as 
a loan to Mr. .Speculative Builder certain amounts of 
money as the building progresses, of the value approxi- 
mately fifty per cent of the estimated cost of the build- 
ing. These amounts become a second mortgage on the 
property and are to run for one year. When the build- 
ing is completed, Mr. vSpeculative Builder obtains a per- 
manent loan with which to pay off the purchase money 
or first mortgage and the building loan or second mort- 
gage. When this is. obtained, Mr. Operator has no 
further interest in the operation, as he has made his 
profit on the sale of the property, together with a year's 
interest at six per cent of the amount of the purchase 
price and the building loan. Mr. Speculative Builder 
owns an apartment house with a large mortgage and 
with more or less of his small savings tied up. If he 
rents successfully and can show Mr. Investor a good 
investment, he may sell at a profit. This is a synopsis 
of the transaction. 

Now to take up in detail the advantages, risks, and 
obstacles to be overcome from the standpoint of the 
operator, speculative builder, and the investor. 

The most difficult and important thing for the operator 
to display is his good judgment and foresight in the 
purchasing of properties which will have a good market. 
These he acquires in several different manners: first, by 
the purchasing of large unimproved plots at a low price, 
selling a few at first at a very small advance, having 
them improved, and thus increasing the value of the 
other lots; second, by securing lots in developed neigh- 
borhoods, which he thinks speculative builders will pur- 
chase ; in this method very often the property will be 
bought on long time contracts, in the hope of interesting 
a builder before the title is taken; third, by purchas- 
ing the property after tk^ builder has agreed to repur- 
chase and build. This, it is readily seen, is the most 
advantageous to all, on account of the quick profit 
and the absence of carrying charges; it can be sold to 
Mr. Speculative Builder at a small advance, and he in 
tarn has better chance to select his location, instead of 
having to choose from the few plots Mr. Operator may 
have. 

If Mr. Operator has many pieces of unimproved prop- 
erty and is compelled to hold them for more or less 
length of time, he loses interest charges and taxes. He 
must have plenty of money in hand, or at his control, to 
be ready to buy most economically. When a payment is 
due on a building it must be made at once. If Mr. Spec- 



ulative Builder is delayed or slow in obtaining his per- 
manent mortgage, Mr. ()perator must be in a jjosition to 
have his money tied up for a longer period than ex- 
pected; or, if Mr. Speculative Builder has not been able 
to obtain as large a mortgage as desired. Mr. Operator 
must either advance some money on second mortgage or 
allow the builder to fail. If he feels sure of his builder 
he will sometimes increase the building loan while wait- 
ing for the mortgage to be placed. The operator very 
often transfers a building loan, or part of it, to one of 
the large iustitutio::s, to enable him to expand more by 
not iiaving so much money tied up in a few oj^erations. 
In the latter case, "he goes behind it," that is, makes 
payments at the same time the institution does, pro- 
portioned to the amount each assumes. Mr. Operator's 
principal troubles come if Mr. Speculative Builder fails 
to carry out his agreement. He then must foreclose his 
mortgage and buy the property back with more or less 
building on it, and try to sell it to someone else or finish 
it himself. In this case he probably obtains it for the 
amount of the first mortgage and the money advanced, 
the latter representing about fifty per cent of the value of 
the building. 

In completing a building that has been foreclosed there 
are many obstacles due to trade agreements and labor 
unions. For example, if the plumber has not lieen jiaid 
for his work and his lien has been removed through 
the foreclosure proceedings, another plumber will not 
finish the work without being paid a figure large enough 
to cover the amount owed to the first plumber. Mr. 
Operator is unable to buy plumbing supplies himself, as 
the supply houses agree to sell only to plumbers. If 
through some means he obtains the material, he cannot 
have it set, as the Union plumber agrees to work for the 
Master Plumbers' Association only. These same condi- 
tions apply in many of the other branches. The boiler 
and radiators are often sold to the steam fitter with a 
sort of chattel mortgage. The operator finds he has to 
pay well for them or they will be taken out. The same 
difficulties are experienced with the material men as with 
the plumber. 

It is a strange fact, considering how much money the 
operator advances while these buildings are being erected, 
with the risk he takes at having to purchase the building 
with poor material, poor plan, etc.. and with the neces- 
sary troubles to complete it, that none of the oi)crators 
and only one or two of the insurance companies doing 
this sort of business have a "Professional Adviser" to 
consult with as to the plan, design, construction, and pay- 
ment, practically everything being left to the judgment 
of the builder whose methods will be described later in 
tliis article. It seems the protection afforded the o])erat<>r 
would amply repay him to have all the details of the 
building passed on by his architect or by an expert 
familiar with this work. The nearest approach to the 
above is when Mr. Operator dictates to Mr. Speculative 
Builder who his architect should be. The companies 
above mentioned, however, em])loy an architect to exam- 
ine the i)lans and make regular inspections of construc- 
tion, to pass on the applications for ])aymcnts, etc., and 
the cost is charged against the builder. In the last two 
years the lending companies have become more careful 
and retpiire that the name of the architect be submitted 



I 2 



THE B R 1 C K BUI L D E R 



to them for approval, as so many poorly planned apart- 
ments have been erected. 

Mr. Speculative Builder, with small capital after buy- 
ing the property and arranging the building loan pay- 
ments, must so arrange the contracts as to satisfy the 
subcontractors either with his small capital or notes, 
principally the latter, until such time as the building loan 
payments become due. In some cases he is able to get 
the subcontractors to wait for their money until his first 
payment on the building loan is earned. His is more or 
less a problem of satisfying people with as little cash as 
possible. His most difficult time comes when he is near 
completion. 

If Mr. Speculative Builder has considerable cash or 
very good credit, he has no trouble to complete his work ; 
and the only c[uestion of his success is whether he has 
been wise enough in the choice of location, plan, and de- 
sign to warrant his getting the rentals that show an in- 
come large enough to attract the investor. Unfortunately 
though, few of the speculative builders have been so well 
provided, many going into operations with less than five 
per cent in cash of the value of the building, others prac- 
tically with no cash. Some have successfully carried to 
completion operations each amounting to $1,000, OCX), and 
have had less than $10,000 cash to start with. In these 
cases, though, they have had exceptionally good credit. 

Many are the obstacles for the speculative builder to 
overcome, and many failures are recorded. A serious 
fault many fall into, as in all speculation, is that of start- 
ing a second or third building before the first is completed, 
a sort of pyramiding. Mr. Sjieculative Builder does not 
always do this from choice. The suggestion often comes 
from Mr. Operator, when the building is well along, with 
promises of increased building loan. By this means he 
is enabled to get rid of plots more difficult to sell, pre- 
ferring to risk having Mr. Speculative Builder fail than 
to carry the lots longer. With very few exceptions this 
leads to a failure sooner or later. 

The methods employed are somewhat different from 
those of the general builder. The character is shown in 
the beginning with the selection of the architect. With 
the exception of some of the large apartment houses 
practically none are designed by prominent architects, 
but by a class who charge an extremely low commission, 
a price prohibiting proper study or the employment of 
capable draftsmen; one set of plans with trifling changes 
frequently serves for several operations. A true inci- 
dent occurred which gives an idea of the prices they 
charge. A young clerk in a real estate office called on 
one of these so-called architects in the Bronx, who had 
his name on at least five hundred apartment houses which 
were filed with the Building Department. The clerk in- 
quired how much it would cost for plans of four twenty- 
five foot apartment houses of the standard type then 
being erected. Fifty dollars was the price quoted. As 
the clerk was leaving he was called back and promised by 
the architect a suit of clothes for himself if he could 
bring the job into the office. 

The speculative builder seldom maintains an organi- 
zation employing many mechanics or large force of work- 
men, so he generally buys the materials and "lumps 
out " or sublets the labor on account of the uncertainty 
of prompt payments of cash. In the majority of cases it 



is a different class of subcontractors doing this work. 
For the same reason they allow a greater margin of 
profit. The workmanship, as a rule, is not of the best 
quality, often being of the poorest, as illustrated by the 
following incident: A prominent refrigerator company 
was asked to figure on refrigerators for an apartment 
house. After being told the size, they asked what quality 
was wanted and what thickness of partitions and kind of 
insulation; the answer given by Mr. Speculative Builder 
was, " I don't care, all I want is a refrigerator that 
looks well." If that principle is carried out on that 
which can so easily be examined, what may be expected 
in that part which is concealed ? 

As Mr. Speculative Builder's payments to subcon- 
tractors necessarily are contingent with his payments 
from Mr. Operator, he spreads his money a little here and 
there with notes, or, as a contractor once called them — 
bearing in mind the picture of the sailing ship generally 
printed on the face of them — checks which make port 
once in three months, and then perhaps discharge only 
part of their cargo. 

When an apartment house is almost completed and Mr. 
Speculative Builder is seeking his permanent mortgage, 
it is desirable that his building show as large an income 
as possible, for on this is generally based the valuation. 
Should this not be high enough he may obtain the re- 
quired amount by contributing a bonus, or if he is 
unable to obtain the rentals which he schedules, he re- 
sorts to padding the rents; a custom the investor must 
look out for. 

The investor, the one who buys these apartments after 
their completion, does so for permanent ownership; 
and here again it is to be commented that seldom does 
he consult the expert before purchasing, relying entirely 
upon what the real estate agent will tell him. This too 
often is simply the following of a well known principle 
in selling real estate, the house the prospective purchaser 
admires is the one to be boomed. 

Whether the property in the neighborhood of the 
building is going to maintain the same value or greatly 
increase, or whether other buildings are apt to be built 
to the detriment of the apartment house are questions 
which enter into all real estate transactions, therefore 
need not be considered especially in this article. 

Next in importance is the income. This is the first 
thing shown to an investor and should stand the most 
thorough investigation, as there are many ways in which 
this can be figured and the purchaser deceived. 

The speculative builder in renting his apartments 
endeavors to maintain the prices which have been sub- 
mitted in obtaining the permanent mortgage. If these 
cannot be realized, very often leases are made at the 
price desired to appear in the statements, and the renter 
compensated by being given several months' free rent. 
This sometimes amounts to three, four, and even five 
months. Thus an apartment rented for $1,200 a year is 
at the rate of $100 a month. If the tenant is given five 
months' rent free, it then becomes at the rate of $70 a 
month. In order to still further deceive in the rental rolls, 
the first month's rent will be paid in advance and a receipt 
given, as in the above case, for six months' rent. When 
the building is purchased the leases at the full prices are 
shown without any mention being made of the free 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



13 



months. The investor does not discover this until he is 
in possession of the building and is looking for the re- 
newal of leases, then, unless he makes material reduc- 
tions, the tenants move to other buildings where they 
can again obtain some months of free rental. 

As to the running expenses, the investor must rely 
upon the books of the agent. It is possible, however, for 
an expert to figure these quite accurately. Below is 
given schedules of two different buildings showing the 
cost, mortgages, rentals, etc., together with the running 
expenses. 

Cost of building to the speculative builder: 

Cost of land, §92,000 

Cost of building, 111,300 

Commission for first mortgage, 3,200 
Interest on building loan and purcha.se 

money mortgage, 3,400 

Taxes, 800 

Insurance, advertising, etc., 2,300 



Mortgage at 5 per cent. 
Equity, 



$190,000 
23,000 



$213,000 



$213,000 
This building sold for §260,000, showing to the in- 



vestor the following income: 

Value of building. 
Loan, 

Equity, 



$190,000 
70,000 



$260,000 



$-260,000 $260,000 



Running expenses: 
Interest on loan. 
Taxes, insurance, and water, 
Electric light and power, 
Coal, 
Help and commission to agent. 



$9,500 
3,000 
1,900 
1,800 
2,060 



Vacancies, redecoration, and miscellanies, 2,700 
Net profit, 7.040 

$28,000 

Income, 14 apartments at $2,000, $28,000 

This shows an income of ten per cent on the invest- 
ment of $70,000. 

The second one is on a much larger basis. 
Cost of building to the speculative builder: 

Cost of land, $275,000 

Cost of building, 549,000 
Interest on building loans and purchase 

money mortgage, 44,800 
Taxes, 5,400 
Commissions for obtaining first mort- 
gage and selling property, 26,000 
Insurance and advertising, 2,500 



$902,700 



Mortgage at 5 per cent, $725,000 
Equity, 177,700 

$902,700 

This building was sold for about $1,100,000, showing to 
the investor the following income : 

Value of land and building, $1,100,000 

Loan, $725,000 

Equity, 375,000 

$1,100,000 



'^)i 



Running expenses: 

Interest on loan, $36,250 

Taxes, insurance, 15,200 

Electric light, power, and heat, 14,3,^0 

Help and commission to agent, 10.500 
X'acancics, redecoraticjn, and miscellanies, 10,600 

Net profit, 29,620 

$116, .500 

Income, 47 apartments, $116,500 

This shows an income of almost ciglit per cent on the 
investment of $375,000. 

It has been found, by taking the average of a number 
of apartment houses, that the taxes and operating ex- 
penses exclusive of the interest on the mortgage cost 
about four and one half per cent of the value of the build- 
ing operation, so that allowing an income of five and 
one half per cent, the gross rental should be about 
ten per cent, and vice versa: a fair valuation of an apart- 
ment house is ten times its gross rental. This ten per 
cent gross rental may be subdivided as follows: 

Taxes, insurance, water, 1^ per cent 

Salaries, coal, light, power, and 
agent. 

Vacancies, redecoration, and mis- 
cellanies, 1 ,, ,, 

Income, 5j^ ,, ,, 

When the property is mortgaged for sixty per cent of 
its value, three per cent would apply to interest on the 
mortgage, and two and one half per cent to income. In 
other words, taking a building of the value of ,$200,000, 
the items would approximate : 

Taxes, insurance, etc., $2,500 

Salaries and operating expenses, about, 4,500 
Vacancies, redecoration, and miscellanies, 2,000 
Income, 11,000 

and if mortgaged for sixty per cent of its value — the in- 
terest on the mortgage, $6,000 — the income, $5,000, 
would equal six and one fourth per cent on the equity of 
$80,000. No positive rule can be applied, as the condi- 
tions differ in each building, but the above is a good 
average, and shows that a successful income-producing 
apartment house must return close to ten per cent gross 
rental. 

The success of the building depends gieatly upon the 
condition in which it is kept and the courtesies extended 
to the tenants. It is well worth the amount of the com- 
mission to have it looked after, leases made, and rents 
collected by a reliable agent, experienced in this line. 
In the larger apartments they have their separate corps 
of carpenters and ])ainters engaged by the year who at- 
tend to all the wants and keep the place in perfect repair. 

These are the main methods followed in the progress 
of an apartment hou.se from the conce])tion of the idea to 
its sale and development into an income producer. Some 
of the instances of the pitfalls may seem exaggerated, 
but such is not the case. On the other hand, it is not to 
be thought or interpreted that all the.se conditions exist 
in the erection of all of these buildings; to the contrary, 
there are speculative builders who erect buildings as 
conscientiou.sly as though they were going to maintain 
the ownership. These points are explained in order to 
show any who are interested or connected with this class 
of work the conditions they may be called u])on to meet. 



H 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



THE FORTY-SECOND ANNUAL CONVENTION 

OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 

ARCHITECTS, WASHINGTON, D. C, 

DECEMBER 15, 16 AND 17. 1908 

— RESUME. 

THE first session was held on the morning of 
December 15, in the Assembly Hall of the New 
Willard Hotel, President Cass Gilbert presiding. 

President Gilbert in his opening address said among 
other things : 

" If we compare the broad intliience of the Institute 
to-day with even that glimpse oX the ' Golden Age ' 
some fifteen years ago, when the Columbian Exposition 
was built, by the leaders of our Institute ; and we 
achieved governmental recognition as a profession, 
through the passage of the Tarsney Act : we will see the 
sure advance of a great national organization to a truly 
national scope — and so seeing we will realize the re- 
sponsibilities that come with increased authority. 

" I forbear to make a comparison in detail or to fur- 
nish statistical records, but the evidence is before you in 
the fact that through the wise councils and unselfish 
endeavor of the Institute we have come to be the ad- 
viser, and as need arises, the respected arbiter in matters 
of the gravest importance. T/icii it was with difficulty 
that we obtained a hearing from either the public or the 
Government. To-dtxy we are welcomed in the councils 
of all those who sincerely desire to do well in matters 
within the sphere of our profession. Our great and 
growing cities, our states, and the national Government 
itself, all call upon us for professional counsel, and ap- 
proach the subject of architecture and the other fine arts 
from a standpoint largely intluenced thereby. 

" The President of the United States, in calling to- 
gether that notable conference of the governors for 
consideration of the conservation of the national re- 
sources of our country, invited the American In.stitute 
of Architects, as one of a few organizations of national 
scope, to take part therein, and we have now an Institute 
Committee acting with the Conservation Commission 
which grew out of that conference. . This commission, 
will, I believe, become one of the greatest powers for 
national good that has ever been created 

"We cannot hope to have a schedule of charges that 
will fit with mathematical precision and equal justice all 
conditions, but we can have a schedule that will form a 
starting point — and that shall represent a reasonable 
minimum. It must be a business paper, simple, direct, 
and to the point. It must be self-evident, comprehen- 
sive, and devoid of argument ; inconclusive statements, 
fugitive suggestions, or elusive phraseology have no 
place in such a document. It must be a basic mini- 
mum statement leaving reasonable variations to local 
adjustment. 

" That the demands upon the architects both in 
professional service and in the cost thereof have enor- 
mously increased is a well known fact. The schedule 
when adopted some forty years ago represented fair 
remuneration for that time, but it does not represent 
fair remuneration now. 

" On the subject of competitions there is much to say — 
and much that had better be left unsaid. Probably ninety 
per cent of our professional difficulties have grown out 
of this one fruitful tree of discord. Let me point out, 
however, the economic side of the question. 

"The profession is expending vast energy and an 
enormous sum each year fruitlessly, foolishly, blindly, in 
maintaining this wasteful system. It has been impossible 
to obtain data or to form anything like an adequate 
estimate of the cost. We do know, however, of specific 
instances which mav be quoted as examples. Let me 
quote only one as typical. The Government established 



a competition within the last year wherein some one 
hundred and thirty competitors took part, expending in 
additiun to their own time and service, about S6.^,0(X). 
The fees paid to the prize winners and to the expert ad- 
visers amounted to about §5,000. Loss, S60,000. The 
total gross fee of the successful competitor estimated on 
a per centum of the proposed cost of the building is 
abuut Sl-,500 and his net estimated profit from this fee 
about i;j4,500. Net loss to the profession about §55,000. 
And in the end, I am credibly informed, the jury's award 
was disregarded and even the plan finally selected had to 
be revised. 

"The competition system has become so widespread 
that now it applies not only to Government buildings 
but to all other classes of buildings. I think it would 
not be too much to say that the architects in this country 
annually expend over §1,000,000 in competitions from 
which they receive no return. How long can the pro- 
fession stand this drain ? And this is not all — to foot 
up the total you must add the profits that should have 
accrued from time and money expended, the wasted 
time and effort, the neglect of other duties, the depress- 
ing — the disheartening disappointments and the dis- 
sensions that ensue. If fault there be, it lies in 
ourselves. The correction is in our power 

"The Institute should take a greater part in educa- 
tional work, not only for students of architecture, but for 
students and apprentices in the lesser arts and in the 
trades. We could do most valuable work for the world 
if we could have under our supervision art guilds and 
trade schools, if we could direct the work of the young 
mechanic or artisan who labor in the building trades. 
Give him a knowledge of his art, inspire him to its finer 
development and j'ou make him a better artisan and a 
better citizen. Under the patronage of the Institute, lec- 
tures, exhibitions, circulating libraries, scholarships, and 
the like should be established. The Institute should take 
an active part in research and archeology, in library and 
museum work, and in many other forms of development 
from which all the people as well as ourselves would derive 
benefit. But all this means the expenditure of a great sum 
of money annually. It means an endowment, and a large 
one; an endowment of which we would be only the 
trustees, not the beneficiaries. We cannot look for such 
an endowment with a selfish end in view, and its ac- 
quisition would increase, not lessen, our labors and 
responsibilities. 

"In maintaining our place in the professional world, 
we must not forget that it is the student of to-day who is 
the practitioner of to-morrow. We should therefore act 
helpfully toward the younger men. Share with them 
our successes, give them their chance as we have had 
ours, and foster their reasonable ambitions for pro- 
fessional opportunity and success. So win their con- 
fidence by generous and helpful acts that they will nat- 
urally seek your counsel and be guided by your ex- 
perience. They will richly repay you by loyal support 
of those principles and ideals for which you stand. When 
you receive a young student into your offices, bear in 
mind that it is your duty to him and to all concerned to 
.see to it that he is fit for the future work of an architect. 
If you cannot teach him yourself put him under charge 
of someone who can. 

"Give to all the largest opportunity consi-stent with 
their abilitv, but carefully select those who are best fitted 
by natural inclination and advise the others to seek an- 
other occupation. Encourage those who give promise 
of fitness, but reject the inefficient, the indolent, or the 
incompetent." 

BiRE.\L OF Fink Arts. 

The following is quoted from the report of the com- 
mittee having this matter in charge : 

" This subject is presented to the convention, not only 
as an abstract esthetic question, but as a grave, prac- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



15 



tical problem, affecting great interests of the public gen- 
erally and the economic administration of the national 
Government. The committee, after mature considera- 
tion, recommends that immediate action be taken to- 
ward the establishment of a Bureau of the Fine Arts, 
as a part of the governmental machinery, believing that 
it is necessary to the public welfare. 

" This definite and positive recommendation is the re- 
sult of an investigation and examination of the records of 
the different departments, through which the following 
facts have been ascertained. 

"Since the foundation of the Government, more than 
$500,000,000 of public money has been expended for 
buildings and other works of art, which should have 
been under the control of a Bureau of Art. 

"In addition to this amount, large sums have been 
spent for parks, bridges, aqueducts, harbor improve- 
ments, designs for coins, stamps, bonds, and bills, the 
value of which would have been greatly increased had 
they received intelligent artistic consideration. 

" About ninety per cent of this total amount has been 
spent during the last twenty years. In the immediate 
future there will be spent the sum of $45,000,000, for 
which appropriations have been made. 

" Under existing conditions, there are many kinds of 
machinery for controlling these expenditures. Usually 
each act of Congress appropriating money for artistic 
work specifies the method of procedure, and designates 
the person or persons in whom the authority is vested. 
As a result, it is sometimes the President, a member of 
the Cabinet, a committee of the Senate or House, or a 
department or bureau ; sometimes an army engineer, the 
superintendent of the Capitol, a committee of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, a special or private commission 
or a private individual, who controls and regulates the 
choice of the artist and the expenditure of the public 
money, and who acts not infrequently as artistic arbiter. 
In each case the arbiter regards the enterprise from his 
own point of view, without respect to its relation to the 
whole esthetic question, and the result is, generally, 
waste of public money and always artistic chaos. 

" Your committee submits that the expenditure of this 
vast sum of money, without the supervision of a well- 
organized and competent avithority, is unbusinesslike, 
improvident, and not economic government. The fact 
that the present appropriations show that the ratio of 
expenditures for these purpo.ses is increasing annually, 
seems to your committee to indicate that the necessity 
for action is urgent 

" In further support of its recommendation, your com- 
mittee quotes the following resolution, which was passed 
after a thorough discussion at the International Congress 
of Architects at Vienna in July of this year, 1908, the 
subject of governmental direction of art having been 
designated as one of the four subjects for consideration 
by the Congress. 

" 'Resolved, That every Government be urgently re- 
quested to establish a Ministry of Fine Arts, or at least 
a section which shall deal with subjects relating to the 
arts. To such a ministry or section shall be attached 
artists of established reputation. Since architecture can 
be considered the leading art, architects shall be in a 
majority. The work of this ministry or of this section 
shall be the advancement and encouragement of the fine 
arts in all their branches. ' 

"This resolution has been endorsed by the principal 
artistic bodies of eighteen nations in Europe 

"It is recommended by your committee that the fol- 
lowing subjects should be included in the authority of 
the Bureau of Fine Arts: 

"1. Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Park Work, 
and Engraving. 

"2. Educational matters pertaining to the Fine Arts 
and the dissemination of useful knowledge among schools, 
colleges, and universities pertaining thereto. 



"3. Administration of the National Gallery of the Fine 
Arts. 

"4. A system of national museums in different cities 
and that a system of circulating works of art throughout 
the country be established. 

"In conclusion, your committee repeats from its re- 
port of last year: 

" The intention of establishing a Bureau of the Fine 
Arts is, not to develop a national style of architecture or 
definite styles of painting or sculpture, but to invest the 
whole subject of the fine arts with appropriate dignity, 
to encourage the establishment of proper schools, to 
stimulate the universities in this much neglected branch, 
and to educate the people. 

"In other words, the purpose of a Bureau of the Fine 
Arts would be to propagate the truth that art is not 
an effeminate luxury, but that it is the manifestation of 
that great vital force, the imagination, which is the 
original impulse behind all human progress ; and to 
furthermore teach the people of the United States that 
if there is one thing above all others which is absolutely 
and universally democratic, typically and thoroughly 
American, and essentially in accordance with the whole 
spirit of the Constitution, it is the inalienable right of all 
the people by inheritance to possess and preserve the 
works of genius of the human race, and to participate 
equally in the inestimable advantages and benefits of the 
study of the Fine Arts." 

Competitions. 

In substance the report of the committee having this 
matter in charge is as follows: 

"It is the opinion of your committee that no further 
action should be taken by the central body than what 
has already been taken ; that conditions which should 
govern competitions will necessarily vary in different 
localities and should be made the subject of local legis- 
lation ; but the resolution suggested at the last conven- 
tion seeme^ to your committee one that might be 
applicable to the whole country and would be as useful 
a first step in New York as it would be in Los Angeles." 

The committee recommends the following resolution: 

"■Resolved, That the A. I. A. does not approve of the 
adoption of a code for the conduct of competitions that 
shall be binding upon its members, but that members 
should consider themselves bound by the resolution 
passed at the convention of 1907 and should use their 
efforts, whether as competitors or judges, to see that the 
seven underlying principles mentioned in the report of 
your committee are complied with." 

Last year's report of the committee, and the resolu- 
tion accompanying it to which the committee refers in 
its report for this year, is as follows: 

" Your committee recommends that, whenever possi- 
ble, an architect be employed without competition ; that, 
when competition is unavoidable, the American Institute 
of Architects recognize three forms of competition: 

" a. Limited to a certain number of invited architects. 

" b. Open to all architects. 

" r. Mixed; certain architects being invited, but other 
architects being at liberty to take part. 

"Your committee recommends that, for the present, 
no attempt should be made to impose any fixed code of 
competition upon the members of the Institute, but that 
the Institute recognize, as conducive to the best results, 
the following underlying principles for the conduct of 
all competitions: 

"1. The object of a competition is to secure the most 
skilled architect. 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"2. An architectural adviser should draw up the pro- 
gram, advise the employer in regard to it, and the ad- 
viser, or, preferably a jury of practising architects, 
should advise the employer in making the award. 

"3. The amount to be expended on the work should 
be sufficient, within a reasonable margin, to erect a 
structure of the character and size indicated in the pro- 
gram, or there should be no cost limit stipulated. 

"4. The program should be in the form of a contract 
relating to the award of the work and to other payments. 

"5. Whenever practicable, the competitors and the 
professional adviser should meet with the employer, 
and agree upon terms which shall be binding upon all. 

"6. There should be, in limited competitions, pay- 
ments sufficient to cover the preparation of the drawings 
demanded; in open competitions premiums sufficient to 
cover the expense of at least five schemes; in mixed 
competitions, payments to the invited competitors as 
above, and an additional amount, representing the cost 
of five sets of drawings, distributed among the authors 
of the best five schemes, such payments not to be con- 
fined to the uninvited competitors. 

"7. The drawings required should be the minimum 
necessary to express the design and arrangement. 

"Your committee further recommends that the fol- 
lowing resolution be adopted by the Institute: 

^^Rcso/vcd, It is unprofessional conduct for a member 
of the American Institute of Architects, even for pay- 
ment, to submit drawings knowingly in competition with 
another, unless under such conditions as are explic- 
itly approved by a competent, disinterested professional 
adviser, either a member of the American Institute of 
Architects, or of some foreign architectural association 
of similar standing." 

Nkw Schedule of Charges. 

A new schedule of charges was adopted by which the 
minimum rate for an architect's services is advanced 
from five to six per cent, although the Convention de- 
cided that the fee as now established should^not be man- 
datory. It was thought desirable, nevertheless, that the 
public should be educated to accept this as a just charge 
to the end that it become generally recognized by clients 
and the courts as the basis of compensation for the serv- 
ices of the architect. 

Thk. (ii)i.D Medai, or the a. I. a. 
The board of directors recommended: 

"That the (iold Medal of the Institute be awarded 
biennially, alternately to a foreigner and to an Ameri- 
can; that the recipient be nominated by the board; that, 
subject to the ratification of the convention and his 
attendance in person, it be conferred at the following 
convention. 

"This year the board of directors recommends that 
the Gold Medal of the A. I. A., the first to be conferred 
upon an American, be awarded to one whom it thinks 
preeminently worthy to be honored, one who has set a 
standard for high achievement in architecture, who has 
generously and wisely advanced the cause of architec- 
tural education, and who, as shown in the Washington 
plan, has grasped and expressed tiie need of civic 
beauty, Charles FoUen McKim." 

Election oi Officers. 

The following named were elected as officers for the 
ensuing year: Cass Gilbert, president; Ralph Adams 
Cram, and Irving K. Pond, vice-presidents; Glenn Brown, 
secretary and treasurer; F. C. Baldwin, S. B. P. Trow- 
bridge, and John M. Carrere, directors. 



NATIONAL FINE ARTS BOARD. 

IN response to the plea that the fine arts have been 
denied that governmental consideration generally 
shown by other nations, as suggested by the American 
Institute of Architects, President Roosevelt has taken 
the first steps looking to their recognition by this govern- 
ment. 

The President announces that he has asked the Institute 
to designate the names of thirty men, representing all 
parts of the country, to compose a Council of the Fine Arts. 
The object of the Council, which is to consist of architects, 
painters, sculptors, landscape architects, and laymen, of 
which the supervising architect of the treasury depart- 
ment is to be the executive head, is to advise upon the 
character and design of all public works of architecture, 
paintings, sculpture, all monuments, park bridges, and 
other works of which the art of design forms an integral 
part; and to make suggestions and recommendations for 
the conservation of all historic monuments. 

Hearty approval is given by President Roosevelt of 
the recommendations of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects. The President says he will direct members of his 
cabinet to refer to the proposed Council of Fine Arts for 
their expert advice on all matters in their charge embrac- 
ing architecture, selection of sites and landscape work, 
sculpture, and painting. 

"Moreover," declares the President, " I shall request 
the Council to watch legislation and on its own initiative 
to make recommendations to the Legislature and Con- 
gress in regard to changes in existing monuments or with 
regard to any new project. I earnestly advise your body 
to take immediate steps to secure the enactment of a law 
giving permanent efi"ect to what I am directing to be 
done. The course you advocate, and which I approve, 
should not be permissive with the executive, it should be 
made mandatory upon him by act of Congress." 



COUNCIL OF FINE ARTS. 

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT has created a Council of 
Fine Arts and directed that hereafter the heads of ex- 
ecutive departments, bureaus, and commissions, before 
any plans are formulated for public buildings or grounds 
or for the location or erection of any statue, must submit 
the matter to the council and follow their advice unless 
for good and sufficient reasons the President directs 
otherwise. The Council is composed of the following: 

Architects. — C. Howard Walker, Cass Gilbert, C. 
Grant LaFarge, Walter Cook, William A. Boring, 
S. B. P. Trowbridge, John G. Howard, Glenn Brown, 
Thomas R. Kimball, John L. Mauran, D. H. Burnham, 
John H. M. Donaldson, George B. Post, Arnold W. 
Brunner, Robert S. Peabody, Charles F. McKim, 
William S. Eames, James Rush Marshall, Abram 
Garfield, Frank Miles Day, and William B. Mundie. 

. Painters. — John LaFarge, F. D. Millet, E. H. Blash- 
field, and Kenyon Cox. 

Sculptors. — Daniel C. French, Herbert Adams, H. A. 
MacNeil, and K. T. Bitter. 

Landscape Architect, — Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. 

The supervising architect of the treasury department 
is to act as executive officer in carrying out the recom- 
mendations of the Council. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



17 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 



THE CONGRESSIONAL SCHEME FOR A 

LINCOLN MEMORIAL IN 

WASHINGTON. 

EVER since the promulgation of the great plan for 
the restoration to the national capital of the original 
L'Enfant scheme and for further development thereof 
on sympathetic lines — a plan which represented the 
mature convictions of McKim, Burnham, St. Gaudens, 
and Olmsted and received the enthusiastic approval 
of everyone fitted by nature or education to 
express an opinion thereon — the national House of 
Representatives under the able leadei'ship of Mr. Speaker 
Cannon has seized every opportunity to attack the plan 
and, by wilful and gratuitous legislation, make its fruition 
impossible. Time after time the American Institute 
of Architects, which has more than enough to do in 
attending to its own internal affairs, has been compelled 
to array itself against the Speaker and his House, and to 
fight desperately to save some essential feature of the 
great plan which had been assailed apparently in sheer 
wantonness and in jealousy of the interference of archi- 
tects, sculptors, painters, landscape architects, and public 
spirited citizens with its own conceptions of the nature, 
functions, and laws of the fine arts. In every instance 
the Institute has been victorious, against heavy odds, 
but there is apparently no end to the eternal vigilance 
which is forced upon it and is alone the price of safety. 
Again it is called to do battle, this time for the site 
originally recommended for the Lincoln Monument, for 
Mr. Speaker Cannon, with the aid of Congressman 
McCall of Massachusetts, has produced a bill for a 
Lincoln Monument, not on the splendid site recommended 
by the " Burnham Commission," but in the waste lands 
between the new Union Station and the office building 
of the vSenate. 

This action is remarkable in many ways. The site 
proposed is absurd and inadequate, for it brings the 
monument into immediate conflict with the station: it 
means the breaking of what should be a noble vista with 
the great dome of the Capitol at the end : it isolates the 
Memorial in a place where it has no proper relation 
to the other public buildings and monuments: it has not 
received the approval of any body of men fitted to pass 
judgment: it lops off an essential part of the general 
plan for the development of Washington: it authorizes 
an ill-considered design which is reported to be the 
work of a draftsman in a Washington office, and gives 
power to put this into material form without further 
legislation and without the approval of anyone unless it 
be some Congressional committee. 

These defects are all bad enough, and damn the bill 
. from the start, but what shall we say of the financial 
aspect of the case ? The site proposed by the Park 
Commission — on the banks of the Potomac and in axis 
with the Capitol, the Grant Monument, and the Washing- 
ton obelisk — is P^ederal property and would not neces- 
sitate the raising of a dollar by taxation ; the Congressional 



site, which no one outside Congress wants, is private 
property, for the purchase of which $3,500,000 is to be 
appropriated, the further sum of $1,250,000 being allowed 
for the monument itself. 

Where, one is tempted to ask, is the " watch dog of 
the treasury " of whose economy and thrift we once 
heard so much ? What has happened that he should melt 
to the tune of $3,500,000 and ask this contribution from 
the people when a better site may be had for nothing ? 
Does he believe himself justified in levying to this extent 
on the payers of taxes in order that under the guise of a 
great motive he should be able again to attack the hated 
plan, before the defenders of which he already has gone 
down in defeat several times ? Is a possible victory here 
worth $3,500,000 ? Or has the bitter cry of the owners of 
unremunerative real estate come to his sympathetic ear 
that he should demand the purchase of thirty-six acres of 
their land at a cost of $3,500,000 to form a futile site for a 
$1,250,000 monument ? Whichever way we look at the 
question a satisfactory answer is not forthcoming and we 
are compelled to leave it as one of those mysteries of 
popular government into which it is not the part of the 
taxpayer to inquire too curiously. 

Bad as the business is it can be considered only as a 
threat, for it is unimaginable that public opinion will not 
be aroused by this stupendous blunder, and there are 
times when even the Houses of Congress must yield to 
the pressure it brings to bear. As a last resort a presi- 
dential veto is possible — sure one may say, if the bill 
does not become a rider to absolutely necessary legisla- 
tion, which, judging from the past, will probably be its 
ultimate condition. Before this drastic action there is 
yet another possibility, made operative by the action of 
the President in instituting by executive order a National 
Council of the Fine Arts. No more significant and whole- 
some action than this has been taken by a President of the 
United States for a decade, and its wisdom is amply 
demonstrated by this same blunder of Congress. How 
far the power of the Council may extend without legis- 
lative enactment remains to be proved, but the question 
will be put to the test, perhaps by this same Lincoln 
Monument bill, and in time, as conditions change, we 
may hope for a Senate and House that will prove suffi- 
ciently high minded, farseeing, and truly representative, 
to fix by legislation the duties and powers of a Council 
of the Fine Arts that in time may develop into a Bureau 
or even — who knows — a Department, with its own 
secretary with a seat in the cabinet. 

In the meantime it is not safe to rely on the untried 
powers of the new Council of the Fine Arts, nor is it fair 
to force on the President the uncongenial duty of a veto. 
Public opinion, organized, operative, and instant in its 
action, can easily check this latest Congressional blunder 
before it goes too far. The American Institute of Archi- 
tects has acted promptly, de.serving as ever the gratitude 
of the public; local architectural and artistic organiza- 
tions are following suit. If every patriotic citizen will 
make the matter a personal one to himself, such pressure 
may be brought to bear on members of Congress as will 
defeat the bill in the House where it originated, and we 
can rest quietly while gathering strength for the next 
contest, which, as matters now stand, is reasonably sure 
to come with the minimum of decent delay. 



i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



NEW SERIES OF FRONTISPIECES. 

THE WORK OF GIOVANNI BAPTISTA HIRANESI. 



GIOVANNI BAPTISTA PIRANESI was a product 
of a time when the Italian renaissance had passed 
its zenith and when, though the studies of the artists guise of some of the noblest works of the past. 
and architects were 



would be most useful to architects and draftsmen, 
and in presenting them as frontispieces for the en.su- 
ing year we feel that they may serve both as an 
example of draftsmanship, as essays in composition, 
and as a presentation under a somewhat unfamiliar 




SCHOOI.HOUSE, INDIANAPOLIS, INI). 

lirubaker & .Stern, Architects. 
I'he entire trim is of terra cotta made by Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company- 
are sand molds made by W'estern Brick Company. 



directed to the glori- 
ous periods that had 
passed, facility in 
mere drawing had 
suspended real cre- 
ative ability ; and 
so while the archi- 
tectural works ex- 
ecuted during the 
period of Piranesi's 
life are scarcely 
worthy of criticism, 
his remarkable skill 
as an etcher and his 
choice in the sub- 
jects which he illus- 
trated make his 
work of great value 
to the student. 

We are beginning 
herewith a series of 
reproductions of some of the most remarkable of his 
etchings. He was a scene painter, decorator, architect, 
portrait painter, all in one, and traveled all over Italy, 
particularly interesting 
himself in the remains of 
Roman architecture. Com- 
bined with a most remark- 
able facility as a draftsman 
he had a keenness of dis- 
cernment which is seldom 
given to one so facile with 
his lines, and our knowl- 
edge of much of the best 
of the old Roman work is due to his exceedingly well 
chosen and faithfully presented etchings, while his florid 
imagination led him to a series of compositions embody- 
ing Roman motifs, which, while not capable of standing 
the most severe academic tests of merit, have great in- 
dividuality and show a very 
decided conception of mon- 
umental grandeur. He died 
at the age of fifty-eight 
years, but his work was 
carried on to a certain ex- 
tent by his son, Francesco, 
and the work of the two is 
preserved in a collection of 
some thirty or more vol- 
umes which are rarely seen 
in their entirety outside of 
the public libraries. We 
have been at considerable 
pains to make a selection 
from his work of the sub- 
jects which we believe 



■*"' uf 




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U'xAZ'ik 


;!: 






'mm 







PANEL FOR LIBRARY FIREPLACE. 

Roswell F. Putnam, Architect. 
E.xecuted by Hartford Faience Company. 



Baltimore's Arch- 
itectural Commis- 
sion is destined to 
be short-lived. 
Created by a law 
passed July 1.3, 1907. 
it was to have power 
to select plans for 
all public city build- 
ings prepared by 
various architects 
in competition. 
Formerly city build- 
ings were designed 
by the Building In- 
spector's office. A 
committee of the 
City Council re- 
ported favorably, 
October 5th, an 
ordinance which is 
to repeal the law of July 13. 1907. Building Inspector 
Preston has approved the movement to repeal, giving as 
his reasons therefor that the city is delayed four months 

on every building as a re- 
sult of the competition, and 
without the competition the 
city will save the three and 
one half per cent architect's 
fee. Thus he invites the 
public to believe that an 
official designing bureau 
may achieve a record for 
speed and that, in general, 
fees paid to architects are to be counted as money blown 
to the winds with little or no value given in return. The 
two propositions speak for themselves. 



The brick 




HOI SE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Bohnard & Parsons, .Vrchitects. 
Roofed witli French A Tile made l)y I.udowici-Celadon Company. 



Mr. Carl Berger, superintendent of the Oueens Bureau 

of Buildings, is authority 
for the statement that the 
filing of plans in that 
borough of New York ex- 
ceeds in the number of 
buildings and the cost 
thereof any previous De- 
cember in the history of 
the bureau. During the 
last four months of 1908 
plans were filed for dwell- 
ings involving a total cost 
of $6,700,000. Not only 
is there a broadening de- 
mand for homes in this 
section of western Long 
Island, l)ut the individual 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



19 



vahie of the homes 
built has in- 
creased one hun- 
dred and twenty- 
one per cent since 
1907. 

In tenement con- 
struction, however, 
the borough of Man- 
hattan still holds its 
lead. Here the 
typical " new law " 
structure occupies 
a lot 40 feet wide 
and is six stories 
high, accommoda- 
ting from four to six 
families on each 
floor. Each apart- 
ment contains as a 
rule from three to 
four rooms. In the 
Bronx the prevail- 
• ing type of tene- 
ment recently 
planned is a three 
story building on a 
lot 20 or 25 feet 
wide and contain- 
ing three apart- 
ments of four or 

five rooms each. The typical tenement in Brooklyn, as 
well as in Queens, is a three story " double flat," occupy- 
ing a 25 foot lot and con- 
taining six apartments of 
four rooms each. 




BLOUNT COUNTY COURTHOUSE, MARVSVILLE, TKNN. 

Bauman Brothers, Architects. 

Built of dark buff brick, including columns, made by Columbus Brick and Terra Cotta 

Company. 




Three years' tuition in 
the American Academy in 
Rome and |1,000 annually 
during his stay in Italy 
have been awarded to 

Edgar Irving Williams, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 1908, who has been awarded the Grand Prix de 
Rome, an annual architectural competition open to the 
graduates of architectural schools throughout the United 

States. 

The first 
year of Mr. 
Williams' 
stay in Italy 
will be con- 
fined to a 
study of the 
history, to- 
p o g r a ]) h y , 
and archeol- 
ogy of Rome, 
to traveling 
in Pompeii, 
and to an ex- 

DK.TAII. BY NEVII.I.E & BA(;GE, ARCHITEC'IS. . 

ammation of 

Executed by New York Architectural Terra u„ii,i;no-c nf 

Cotta Company. DUUaingb ui 



PANEL BY WINSLOW A: BIGEI.OW, ARCHITECTS. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



the classic period. 
I n the second year 
the chief subject 
will be the architec- 
ture of the renais- 
sance as seen in 
Siena, Florence, and 
other places. Dur- 
ing the third year 
Sicily, (ireece, and 
other countries will 
l)e visited. 

Mr. Williams, 
who was president 
of the Technology 
Architectural So- 
ciety last year, has 
his home in Ruther- 
ford, N. J. 

Four men were 
chosen on December 
15 by the committee 
in charge of the 
compet i t ion to 
make the final plans 
from which the 
awards would be 
made. Three Tech 
men, E. I.Williams, 
1908, F. W. Dolke, 
1908, and C. F. 
Baker, 1907, and R. C. Jones, from the University of 
Pennsylvania, were chosen. The plans were to consist 

of "the design of a build- 
ing, it being assumed that 
the American Academy in 
Rome has acquired a plot 
of land 500 feet square 
within the walls of the 
city, on the west slope of a 
hill, the dift'erence in level 
assuring to the site a com- 



manding view of the city toward the west. 




Two of the most notable examples of apartment house 
construction 
recorded in 
New York last 
year were the 
Belmont 
A p ar tments 
and the twelve 
story coopera- 
tive a]mrtment 
h o u s e to be 
erected in 
() r a m e r c y 
Park for Rich- 
ard Watson 
Ciilder and a detail i ok r. s. naval tkaininc, 

group of his " station, Chicago, ill. 

friends The Jarvis Hunt. Architect. 

Executed bv American Terra Cotta and Ceramic 
former is de- ' Company. 




20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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**-»-., '■■- '" ■ ^-' " "Ml 



signed to be 

the largest in 
the country. 
It covers the 
entire Broad- 
\v a y block 
bounded by 
A m sterdam 
avenue and 
86th and 87th 
streets and will 
house one 
hundred and 
seventy-five 
families. 




UET.^Il,, ST. HARP.ARA S 

K. C. CHURCH, 

BROOKLYN, N. V. 

Helmle & Huberty, 
Architects. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



Hi)li:i Al i.KAND KAI'IUS, MICH. 

Williamson \- Crow, Architects. 

Built of mi.xed shades of " Ironclay " Brick. 



" It is diffi- 
cult to argue 
the obvious 
propos i t ion 
that the adorn- 



ment of a nation's capital, and especially the capital of a 
union of states, would be a public use. Ancient and 
modern nations, including 
our own, have used the 
public treasury for that pur- 
pose." In these words, Asst. 
Attorney-General CharlesW. 
Russell defends his bill that 
is to authorize the Commis- 
sioners of the District of 
Columbia to regulate private 
building in the district so as 
to preserve the beauty of 
the city. 




After calling at the White 
House on the morning of 

December 7, Representative DriscoU of New York ex- 
pressed himself as follows: " I would rather see the 
Government spend $10,000,000 for the beautification of 

Washington than to 
spend it for battle- 
ships. The Govern- 
ment ought to buy all 
the lands lying be- 
tween the Senate office 
building and the new 
Union Station, and 
there are other things 
that ought to be done 
to improvethenational 
capital. This is of 
more importance than 
more warships." 



FRIEZE, METROPOLITAN LIFE RCILDING, SAN FRAN 
Cisco, CAL. 

N. Le Brun & Sons, Architects. 
Executed in Faience by Rookwood Pottery Company. 



the country, re- 
ceived by the 
American Con- 
tractor, New 
York, show a 
most gratifying 
increase for De- 
cember, 1908, as 
compared with 
those of the cor- 
responding 
month in the 
preceding year. 
This was to have 
been expected, 
since December, 1907, followed hard on the commence- 
ment of the money panic, but the increase is larger and 
more general than was anticipated. Only three cities 
report a loss and this, in the case of Chicago, is less 
than one per cent. The loss in Pittsburg was forty-nine 
per cent and in Syracuse fifty-one per cent. The aggre- 
gate value of the permits issued last month is nearly 
double of that in December, 1907. The .showing is re- 
markable and indicates that . 
1909 will prove a record- 
breaker from a building 
standpoint. The following 
figures show the percentage 
of gain in leading cities : 
Baltimore, 266 ; Birmingham, 
.597; Cleveland, 297; Cincin- 
nati, 60; Dallas, 43; Denver, 
401; Detroit, 114; Duluth, 
440; Grand Rapids, 18; Hart- 




ford, 166; Indianapolis, 239; 
Kansas City, 310; Louis- 
ville, 128; Los Angeles, 65; 
Milwaukee, 206; Minneapo- 
lis, 79; Memphis, 11; Nashville, 1,700; New Haven, 567; 
New Orleans, 17; New York, 144; Omaha, 35; Phila- 
delphia, 127; Portland, Ore., 193; Rochester, 110; St. 
Paul, 70; St. 
Louis, 245 ; Se- 
attle, 25 ; Spo- 
k a n e , 4 2; 
South Bend, 
926; Toledo, 
94 ; Tacoma, 47 ; 
Wash ington, 
83 ; Worcester, 
200. 



DETAIL BY G. MUELLER, ARCHITECT. 

Brick Terra Cotta and Tile Company, 
Makers. 



BUILDIN(i OPER- 
ATIONS F(m 
DECEMBER. 

OFFICIAL reports 
of building oper- 
ations in more than 
forty leading cities of 



IN 
GENERAL. 

A meeting of 
the graduates 
of the evening 
t e c hnical 
courses of Co- 
lumbia Univer- 
sity was held on 
Dec. 4, 1908, 
and a perma- 




DETAII. HV EDWARD A. (JUICK & SON, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



21 








TERRA COTTA DETAH-S EMPLOYED IN SENATOR CI.ARK's HOUSE, NEW YORK. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 
Work executed by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



nent Alumni Society was formed, to be known as " The Columbia E 
this organization is to unite the graduates of these courses together 

of members, and aid their 
advancement in the knowl- 
edge of the art of architec- 
ture. It is greatly desired 
that all students not present 
at the above meeting who 
have attended this branch of 
work at the Columbia Uni- 
versity will send their names 
and addresses to the Secre- 
tary of Education, Wm. J. 
Heins, 527 Fifth avenue. 
New York City. 

Extensive public improve- 
ments planned by the city of 
New Orleans are to be made 
possible of realization by 
$4,000,000 worth of new 
bonds now being sold. 

The regular monthly meet- 
ing of the Washington 
Architectural Club, held on 
the evening of December 22, 
was very largely in the 
nature of a jollification. 
Besides the dinner a pro- 
gram of vaudeville acts was 
furnished. 



vening Architectural Society." The purpose of 
for the mutual and professional improvement 




PANEL FOR SCHOOLHOUSE. 

Bausmith & Drainie, Architects. 

Executed by Northwestern Terra Cotta 

Company. 



The fact that the three 
Mills hotels in New York is 
an experiment that has long 




FLEMING BUILDING, UES MOINES, lA. 

D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 
Built of Hydraulic- Press Brick. 



22 



THE R R I C K B U I L D E R 



since proved se' -orting is demonstrated in the deed- 

ing of these a ^»v days ago to three trustees, by which 
Mr. Mills plans to keep the properties consolidated undei 
one ownership and management. These trustees now 
consist of Mr. D. O. Mills, his son. Ogden, and his 



daughter, Mrs. Whitelaw Reid, all of whom give their 
services to the jihilanthropy without comjiensation. 




ROVAI. INSURANCE COMPANY BUII,DIN(J, CORNER WILLIAM 
STREET ANO MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

Howells & Stokes, Architects. 
Built of Sayre and Fisher Brick. 




COUCHI.IN l;l II.DINl,, DKIKOn, MICH. 

B. C. Wetzet, .\rchitect. 

Front of enameled brick made by American Enameled Brick and Tile 

Company. 

THE HOSPITAL BUILDING COMPETITION. 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The Jury for the Hospital Building Competition awarded 
first prize ($500) to George A. Schonewald and LeRoy 
Barton, associated, New York City; second prize ($200) 
to Harry K. Culver, New York City; third prize ($100) 
to Chrystie, Lautenbach and Mc Kinney, associated, 
New York City; first mention to Frank H. Barry, and 
George Holland, associated, New York City; second 
mention to Louis C. Wellman and George V. Franken- 
berger, associated, Cincinnati ; third mention to Frank 
Howend and Angelo R. Clas, associated, Milwaukee; 
fourth mention to Norman T. Vorse, Des Moines; fifth 
mention to A. B. Fitz-Simons and L. P. Wheat, Jr., 
associated, Washington. 

The competition was judged in Boston, January 23, 
by Messrs. Edmund M. Wheelwright (Wheelwright & 
Haven), William D. Austin (Stickney «.V Austin), Charles 
CoUens (Allen & Collens), J. Harleston Parker (Parker, 
Thomas & Rice), and Edward F. Stevens. 



A SENSIBLE GIFT 

A GLOBE, MAP, OR ATLAS 

is most practical. Will afford profit and pleasure to the 
entire family for years. Send for catalogue and price 
list. , « 

Enclose this ad with 5 two cent stamps and we will send 
POCKET MAP OF MANHATTAN 

RAND, McNALLY &f COMPANY 

New York City 



N U M H K R 3 4 

Academy Architecture 

just Published 

As you know — '' ACADKMV " is the liest of the English archi- 
tectural reviews. It shows the current work done in England and 
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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVJIl FEBRUARY 1909 Number 2 

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CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

DONN BARBER; CLAUDE F. BRAGDON; JOHN T. COMEvS; RICHARD ARNOLD FLSHER; 
GREEN & WICKS; HOPPIN, KOEN & HUNTINGTON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

THE TEMPLE OV MATER MATUTA IN THE PIAZZA BOCC.V DELLA VERITA, ROME Frontispiece 

GYMNASIUMS — THEIR PLAN AND EOUIP.MENT — I M. fl. h\a,li 23 

THE HOUSING PROBLEM — I George Jl. Fold 26 

SUGGESTIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL STUDY IN WESTERN FRANCE— II Frederuk Reed 30 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS — IV ^5 

COURT AND DINING ROOM — RESIDENCE OF F. -J. STERNER, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK CITY. 

ILLUSTRATION ^^ 

DOUGLAS COUNTY SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MEMORIAL, TUSCOLA, ILL. ILLU.STRATION 



38 



EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY ^^ 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment — I. 



BY M. li. REACH. 



MY EFFORTS in what follows will be directed 
toward pointing out certain conditions of building 
construction and design favorable and unfavorable to 
the equipment and operation of modern gymnasiums. 

As a manufacturer of apparatus I have in the course of 
twelve or fifteen years' experience seen many kinds of 
gymnasiums and been brought into contact with many 
kinds of construction — some good — some otherwise. 
Considering the various ins and outs of gymnasium equip- 
ments, the variety of work called for by different ex- 
ponents of physical training and the totally different 
demand in the nature of the buildings therefor, it is 
small wonder that the " otherwise " predominates. 

vShape of Room. — In starting with the shape of the 
gymnasium room, I perhaps possess some advantage over 
the architect who has his 
building plat and general 
plans to consider first, 
whereas they come last 
with me. It will be un- 
derstood, however, that 
I am drawing up condi- 
tions that are more or 
less ideal. We can 
hardly ever hit the ideal 
aimed at but it is a truism 
that to keep as close as 
possible is desirable. 
This statement involves 
another. The " ideal " 
gymnasium, as I have 
before intimated, varies 
according to individual '■'< 

views. Having been 

brought into contact with many units I will take my 
stand on a basis that would, I believe, be established by 
a majority, were a vote polled on the questions at issue. 

The proportion of length to width should approximate 
three to two. I think this opinion would obtain in all 
sorts and kinds of gymnasiums. For convenience and 
arrangement of apparatus, formation of classes, and de- 
sign of running track this shape serves best. 

Hekjht. — The. height, which is of much importance, 
should be not less than eighteen feet, nor more than 
twenty-two feet. It will be understood that I refer to 
the attaching point of overhead apparatus. Frequently 

♦Manager, Gymnasium Contract Department of A. G. .Spaldinj; ^• 
Bros. 





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the actual ceiling height will be found, and advan- 
tageously so, much more than this. The trusses in such 
cases, however, should conform to the minimum and 
maximum measurements above given. Many times 
where the gymnasium forms only one room in a building 
of many rooms, such as in a school for instance, it be- 
comes impossible to even preserve the eighteen foot 
minimum. In such cases hold as close as conditions 
permit. Good work is done in many gymnasiums where 
the ceiling is of less height, but as a rule it will pay to re- 
vise plans in order to produce the required height. 
Besides adding many good and needed cubic feet of 
oxygen you adapt the room to the purpose for which it is 
designed, from a practical working standpoint. A low 
ceiled gymnasium is about as appropriate as an equally 

low auditorium. 

Where ceiling or truss 
heights are greater than 
twenty-two feet it in- 
volves dropping down a 
pipe frame to proper 
distance. This is always 
expensive. It certainly 
is inartistic and seem- 
ingly an appendix to 
what presumably stands 
for a carefully worked 
out plan. 

Trcssks. — Indesigning 
truss work, and speaking 
purely for the relation of 
trusses to apparatus and 
'■ eschewing any thought 

in their co-relation to the 
building proper (which is to be left in the hands of the 
architect), the plan shown in Fig. 1 is excellent. 

The same recommendation would prevail in the 
location of longitudinal ties or stringers — A-B, C-D — 
were a gallery or running track installed, providing the 
gallery was not over six feet. In a gymnasium of this 
size that width of track should not be exceeded, and 
under no conditions whatever is a gallery or track less 
than five feet to be recommended. 

These longitudinal ties on either side (which are always 
needed for the support of certain classes of suspended 
apparatus best placed at about this distance from wall) 
could be replaced by three inch wrought iron pipe and a 
lengthwi.se support for apparatus obtained in this way. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIG. 2. 



Usually si:ch pipe would be installed by the outfitter of 
the gymnasium at about fifty cents per running foot. I 
have outfitted gymnasiums, some of them large ones, 
originally designed without any longitudinal braces what- 
ever. This eli|nination not only created a deficiency in 
points for overhead support^ but discounted the value of 
the trusses for similar purposes for the reason that 
swinging apparatus attached to the trusses minus the 
lengthwise support will cause a great amount of vibra- 
tion. I recall one gymnasium where it required three 
lengths of three inch pipe, from 
end wall to end wall, before the 
overhead work was sufficiently 
stable to accommodate the appa- 
ratus demanded for it. 

In the plan shown the trusses 
are fifteen feet apart. While not 
arbitrary, that is a good distance 
for such overhead apparatus as 
may require guying from truss 
to truss, and is a safe spread for 
extra pipe supports that are 
sometimes needed in working out schemes for over- 
head fixtures, hoists to remove apparatus, etc. 

FixTiRKs. — Following are some sketches suggesting 
clamps used in suspending apparatus under varying con- 
ditions. (vSee Figs. 2, 3, and 4.) 

Fig. 2 is the simplest, neatest, and best. .Seldom, how- 
ever, do we find sufficient space between angles (one half 
inch required), and .sometimes there is the space but it 
is choked by the conduit carryin|^ the electric light wires. 
It is always desirable to run such wires above the flange. 
This seems like making much over a simple matter, but 
past experiences sustain the position and warrant the 
expression of it. 

Fig. 3 is a common form of clamp used by my com- 
pany and needs no comment. 

Fig. 4 shows a clamp for a truss which is concealed and 

covered with wire 
mesh and plaster. 
In planning a 
gymnasium call- 
ing for this con- 
struction it is 
desirable to have 
bolts dropped 
down from the 
truss and a two 
inch yellow pine 
plank bolted to 
the ceiling before being finished. Details of this sort 
where worked out beforehand add to the general appear- 
ance and economize on the installation, otherwise where 
clamps need to be attached it becomes necessary to cut 
away wire and plaster, and when not concealed by the 
board, replastering is necessary, patchy, and expensive. 

Assuming that the maximum height can be observed 
in providing the overhead point of attachment, the under 
side of the gallery, where there is one, should be ten feet 
from the floor. This measurement is given as a desirable 
minimum. 

Windows. — The placing of windows must of necessity 
depend upon general lighting conditions. It may be 



rl^. - —F/JSK/r- 




FIG. 4. 



pointed out, however, that the majority of wall apparatus 
is attached at points from five to eight feet from the 
floor — chest weights at five feet, bar stalls at eight. 
These two types of wall apparatus are used in quantity for 
class work and allowance should be made for their proper 
installation. It is desirable to have one good wall, either 
free from windows, or windows placed above the height 
required for apparatus. This is seemingly an easy matter 
when the room is free from running track or gallery, but 
I have seen windows intersected by the running track, 
and a good arrangement it proved. In this case the 
lower part of the windows only would need to be 
screened. Ample light is given to the floor, and the run- 
ning track is equally well cared for. The various games 
of ball played in modern gymnasiums make it com- 
pulsory that the panes be protected. 

Skylights. — In connection with this feature I do not 
consider a broad expanse of glass overhead at all de- 
sirable. vSome of our best gymnasiums so equipped are 
practically put out of commission in the late spring 
months on account of intense heat. Skylights set in a 
monitor roof have always seemed to me the ideal method 
of distributing light in the upper gymnasium. 

The director of a well known gymnasium was obliged 
to place draw curtains entirely 
across the upper part of the room 
in order to make the work on the 
floor possible as warmer weather 
approached. In this same gymna- 
sium our men were asked to ring 
with chalk any spots in the floor 
that established a leak overhead. 
With the first hard rain they began 
to get busy and finally in despair 
plumbed down from the extreme 
edges of the glass roof and circled 
the entire floor. The question of leak is, no doubt, 
entirely a question of mechanics and workmanship, but 
the objectionable heat from the sun is condemned by 
those directors, who labor under these conditions, as 
impracticable and undesirable. 

Location of Hf:atin(; Fixtures. — The same thought 
governing the location of windows should prevail in 
the placing 
of heating 
coils. Let 
them do their 
work properly 
but keep them 
out of the way. 
Many equip- 
ments have 
been curtailed 
and the work 
in the gymna- 
sium handi- 
capped owing 
to inappropri- 
ate placement 
of fixtures of 
this kind. 
Similar pre- 
cautions fig. 




FIG. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



25 




GYMNASIUM, 

I'NIVERSITY 

OK 

PKNNSVI.VANIA. 

Approximate 

size 

145 feet by 70 feet. 



GYMNASIUM, 

PRINCETON 

UNIVERSITY. 

Approximate 

size 

160 feet by 101 feet. 



The floor.s of these gymnasiums may be easily and quickly cleared of all apparatus. 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



should be observed in determining the position of hot 
air ducts along the ceiling. Frequently I have seen 
overhead space so cut into as to preclude the possible 
installation of any adequate amount of suspended appa- 
ratus. I have recollections of school gymnasiums where 
congested attendance demanded the maximum amount 
of work from the allotted space and this work curtailed 
because plumbers and pipe fitters had been allowed to 
spoil what otherwise would have proven a good working 
plant. A good physical director may well feel discouraged 
where his work is handicapped by conditions of this sort. 

Flooring. — Maple is the preferable wood for the finished 
floor. All gymnasiums should have a rough, and finished, 
flooring. This seems like an obvious condition and is 
mentioned only because I have outfitted one or two 
prominent gymnasiums where a single maple flooring 
(one inch) was laid across sleepers embedded in con- 
crete. It is to be borne in mind that more or less 
apparatus is frequently guyed to the floor, which must 
therefore be made to withstand this upward pull and 
strain. Many kinds of apparatus are attached to iron 
plates which are set in flush. Cut away a one-inch 
dressed floor to insert a three eighth inch thick plate and 
little is left for screwhold. I would recommend a rough 
floor of one and one half inch to two inch thickness; a 
finished floor of one and one eighth inch to one and 
one half inch. 

The best floors I have seen, and theoretically the 
correctly laid ones, follow the lines of the walls, forming 
a design as shown in Fig. S. 

Much of the class drill work in a gymnasium calls for 
marches and runs around the room, and frequently gym- 
nasiums are used for social events, dancing, etc., in which 
cases wearing is more evenly distributed over a floor laid 
as shown in Fig. 5, as it follows the grain of the wood. 

Tvi'KS OK Gymnasiums. — The foregoing observations, 
being general in character, may apply to any average 
gymnasium. There is, however, a differentiation in the 
treatment of equipments that divides gymnasiums into 
groups of individual types and makes necessary a corre- 
sponding differentiation in the interior design of the 
building proper. It is with some of these types that I 
will undertake to deal and endeavor to point out by ex- 
planation and plans certain problems that influence the 
demands on the architect and builder. These will be 
separated or characterized as follows: 



Athletic 
Recreation 
Gymnastics 



Recreation 
Gymnastics 



Co-educational 
Gymnastics 



Playgrounds 
Indoor Running Tracks 



University 
Preparatory School 
Y. M. C. A. 
High .School 

Armory 

Club 

Private 

Women's Gymnasium 

College 

School 

Church 

Public 

Municipal 

I Interior Equip- 1 
J ment I 

I Playground f 

\_ Equipment ! 



L 



I. 



Division of 
sexes and 
ages 



The Housing Problem— I. 

BY GEORGE B. FORD. 

IN THINKING over the many and various phases of 
architecture, have you ever chanced to consider the rel- 
ative quantity of each class or kind of buildings erected ? 
There is one class that predominates all others, and as 
you consider the question you will see that this class 
exceeds in number of constructions all the others put 
together. I refer of course to the human habitation. 
Consider again: who for the most part inhabit these 
dwellings ; who form the great majority of the world's 
population ? Is it the proprietor with a certain means 
or is it not rather the "masses," — those whose small 
incomes and large family expenses will not permit of 
their possessing homes of their own? (If anyone doubts 
this he has but to remember that in New York City only 
one person in forty-three owns his own home.) Let us 
carry this idea a little farther and ask, what one class of 
habitation it is which affects the greater part of the lives 
of the great majority of human beings ? 

Low Cost Hahitation. — Can the answer to this be 
other than " The habitation at low rent "? Consider for 
a moment what the question of the habitation of the 
"masses" may embody ; its immense importance as a 
factor either for or against a real home life, especially in 
the rearing of children; how the character and design of 
the dwelling itself may make for happiness or unhappiness, 
for uplifting or debasing, for good, useful, helpful lives, or 
for useless, immoral lives. It is out of place to dwell on 
this feature of the question here, for sociological and 
religious publications are constantly showing the effect 
of environment on the individual. But what does inter- 
est us is how much this problem of the habitation at low 
rent and cost (or in general the " Low Cost Habitation " ) 
affects the architect. 

We must admit fi-ankly that it has affected him very 
little indeed. Why? Because the majority of those who 
promote such structures either do not know what the 
word architect means or they believe that they can plan 
the structure just as well themselves and thereby save 
the architect's fee. Can the architects blame them? What 
have architects accomplished so far in America to improve 
low cost habitations? 

The Data. — Look through your files of magazine plates 
and see what you can find on this subject. Of model 
detached country houses at low cost there are a few, most 
of which have appeared within a very few years. Of 
suburban connected houses at low cost there is a much 
smaller number. Of city or suburban tenements with 
several apartments on each floor, small suites and low 
rental, there are almost none, the only notable exception 
being the publication of the Phipps Houses No. 1 in New 
York (the writer of these articles has been living in these 
latter almost since their opening) in The Brickbuilder 
for September, 1907. And of habitation within the reach 
of the poor, the really poor, absolutely nothing has been 
published. Here is a subject which directly affects more 
people more hours a day than all other phases of archi- 
tecture put together, and yet we find that there is no 
phase of architecture so neglected as this, no phase on 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



27 



which the architect can find so little enlightenment, so 
few records, as on the subject of low cost habitation. 

Efkf.ct on the Archiikct. — Many architects will say, 
"what is this qiiestion of low cost habitation to me? 
I have built several cheap houses, but I cannot afford to 
be bothered with them now." True, so far, but consider 
what are the tendencies of the times. We all know 
that enormous fortunes are being accumulated, and that 
there is a rapidly increasing tendency to expend them in 
ways which will help one's fellow men to ameliorate 
the conditions of living, and, that they are being spent 
more and more in the prevention of the causes of life's 
struggles and privations. 

In what better way can these millions be expended? 
How can families be better helped than by giving them 
the brightest, cleanest, airiest, cosiest, cheeriest, most 
homelike environment that human ingenuity can devise? 
This is where we enter the province of the architect. 

Tendencies. — How do we know that philanthropists 
and others are going to turn their attention in this 
direction ? Observe the importance with which the ques- 
tion is looming up on the other side of the water. In 
Paris there are many societies for building low cost 
habitations — the great Rothschild's housing move- 
ment — and, greatest of all, the proportion of the new 
$100,000,000 appropriation to improve the city, which will 
be expended on better "Habitations a Bon Marchc." 
Look at Germany and note all that is being done in the way 
of municipal housing in Berlin, Stuttgart, Hanover, Mun- 
ich, etc. ; Belgium, Italy, and Austria the same; and then 
look at England where in London alone some $125,000,000 
have alread}' been spent in improved low cost housing. 
Have you ever heard of the Brooklyn Model Tenements 
of Alfred T. White and the Pratt Institute; of the City 
and vSuburban Homes Company with its many acred town 
of Homewood and its many blocks of model tenements in 
New York; of the big houses of the New York Fireproof 
Tenement Association; of the Shepard, Lee, DeForest, 
Bishop, or Stone model tenements; of the Phipps Houses 
No. 1, No. 2, or No. 3 (the second for colored people), of 
the Mills Tenements, or of the Mills Houses No. 1, No. 2, 
or No. 3 for working men ; or of the new municipal lodg- 
ing houses? Not only these, but have you noticed all the 
space recently given in the papers to (juestions of con- 
gestion of population in New York City with graphical 
illustrations of the evils of our present living conditions; 
and the interest they have aroused in all classes of people? 
And more particularly the work that is being done in 
housing research under the direction of the vSage 
Foundation. Pondei on these and .see if you can believe 
other than in an immense impetus in intelligent building 
of model low cost dwellings. 

What the Question Inci.ldes. — It is now time to see 
just what this question means and just what it includes. 
The man who has unlimited money to spend, and even 
the man who has a moderate amount to spend, can have 
pretty much what he wants in the way of a dwelling 
wherever he maybe, but the rest of the world must take 
what they can get, and what they can get depends largely 
on where they live. 

Classification. — In any case people must live in one 
of two general types, i.e., the house where there is only 
one family under a given roof, or the tenement where 



more than one family lives under a given roof. The 
former type admits of a lawn or garden or both to each 
family, the latter does not. Each of these types may be 
divided into three classes, i.e., single, double, or mul- 
tiple buildings. The single house or single tenement 
is where for a given building there is only one family 
on a floor, thus having light on four sides; the double 
house or double tenement is where there are two fami- 
lies on a iloor with a party wall between, thus giving 
each familjMight on three sides; and the multiple house 
or multiple tenement is where there are three or more 
families on a iloor separated from each other by party 
walls, thus receiving light only from two opposite sides 
at most. 

There are of coiirse other places in which one lives such 
as boarding houses, lodging houses, and hotels, but in 
every case they are alike in being non-housekeeping 
places of abode, and as such may be classed under the 
generic head of lodgings, distinguished only as they are 
by party walls or not. F)ach of these classes has its 
peculiar problems and with that in view we will treat 
them in turn. 

Phases ok the Housing Oiestion. — The housing 
question in general is a broad one. It interests many 
different kinds of people from many different points 
of view. There are the various social, ethical, moral, 
and religious phases, which may interest us individu- 
ally, but which have no direct bearing on arcliitecture 
as a profession. 

Then there are the purely practical questions of 
financing and management of dwellings of whatever 
sort, and there is the question of ownership, whether it be 
private, cooperative, or municipal; in the former case 
whether the private ownership be that of an individual, 
a partnership, a society, or a corporation. There is the 
question of raising the money to pay for the building, 
with all the questions as to building loans and their 
replacing by permanent loans; where to place a loan 
and through whom ; conditions of contract, etc. ; or 
whether the building be built through a cooperative 
building society or bank. There is the question of the 
purpose of the building, whether it be built as a specula- 
tion with the idea of selling it as soon as possible, or as 
an investment, or as a jjhilanthropy pure and simple, or 
as an investment philanthropy. This latter question 
affects the architect closely, making a large difference in 
his design for a given lot. Then there is the cjuestion of 
management, whether it be superintended in person and 
the rents collected in person or whether it be done by 
some outside agent or agency. In the latter case it is 
again a question of whether the superintendents be men 
or women; the experience both in London and in the City 
and Suburban Homes Company in New York being that 
the " Octavia Hill " principle of women as collectors is 
particularly successful. The reason for this is that, thanks 
to their intuition and tact, women seem to " get on " with 
the tenants much better than do men. 

There is also the (juestion of repairs, by whom they 
should be made and how often; involving as it does the 
(juestion of the original construction as to whether the 
building be constructed with an eye to permanency or 
not. 

Phases of Especial In ikkksi fok the Akchitecf. — 



28 



THE BRIC KBUI LDER. 



With a perusal of the subject many other smaller questions 
arise but none of more than general interest to the archi- 
tect. For him the three questions are : materials, construc- 
tion, and design, whatever type of house it may be. I will 
take up each of these questions in the above order and 
see what experience has to teach us to date. Materials 
and construction are so closely related however that they 
should be considered together. 

Construction and Materials, Fireproof or Not. — 
The first question naturally is whether the building should 
be fireproof or not. Let us consider the tenement first. 
Just here there is considerable difference of opinion. 
The New York Fireproof Tenement Association Houses 
and the other more recent smaller tenements by Ernest 
Flagg are fireproof. The Phipps Houses No. 1 are fire- 
proof, the Mills Hotels are fireproof, also several of the 
smaller model tenements. On the other hand the City 
and Suburban Homes tenements which in total area 
exceed all of the others combined are fireproof only as to 
stairs and corridors, the rest being constructed with 
wooden joist floors and wood stud partitions between 
brick exterior and party walls. The City and Suburban 
Homes Company, together with ninety-nine one hun- 
dredths of the tenement builders in New York, argue 
that the fire risk is so very small that the extra cost of 
fireproofing the whole building might much better be 
used where it would count for more. Mr. Ernest 
Flagg in an article in the October 6, 1906, issue of 
"Charities and Commons" argues that the extra cost of 
fireproofing the whole building beyond the necessary cost 
of fireproofing the stairways is nearly compensated for 
by the space gained through the thinning down of all the 
walls, partitions, and floors ; by the decreased depreciation 
and by the saving in insurance rates. In view of the 
fires and loss of life that has occurred of late in New York 
tenements there would seem to be a moral argument at 
least in favor of the fireproof tenement. 

As to materials, the steel frame encased in terra cotta 
or concrete with terra cotta or reinforced concrete floors 
sum up the general usage. I know of no instance of a 
model tenement in America entirely of reinforced con- 
crete. The majority of the European tenements are 
practically fireproof with fireproof stairs and halls, floors 
of heavy joists between brick walls and partitions, the 
joists being filled in between and topped over with con- 
crete; a durable and cheap construction where labor is 
not high. Other things being ecjual a fireproof tenement 
has everything in its favor; the lives of the tenants are 
safer, the house is cleaner — there being less chance for 
the wandering about of vermin or the infiltration of 
dust — the building is more durable, it is much more 
nearly sound proof thereby giving far more privacy 
to each family (a great advantage morally, as well 
as physically), it is warmer in winter and cooler in sum- 
mer. Are not these considerations of enough weight to 
compensate for a little extra first cost? With the in- 
creasing cost of wood and the decreasing relative cost of 
fireproofing materials may we not with a little experi- 
menting find a fireproof construction the actual cost of 
which, as compared with that of wooden construction, 
will be such as to force the average investor for his own 
interest to build fireproof buildings? It is an ideal 
worth striving for. 



When we come to the ordinary double or single tene- 
ment house we find in America at least that they are 
rarely of any construction other than wood with occa- 
sional exterior walls of brick. Reinforced concrete has 
been used of late for such buildings but with what re- 
sults remains to be seen. Abroad the construction is 
the same as for the multiple tenement. The multiple 
house is usually of wood encased in brick walls, of which 
the great majority of houses in Philadelphia are typical 
examples. The single and double house is of wood 
except for the recent experiments with terra cotta and 
reinforced concrete. Except in Switzerland and Sgandi- 
navia, the walls and partitions are always of brick 
or stone masonry, the floors being like those above de- 
scribed or like our ordinary joist floors except that the 
joists there are more nearly square in section. 

FoiSDATioNS AND Cellars. — As to fouudations and 
cellars there is nothing of importance to note except 
that the floors are usually of concrete throughout. In 
Europe outside of the cities the houses rarely have 
cellars at all, the sod being stripped off, the ground floor 
raised some two or three feet above the soil, and the 
underpinning being damp-proofed by a damp course 
extending through the wall about a foot above the 
ground. 

Walls. — The walls of the houses vary of course with 
the locality, depending on climate, habit, and natural 
materials at hand. It is hardly worth while to take this up 
here. The walls of the tenements, especially the multiple 
tenements, are practically without exception of brick with 
trimmings of stone, terra cotta, or other colored brick. 
For example, the City and Suburban Homes houses are 
in nearly all cases of a hard, yellow buff brick costing 
up to $20 per thousand, with sills, lintels, belts, and door 
jambs of white Yermont marble. Fire escapes, grilles, 
and railings are of wrought iron painted black. Courts 
are of a cheaper grade of light colored brick or ordinary 
brick white-washed. The New York Fireproof Tene- 
ment Company's buildings are similar. The Phipps 
Houses are of a good (juality yellow and a good quality 
red brick with arches and sills of yellow brick, ornament 
of buff terra cotta, and a base of stone. The window 
guards, the railings, and the area enclosure grilles are all 
of heavy wrought iron painted buff. In England the 
walls are of a gloomy red brick and on the Continent 
brick or stone masonry covered with cement plaster 
painted. 

Rooks. — The roofs of the houses are of shingle or 
slate or occasionally flat, covered with tar paper and 
gravel. Recently roof slabs of concrete have been tried. 
In the single and double tenements tar and gravel is the 
rule. In the multiple tenements the same applies to the 
part reserved for the drying of clothes, wood-slat walks at 
the proper places preventing undue wear of the roofs. 
A feature of the Phipps Houses No. 1 and one which 
deserves being copied is the roof garden across the front 
of the building. This is covered with tile. Around 
the edge of it is 'a high parapet banked with privet and 
flowers. Around the outside edge of this parapet is a 
painted tin imitation tile roof sloping down at 45 de- 
grees over the wide projecting cornice. Abroad the 
roofs are rarely flat. They are usually covered with 
slates, tin, or flat tile. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 



When we come to the interiors there is a great diver- 
sity of materials. 

Floors. — The floors of the houses are usually of soft 
wood with the expectation of being carpeted. In the 
tenements they are usually of two or two and one half 
inch hard pine strips to be stained or painted or carpeted 
by the tenant as he sees fit. Abroad one often finds 
floors, except for the living room, of four to six inch tiles 
painted, the idea being to cover them with linoleum or 
rugs. This would hardly do, however, in our cold 
climate. Stair treads in tenements are of slate or Ten- 
nessee or Georgia marble, the latter being the more 
cheerful. The landings and corridors are of cement 
sometimes painted or of terrazzo or a marble mosaic laid 
usually with a border motif. The stair railings are of 
wrought iron ; the hand rails are of wood. Abroad the 
treads are usually of slate though often of wood. 

Walls and Partitions. — The interior walls are prac- 
tically in every case of two or three coat plaster work on 
2 by 3 or 2 by 4 studs set flatwise. They should be oil 
painted, never papered. A mat surface oil painted 
plaster seems much more durable than any other wall 
surface and is quite unobjectionable to look at. It should 
be painted in very light tones — not too cold. In 
one of the best known model tenements in New York 
where the walls were painted in olives, Pompeian reds, 
and chrome yellows, the tenants all complained of the 
gloominess of the rooms, so that whenever new tenants 
moved in the rooms were repainted in a much lighter 
tone to the delight of the tenants but to the detriment 
of the color scheme. Bath room and toilet room walls 
are painted with Ripolin or some washable paint. Cor- 
ridor walls are usually oil painted with the lower half 
of some dark color that will not show dirt. 

Ceilincis. — The ceilings are in nearly every case white- 
washed so as to give the maximum reflection of light and 
maximum height effect to the room. 

Woodwork. — The woodwork varies, but common prac- 
tise proves that a hard wood, varnished, wears better and 
is more economical in the end than a soft wood painted. 
Ash, chestnut, red oak, and cypress are used, depending 
on locality and market. In hou.ses, especially single or 
double, there is a tendency to use soft wood, painted. 
The latter, too, is the usual practise abroad. 

Plumhing. — For closet and bath a simple flush seat 
without double cover, and with chain flush ; a roll rim 
enameled iron tub painted on the outside; a corre- 
sponding wash bowl if such exist, all open and nickel 
plated or galvanized iron painted is the custom. 
Floors are cement rinished with rounded corners and 
edges turning up six or eight inches on the walls 
and painted. In the Phipps Houses the showers in all 
the two and three room .suites are needle spray douches 
placed just above the shoulder level to give a spray at 
45 degrees downward. The sinks are twenty-four inch 
galvanized iron with a galvanized iron back fifteen inches 
high in which are the two brass faucets. It is held up 
in front by two galvanized iron legs. The two tubs ad- 
jacent are similarly on galvanized iron legs with gal- 
vanized covers. The tubs themselves are of the same 
material or preferably of white enameled earthenware 
with a yellow glaze on the outside. There are two brass 
faucets of two and one half inch projection in each tulj. 



Abroad the sink is usually of enameled earthenware 
and the tub does not exist. 

Heating and Cooking. — Heating is usually by steam 
with plain silvered radiators in the main rooms and 
silvered risers in the bedrooms. Just here especial care 
should be taken to make the openings about all pipes 
through the floors as tight as possible, consistent with 
fire laws and py)e expansion, to prevent the passage of 
vermin, the tenement pest. As to stove.s, there is a 
strong tendency in the later tenements to eliminate them 
altogether and rely summer and winter on gas ranges 
with four ring burners on top and oven and hot closet 
beneath. This rests on a .slab of stone or concrete and is 
ventilated by a flue-opening above. Each apartment 
should have its own individual flue all the way up to the 
outer air. Abroad there is usually a built-in range which 
heats water in the "copper " or boiler. One very rarely 
sees a gas range there. 

Fixtures. — The fixtures are simple and of brass, wired 
sometimes for future electric light. A quarter meter 
seems to be the most satisfactory way of supplying gas 
to the tenant. 

Hardware. — As a result of their many experiments 
the hardware in the City and vSuburban Homes tenements 
is real Bauer-Barff in the most u.sed pieces and imitation 
in the less used. It wears well. Elsewhere brass is used 
as sparingly as possible and usually black knobs are used 
on door handles. 

General. — In many of the houses simple, durable roller 
shade curtains are provided. In some of the tenements 
small plate glass mirrors are built in. 

This gives us a general idea of the details of material 
and construction. The remaining articles will be de- 
voted exclusively to the design and arrangement of the 
model tenement and house. 



THE Torrens system of land title registration went 
into effect in New York state on February 1st. A 
purchaser of land gets his title in the same manner as 
heretofore, if he so desires, and he may buy or sell dur- 
ing the process of registration without delay or incon- 
venience. In cases where there is no contest in regard 
to the title — and in the normal and ordinary ca.se there 
would, be no contest — at the end of twenty days after 
service is complete judgment of registration can be ob- 
tained. The state does not "guarantee" titles under 
the new law, nor is there any " guarantee " by the state 
of any of its judgments or decrees. It is clear, however, 
that an order of court establishing for all time an in- 
defeasible title is a better "guarantee" than a title 
company's insurance. A registered title is ecjuivalent 
to a land patent directly from the state. In case of a 
contest or objection to registration the time to effect 
registration will, of course, be lengthened. If there is 
real ground for objection a law suit or bill in ecjuity will 
be necessary as it has been heretofore. 



MEMBICRS of the IIou.se Committee on l-'oreign 
Affairs have agreed to stand behind the Longvvorth 
bill which authorizes the appropriation of $1,000,000. 
annually for the construction of embassies, legations, 
and consular buildings abroad. The l)ill was introduced 
(luring the last session. 



30 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Suggestions for Architectural Study in Western France — II, 



BY FREDERICK REEU. 



THE one redeeming- feature to the narrow crooked 
streets of Brittany is the wonderful pictiiresqueness 
of the houses. From a sanitary standpoint we must con- 
demn these relics of medievalism, for in "many cities the 
roof gutters of opposite houses are not over five feet 
apart while in places they touch each other. Yet their 
charm to every hamlet is undeniable. At times there 
will be a row of decayed domestic architecture, the 
fronts of which will be adoi'ned with excellently carved 
wooden figures, then again whole streets will have slate 
fa(;ades worked skilfully into geometrical patterns, or 
perhaps a single house will stand out conspicuously with 
its granite base supporting the projecting stories and a 
long sloping roof covered with dabs of golden lichen. 
Picture the timber houses at Vitro or Vannes, where 
one's vista is a series of patched roofs either domed or 
square with fronts that are made of slate supporting 
semi-circular towers and engaged pillars with curiously 
carved brackets. Sometimes these 
fac^ades are carved fantastically, or 



Jr^\ 





while the picturesque market hall at Le Faouet is a mar- 
vel in the construction of its wooden beams. St. Renan 
also has a very large and theatrical market house, 
while the cities of Evron, Tr^guier, and Huelgoat have 
typical markets similar to many others scattered over 
the whole of Western France. 

(Generally it is advisable to visit all museums. From 
these collections compiled at considerable expense and 
time we are able to acquaint ourselves with the diverse 
types of provincial art. These museums are open to the 
public on Sundays and Thursdays from ten until four 
o'clock, while at other times the customary fee will 
secure admission. It would be tedious to enumerate the 
various exhibits and to mention even the best subjects 
contained therein, so we will cite only a few of the most 
important. Vannes possesses one of the richest collec- 
tions of antiquities in Europe, Vitre has an especially 
fine outlay of old French faience as well as some thirty 
Limoges enamels, while the church 
of St. Pierre at Chartres contains 
some choice Limoges enamels by 



A TOWER OK THE CHATEAU AT 
NANTES. 

enriched with paintings, while their 
sky line is a formation of quaint gables 
with timber frames. No two cities are 
richer in this style of architecture than 
Dinan with her projecting stories up- 
held by massive beams and Morlaix 
with her ornateness in slate. Hotel de 
Rohan at St. Brieuc is one of the best 
known buildings of wood and plaster. 
Other towns that possess many ex- 
amples of ancient and medieval houses 
are Dol, Fougeres, (iuingamp, Le 
Croisic, Ploermel, and Auray. 

There are several worthy old market 
buildings throughout this region. One 
of the most fantastic in all France is 
the fine old timbered house at Auray, 




ST. LAURENT TOWER AT VIIRE. 




A CUKIULS FONT. 



THE CHURCH S. ARMEI., PLOER- 
MEL, WITH ITS LAVISH 
SCULPTURE. 

Limosin. So at Rennes, Ouimper, Le 
Mans, Angers, and Carnac one may 
enjoy interesting displays of pottery, 
Gallo Roman remains, celebrated 
tombs, and admirable sculpture. 

Once you have reached the heart of 
Brittany and learned to admire the 
peasants with their mob-caps and blue 
blouses, take some of their delightful 
steamer trips. Leave Vannes for Sar- 
zeau and after a most picturesque sail 
among the fi.shing smacks you will 
enjoy the old summer residence of the 
Dukes of Brittany, the chateau of 
Sucinio and the old convent and abbey 
church near by. Another profitable 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



31 





NOTRE DAMK CHIKCH AT AIENCON. 



IIALLEKY OF CHATEAli AT C H A TEA T HRI ANT. 





( AIHKDKAI, AT ST. I'Ol.-l )F.- I.E( )N. 



I )ll I'J II Ml SI. jl-AN AT X0(;ENT-I,E- 
KOTROU. 





HOTKL 1)E \ILI.E Al l)Ki:rX. 



CI-OISTERS OF CATHEDRAL AT TRECU'IER. 




AN Oil) lEl'UAI. ( ASIT.E OF THE I II 1 R I KKNI H CENIIRV 
AT CLISSON. 



P" « 




IMF MASSni', loWI.K'- III 1 M\M \l \l \ \ \ I ES. 



3- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



trip by boat is from Locmariaquer to Gavr'inis with its same. During five weeks the Englishman Jephson cov- 
well known tumulus and dolmen; the tomb at this place ered the most of Brittany in a walking tour— his route 
has been excavated recently and measures some three is given at the end of the article and would be an ideal 




ONIC OF THE KOUNTAINS FOUND 
IN MANY CITIES. 




liundred feet in circumference and 
is thirty feet high. The island of 

Croix surrounded with cavernous cliffs and containing 
many interesting megaliths is only a short distance from 
Lorient. To the Belle-Ile-en-Mer is a charming sail from 
yuiberon, while the island itself is very attractive in the 
picturesqueness of the scenery and the old fortifications 
around the city of Le Palais. The trip from Brest to 



CHURCH AT SAINT THEGONNEC 




I il K I II l K I 11 > 1 K. 
NANTES. 



trip for the bicycle or automobile. 

He took with him a waterproof 
knapsack, writing materials, notebooks, mariner's 
compass, light rain coat, extra linen shoes, and trousers. 
In addition to the above we would add a French diction- 
ary, passport, camera, toilet articles, shaving outfit, 
measuring tape, sketching materials, and a first class 
guide book. As the majority of people limit their walks 





A HO.MK IN BKITTANN-. A HOUSE TVPICAI, OF 

FRANCE. 

Landcvcnnec is extremely fascinating 
for there we find the charming ruins of a sixteenth cen- 
tury abbey. There are countless journeys to enjoy at all 
points along the coast of Brittany; but if none are taken 
until reaching the northern shores do not fail to enter 
that quaint and charming old town, Dinan, by steamer. 

In this country which teems with surprises and delights 
tramping is the most profitable means of visiting the 



WESTERN 




AN OLD STREET IN HKITTANV. 



to short distances we will suggest a 
few fascinating journeys among the farmsteads, cha- 
teaux, and time honored shrines. At Lannion one could 
make an early start and enjoy the castles of CoUtfrec, 
Kergrist, and Tonquedec; the renaissance chapel of 
Kerfons; and Brevelnez with the noted architectural 
group of a calvary ossuary, church, and chapels. Another 
interesting trip, would be from (Juimper to Pont I'Abbe 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 15. 




ST. MARY'S R. C. CHQRCH AND RECTORY, MC KEESPORT, PA. 

John T. Comes, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 16. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 18. 




■ • 



HOUSE 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

RICHARD ARNOLD FISHER 
ARCHITECT. 



Plan of first Floor — LE 




Plan of Second Floor 




THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 19. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE FRONT. 




HOUSE AT KENNEBUNKPORT, MAINE 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 20. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 2. PLATE 21. 




HOUSE AT KENNEBUNKPORT, MAINE. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 2. PLATE 22. 





^^ni — ir 



•Sixth - ploqh- Pi.j\j^ > 




■th I no- & Fourth -fi-ooK-PLj^T^j- 




■JEeccuv0 FLooa-PLxp^' 




'PifiST 'FL oon 'Pi.yuv • 



NEW LOTOS CLUB, 110 WEST 57TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

DoNN Barber, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 23. 




!!! Ill III lill HI r 



::i;lt;;l:n 








DETAILS OF BRICK WORK. 

NEW LOTOS CLUB, 110 WEST 57TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

DoNN Barber, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 24. 




DETAILS, FRONT ELEVATION, NEW LOTOS CLUB, 110 WEST 57TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

DoNN Barber, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 25. 





H0USE AT ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
Claude F. Bragoon, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 26. 



^a^t^^ 




BASEMENT PUN. 






FLOOR PLANS, HOUSE AT ROCHESTER, N Y. 
Claude F. Bragdon, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 2. PLATE 27. 









T^^~TOt- 



V5(L1 . k 



f\"fe^^v!L 



|pM^^( 




ENTRANCE FRONT. 

HOUSE AT LENOX, MASS. 

HoppiN KoEN & Huntington. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 2. PLATE 28. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

HOUSE AT LENOX, MASS. 

HoppiN, KoEN & Huntington, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3. 





AN OLU CHLkCH WITH ITS 

QUAINT CALVARY, 

PLOERMKI,. 



A TVI'ICAI. HRK.rON HOMK. 

studying on the way the splendid wood carvings at Com- 
brit, the ruins of Le Pcrennou and old Roman villa, and 
the romanesque church at Loctudy. It is hardly neces- 
sary to plan other 
walks, for the country 
is rich in picturesque 
castles, churches, and 
manor houses, and one 
can revel in excursions 
from almost any city 
in this romantic coun- 
try with its wayside 
shrines justly com- 
memorating a people 
of superstition and 
religion. 

A few suggestions 
are offered for the pros- 
pective traveler. In 
order to save time and 
avoid missing some of 
the most desirable 
places one should lay 
out his itinerary be- 
forehand, which caution will prevent considerable annoy- 
ance and leave the mind free to enjoy and to work. The 
time of the year matters little in regard to weather for 
one of the best tours ever taken throughout this region 
was during the month of February. But Brittany is a 
land of pardons and during the summer there are local 
festivities and one 
should plan to see as 
many of these fetes 
and festivities as pos- 
sible. Due allowance 
should be made at 
every city for short 
pilgrimages among 
the fascinating sub- 
urbs. Distances are 
not great and the 
roadways for the most 
part are smooth, con- 
necting all towns of 
any importance. The 
automobile, the bicy- 
cle, or "a pied " fur- 
nishes the best means illE CATHKUKM, NA.NTES. 




of seeing the country, for the attractive country homes 
and the customs of the peasantry form memorable ex- 
periences. In traveling by train, third class is prefera- 
ble unless accompanied by women, as one reaches the 
heart of a people by coming in contact with them in the 
humbler pursuits of life, and this close accjuaintance is 
necessary to appreciate the spirit that has developed the 
art and life that we go to enjoy. 

The life of the peasantry is very humble and neatness 
is inbred. Their accommodations are always sanitary 
and one need have no fear whatever for the appearance 
of the table or the cleanliness of the lodging. Courteous 
treatment is received at all hotels, prices are reasonable, 
and there is not liable to be any exorbitant charge except 
at some of the fashionable watering places, but in order 
to prevent any misunderstanding whatever it is better to 
consider terms beforehand. Care should be taken in re- 
gard to drinking water not boiled. Railway restaurants 
are found at nearly every stop and furnish excellent pro- 
vision for a moderate price. 

The " Indicateur des Chemins de Fer " or railway 
guide should be carefully studied, as all trains do not 
carry the three classes. Plenty of time should be al- 
lowed to arrive at stations with baggage and occasionally 
it is advisable to economize in time by taking the express 
trains. Circular tour tickets from Paris are convenient 
and make quite a reduction in the regular fare. The 
best method for handling money is by letters of credit 
or express checks. In every city or town of any import 
there are reliable banks of the Credit Lyonnaise. The.se 
hints with a slight knowledge of the language will enable 
one at least to cover the territory with pi-ofit and little 
embarrassment, but to derive the real benefit of such a 
tour a knowledge of the French is indispensable. 

These itineraries are given as an aid in arranging trips 
through the country west of Paris. 



Paris and Retu 
Paris. 

Chartres lyi day 

Brou yi ,, 

Nogent J^ „ 

Le Mans 1 ,, 

Solesmes J4 , , 

Angers 1J4 ,, 

Chemill^ yi „ 

Clis.son.? }i ,, 

St. Philibert yi ,. 

Nantes 2J^ „ 

Cliateaubriant 1 ,, 

GuC-rande 1 ,, 

Le Croisic J^ ,, 

Redon 1 ,, 

Kochefort-en-Terre ^ ,, 

(juestembert >i ,, 

Plocrmel 1 ,, 

Josselin J^ ,, 

Klven J4 ,, 

Vannes 1 ,, 

.Sarzeau ^ ,, 

(Juiberon J^ ,, 

Plouliarnel J^ ,, 

Carnac J^ , , 

Locmariaquer J^ ,, 

Anray J^ ,, 

Ilennebont J^ ,, 

Lorient J4 .» 

Oiiimperl^ 1J4 ,, 

Le Paouet 1 ,, 

Ouimper 2 ,, 

Chateaulin ^ 1 ,, 

Crozon 1 ,, 



RN. .Sixty Days. 

Pluugastel Jj 

Hrest 2% 

St. Renan }4 

Le Folgoet '^ 

Chateau de Kerjean 1 

St. Thegonnec 1 

Morlai.x 2y^ 

St. Pol de-Leon 1 

Hnelgoat 1 

Chateau de Tonqit6dec 1 

(iningamp 1 

TrOguier 1 

.St. Brieuc 1 

Alibaye de Heauport 1 

Laiiiballe J^ 

Dinan 2J4 

Lclion J4 

Dinard 1 

St. Malo 1 

Chateauneut «4 

Dol % 

Combourg 1 

Ruiines 1}4 

Vitro 1 

l-'ougcres 1 

Laval 1 

I',vron 1 

Mayenne I 

PrO-en-Pail J4 

Alcn(;on 1 

Sees J4 

Drcux 1 

I'aris '^ 



day 



34 



Paris and Return. Thirty Days 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN INCENTIVE TO BEAUTY. 



Paris 

Chartres 1J4 day 

Le Mans 1 ,, 

Angers 2 ,, 

Nantes 2% ,, 

Gu^rande 1 ,, 

Ploermel 1 , , 

Josselin fi ,, 

Vannes 1}4 ,, 

Carnac 1}4 ,, 

Auray }4 ,. 

Quimperle 1 ,, 

yuimper \^ ,, 



Brest 2^ day 

Morlaix 2}4 „ 

Guingamp % ,, 

St. Brieuc 1 ,, 

Dinan 1J4 >. 

St. Malo IK ,, 

Rennes Ji ,, 

Vitre }4 ,, 

Laval K .. 

Mayenne 1 ,, 

Alen^on 1 ,, 

Dreux 1 „ 

Paris Ij ,, 



St. Malo .and Ketur.v. 

St. Mall) 

Chateauneuf J^ day 

Dol 1 

Combourg }4 ,, 

Rennes 2 ,, 

Ploermel 1 ,, 

Jos.selin 1 ,, 

Elven 1 

Vannes 2% ,, 

Auray 1 , , 

Carnac 2}4 •> 

Hennebont J4 ■> 

Lorient 1 ,, 

yuitnperle 1 ,, 



Thirty Days. 

Ouimper lyi day 

Chateaulin 1 

Iire.st 2 

St. Thegonnec J4 

St. Pol-de-Leon }4 

Morlaix 2'4 

("luingamp 1 

Treguier 14 

St. Brieuc 1 

Lamballe }i 

Dinan 2 

Dinard 1 

St. Malo ^ 



St. Malo and Return. Fifteen Days. 



St. Malo 

Dinard 1 

Dinan 1^ 

Ploermel }i 

Josselin 1 

Lorient 1 

Auray 1 

Vannes 1 

Elven J4 



Redon 1 

day Guerande J^ 

,, Nantes 2 

, , Laval J^ 

Vitr6 1 

,, Rennes 1 

,, Combourg J^ 

Dol K 

,, St. Malo }4 



dav 



Jei'hson's Walkinc; Trip ok Five Weeks. 



St. Malo 


Sarzeau 


Brest 


Paimpol 


Dinan 


Carnac 


Landerneau 


(iuingamp 


Montfort 


Auray 


Le Folgoct 


St. Brieuc 


Rennes 


Ilcnnebont 


St. Thegonnec 


Lamballe 


Ploermel 


Ouimperle 


Morlaix 


Plancoct 


Elven 


Rosporden 


St. Pol-de-Lcon 


Dinard 


Vannes 


yuimper 


Lannion 


St. .Malo 




Chateaulin 


Treguier 





Reference Books. 

Baiideker Handbook on Northern France. 

Baring-Cjould " Brittany." 

Baudot Dabot " Archive.s des Monuments Historiques." 

Bell " Picturesque Brittany." 

Bourasse " Les Plus Belles Cathedrals de France." 

Black " Brittany and Touraine." 

Blackburn "Breton' Folk," and "Artistic Travel in Nor- 
mandy and Brittany." 

Bumpus " Holidays among the (ilories of France." 

Brossard " Geogra'phie Pittores(|ue et Monumental de la 

France." 

Cartailhac ''La France Prehistoritiue." 

Cattois " Architecture Civile et Domestique." 

Dunlop " Wanderings in Brittany." 

Edwards "A Year in Western France." 

Gailhabaud " Monuments .Vnciens et Modernes." 

Guizot " History of France." 

Hallam " The Middle Ages." 

Hare Handbook on Northwestern France. 

Headlam " C hartres ' ' 

Hutchinson '• Summer Holidays in Brittany." 

{ephson *' Walking Tour in Brittany." 
/arned " Churches and Castles of Medieval France." 

Macquoid " Through Brittany." 

Masse " Cathedral of Chartres." 

Merim6e " Etudes sur les Arts au Moyen -Vge." 

Menpes " Brittany." 

Miln " Excavations at Carnac " 

Miltoun "Rambles in Brittany," and "The Cathedrals of 

Northern France." 

Murray Handbook for France. 

Musgrave " Rambles in Brittany." 

Rouargue "La Bretagne Pittoresque." 

Sadoux " Les Chateaux Historiques de la France." 

Taine " Journeys through France." 

Sturgis " Dictionary of Architecture and Building." 

Wendell " The France of To-day." 

Viollet-le-Duc " Entretiens sur 1' Architecture," " Dessins In- 

edits," and " Dictionnaire Raisonne de 
I'Architecture." 



I 



N BUENOS AYRES there is a municipal commission 
for the encouragement of architecture. A prize — a 
gold medal and a diploma — is given each year to the 
architect of the most attractively designed structure 
erected, and the owner of the building is excused from 
payment of taxes which naturally would fall upon the 
property. For how long this exemption lasts we do not 
know, but it appeals to property owners who might not be 
moved by the moral satisfaction of having a prize winning 
building. The same city has a law providing that all 
streets opened in the future must be at least 17.32 
meters (almost sixty feet) wide. Height of structures 
is prescribed according to the width of the street, and 
the law is rigidly enforced. The republic and the city 
set a high example of taste and generosity in adornment 
of the national capital, and in consequence the city is 
singularly beautiful and attractive. Even the markets 
and slaughter houses are not without distinction as 
architectural compositions. 



Tn]"> latest bulletin of the Forestry Division of the 
Department of Agriculture states that " We are now 
cutting timber from the forests of the United States 
at the rate of 500 feet, board measure, a year for 
every man, woman, and child; in Europe they use only 
60 board feet per capita." 

vSpeculation upon how long the forests will supply this 
inordinate rate of consumption should be abandoned and 
immediate steps taken to stop the waste of both log and 
board timber which none will deny exists. 

We use wood for construction where other nations 
would and where we also should use brick or other in- 
combustible material. " The enormous fire losses in this 
country, by comparison with losses from like cause in 
Europe, point to this conclusion," says the Philadelphia 
Record, and asks, " Is it a mere coincidence that the per 
capita of fire losses in this country is nearly ten times 
that of the countries of central Europe, or greater in 
almost exactly the same ratio as our use of combustible 
building material is greater? " 



IN EXAMINING many of the buildings at Washing- 
ton occupied by the various departments, Mr. Marsden 
Manson, who is chief engineer of San Francisco, says: 

" Buildings in which are stored data and documents of 
almost incalculable value, I find are mainly structures 
which would not rank higher than San Francisco's third- 
class buildings. It is astounding that the Government 
faces such risks. Note the Geological Survey fire. The 
floors in that building are of wood; so are the doors and 
file cases and furniture, and in that building are data 
many times the value of the structure. Note the Interior 
Department, with its valuable records. You will find 
wooden shelving, wooden furniture, and wooden window 
frames. Now, a building of that kind is not safe. I 
would suggest for economy that the (rovernment build- 
ings be put in better shape to resist possible fire." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



35 



Standard Architectural Books — IV, 



REGINALD BLOMFIELD, A.R.A., Professor of 
Architecture to the Royal Academy, author of many 
works on architecture. A History of Renaissance Archi- 
tecture in England, 1500-1800. London, George Bell «& 
Sons, 1897; 4to (.285 by 2 by .03), 19 + 431 + 10 p., 109 
pi., 68 paged pi , cloth, 50 shillings net. A Short History 
of Renaissance Architecture in England, 1500-1800. 
London, George Bell & Sons, 1900; 8vo (2 by .135 by 
.03), 336 p., 134 ill., cloth, 7s. 6d., net. The influence of 
the Italian and French Renaissance upon English life is 
interesting in many ways, but especially as it is expressed 
in the architecture of the country. Blom field's book 
treats the period broadly. 

John Alfred Gotch, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., and W. Talbot 
Brown, A.R.I.B.A. Architecture of the Renaissance 
in England, illustrated by a series of views and details 
from buildings erected between the years 1560-1635 
with historical and critical text. London, Batsford, 1894; 
fol. (.48 by .365 by .045), 2 vols., ill., 145 pi., 147 shillings 
net. The monumental works of Nash and Richardson 
on the Renaissance in England lie quite beyond the 
limits of our field. An excellent substitute is this book 
of (rotch and Brown, with good text and explanatory 
drawings, and an abundance of photographic illustrations. 

Andrew Noble Prentice, Associate of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects. Renaissance Architecture 
and Ornament in Spain; a series of examples selected 
from the purest works executed between the years 1500- 
1560, measured and drawn, together with short descrip- 
tive text. London, B. T. Batsford, no date (preface 
1893); fol. (.475 by .365 by .03), 10 + 16 p., 60 pi. (in 
line), 50 shillings. Prentice's book on Spani-sh architec- 
ture has long had the reputation of being one of the best 
books to be found on an architect's table, not only for 
the draughtsmanship of its plates but also for the selec- 
tion of the objects rendered. The author has confined 
his attention to the Plasteresque, that charming early 
style which corresponds to the Ciinjuc-ccnto in Italy and 
the style of Francis First in France. He has chosen for 
representation little known buildings which especially 
express the peculiar charm of the Spanish temperament. 

COLONI.^I,. 

William Rotch Ware, Editor. The Georgian Period, 
a collection of papers dealing with " Colonial " or XVIII 
century architecture in the United States, together with 
reference lo earlier provincial and true colonial work. 
New York, American Architect and Building News Com- 
pany, 1899-1902; small fol. (.36 by .28 by .065), 3 vols., 
ill., 570 pi. in portfolios, 1=61) unbound. The Georgian 
Period, students' edition, consists of the leading articles 
on old Colonial architecture from the complete edition 
and one hundred full-paged plates chosen for their value 
to students, price ?il5. Colonial architecture, which term 
includes practically all American arciiitecture based on 
classic types made before the middle of the nineteenth 
century, has much intere.st for us not only on account of 
its inherent beauty and refinement, but also from the fact 
that it is the nearest approach to a national style which 
we have yet produced. There are many excellent bound 



collections of photographs which, however, have not suffi- 
cient explanatory text to warrant their admission to this 
list as books. Unite the most comprehensive and digni- 
fied treatment of the subject is to be found in the three 
volumes on "Georgian Architecture" published by the 
American Architect Company. The term " Georgian " 
is a little misleading, but it is partially justified by the 
introduction of a chapter on the contemporary work in 
England from which the American style is mainly de- 
rived. Perhaps it is just as well to treat the American 
work as a phase of a larger matter. 

Glenn Brown, F. A. LA., Secretary of American In- 
stitute of Architects. History of the United States 
Capitol. Wa.shington, The Government Printing OtHce, 
1900-1903; small fol. (.39 by .3 by .065). Two vols., 255 p., 
23 portraits, 2>22 photogravure plates, cloth, $30., for 
sale by the author. The Capitol at Washington is not 
strictly colonial but it belongs to the general neo-classic 
period which goes by that name, and is the most impor- 
tant and the most successful monument which it may 
show. There are many fine things about it, which are 
revealed with keen appreciation and excellent judgment 
by the vSecretary of the American Institute of Architects. 
There is material for a similar work on the New York 
City Hall. 

Oriental. 

Ralph Adams Cram, Architect, Fellow of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, Member of the Society of 
Arts, London, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. 
Impressions of Japanese Architecture and the Allied 
Arts. New York, The Baker Taylor Company, 1905 ; 
8vo (.245 by .165 by .04), 227 p., 52 pi., cloth, 12.00. It 
may well be true that the most powerful influence felt by 
the art of Europe in the nineteenth century came from 
Japanese painting. Japanese architecture has not played 
and cannot play such an important role. It has abun- 
dant charm, however, and its delightful presentation in 
Mr. Cram's little book is a source of constant pleasure 
and inspiration. 

Gaston Migeon, Conservateur at the Louvre Museum; 
Henri Saladin, Architect. Manuel d'Art Musulman; 
vol. I, L'Architecture par H. Saladin; vol. II, Les Arts 
plastiques et industriels, par H. Migeon. Paris, Picard 
et fils, 1907; 8vo {.22 by .17 by .04), 2 vols., ill., pi., cloth, 
39 francs. On the architecture and art of Mohammedan 
peoples there are superb, i)onderous books which are 
(juite without the limits of our present effort. All that 
is most valuable, however, is considered in these two 
little volumes, which will be most helpful in any archi- 
tectural library. 

HOUSES, CHURCHES, SCHOOLS, ETC. 

I^OR the study of buildings by classes there is no substi- 
tute for a large and well indexed body of periodicals. 
Information accumulates in the journals, and books are 
made after this accumulation has become considerable. 
The preparation of a book al.so recpiires time; so that the 
printed volume is always a little late. Books, moreover. 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



cover only a limited number of classes, whereas periodi- 
cals cover all classes of buildings. The manuals, how- 
ever, of different kinds of buildings have been considered 
carefully, and it is hoped that the following list contains 
the most useful material. 

Domestic Architecture. 

Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet le Due; Histoire de I'Habi- 
tation Humaine: translated by Benjamin Bucknall. The 
Habitation of Man in All Ages. Sampson Low, Marston, 
Searle, and Rivington, 1876; 80 (.225 by .15 by .03), 
16-J-394 p., ill., cloth, 16s. To make our list complete 
we need a standard work on the history of the develop- 
ment of domestic architecture, and are fortunate in hav- 
ing one by a great master translated into English, and 
cast in an attractive form. 

Andrew Jackson Downing (b. 1815, d. 1852), landscape 
architect and author of " Cottage Residences " and many 
other works. The Architecture of Country Houses, In- 
cluding Designs for Cottages, Farmhouses, and Villas. 
New York, D. Appleton, 1866; 80 (.24 by .16 by .055), 
10-|-484 p., 320 ill. In the period before the war there 
was certainly not the culture or brilliancy which may now 
be found in all fields of art, but there were many men of 
serious endeavor. Among them, Downing held a notable 
place. His book on country houses is quiet and thorough 
and contains many interesting designs. 

Old English Cottages and Farmhouses. A series of 
volumes designed to illustrate the most typical and 
beautiful remains of minor domestic architecture in 
England. W. Galsworthy Davie and E. Guy Dawber, 
architects. Old Cottages and Farmhouses in Kent and 
Sussex. London, B. T. Batsford, 1900; 4to(.25by.l9 
by .03), 10-^-28 p., 100 plates printed in collotype from a 
special series of photographs taken by W. Galsworthy 
Davie; cloth, 21s. James Parkinson and E. A. Ould, 
F. R. I.B.A. Old Cottages, Farmhouses, and Other Half- 
Timber Buildings in Shropshire, Herefordshire, and 
Cheshire. London, Batsford; New York, John Lane, 
1905; 4to (.25 by .19 by .03), 12-f39 p., 100 plates in 
collotype by James Parkinson; cloth, 21s. net. W. Gals- 
worthy Davie and E. Guy Dawber. Old Cottages, Farm- 
houses, and Other Stone Buildings in the Cotswold District ; 
Examples of Minor Domestic Architecture in (Gloucester- 
shire, Oxfordshire, Northants, Worcestershire, etc. Lon- 
don, Batsford; Boston, Bates & Guild Co., 1905; 4to 
(.25 by .19 by .03), lO-f-39 p., 100 plates, cloth, 21s. net. 
The domestic architecture of all countries is interesting; 
but perhaps that of England has more charm and more 
valuable suggestion The early types are well presented 
in this series. For the larger and more important class 
of residences the collector is referred to the books 
included under English Renaissance architecture. 

J. H. Elder-Duncan, author of " The House Beautiful 
and Useful." Country Cottages and Week-End Houses. 
London and New York, John Lane, 1907; 4to (.295 by 
.23 by .025), 224 p., ill., cloth; $3.50. Domestic archi- 
tecture in England has made great advance in the last 
decade or so, which has been well illustrated in special 
works. In our limited list this book by Elder-Duncan 
will introduce the subject sufficiently. 

R. A. Briggs, F.R.I.B.A. Bungalows and Country 
Residences ; a Series of Designs and Examples of Exe- 



cuted Works. London, Batsford, 5th ed., 1907 ; 4to, 
cloth; 12s., 6d. The word bungalow, originally applied 
to light, temporarj" houses in India, has been found use- 
ful to cover a light class of dwellings, which are intended 
to be picturesque and attractive in design. There is a 
considerable literature on the subject which is well intro- 
duced by this book by Briggs. 

Robert W. Del'orest and Lawrence Veiller, editors. 
The Tenement House Problem ; Including the Report of 
the State Tenement House Commission of 1900 ; by 
various writers. New York, Macmillan, 1903; 80 (.29 by 
.16 by .045), 2 vols., ill., portrait, plates, maps, tables; 
cloth; $6.00 net. In the literature on this important 
matter it is easy to determine upon the best book for 
our purpose. DeForest & Veiller treat the " Tenement 
House Problem " broadly, without local limitations, 
although their chief interest is in conditions presented 
in New York City. 

Churches. 

Ralph Adams Cram. Church Buildings ; a Study of 
the Principles of Architecture in Their Relation to the 
Church. Boston, vSmall, Maynard & Co., 1901; 80 (.24 
by .165 by .02), 16-|-227 p., frontispiece, ill., pi., plans; 
cloth, $2.50. Architects write so little on matters which 
they understand best, that it is refreshing to read the 
work of a master on the specialty which most attracts 
him. Mr. Cram's little book has much for the architect, 
but it is more helpful to the churchman. 

Ralph Adams Cram. English Country Churches. 
Boston, Bates & Guild. 1898 ; small fol. (.36 by .295 by 
.03), 3 p., 100 plates in heliotype; $10 unbound. As 
Mr. Cram's interest in church building centers upon Eng- 
lish precedent, his general book on the subject is well 
supported by this excellent collection of photographs 
from fine English examples. 

John Raphael Brandon (1817-1877), and Joshua Arthur 
Brandon (1822-1847). Parish Churches ; Being Perspec- 
tive Views of English Ecclesiastical Structures ; Accom- 
panied by Plans Drawn to a Uniform Scale and Letter- 
press Description. London, George Bell, 1848 ; 4to (.26 
by.l3by.045), ll-|-126p., 158pl. ; $4.89 in 1891. The two 
Brandons did so much for the better understanding of 
English medieval architecture that we may welcome the 
introduction of one of their best works. The small 
plates are charmingly done and present a fine series of 
examples, exteriors, interiors, and plans. 

Baths. 

William Paul (ierhard, C.E. Modern Baths and Bath- 
houses. New York, John Wiley & Sons ; London, Chap- 
man & Hall, limited, 1908 ; 8vo. (.23 by .15 by .03), 16 
-|-311 p., 130 ill., cloth; $3.00 net. There is a growing 
literature on baths, but Gerhard's book is sufficient for 
our purpose. It gives the history of baths, the practice 
in all countries, and all forms of modern development. 
There is an excellent bibliography. 

The Mayor's Committee of New York City. Report on 
Public Baths and Public Comfort-Stations. New York 
City, 1897 ; 80 (.25 by .16 by .02), 195-f9 p., pi. This is 
an excellent book on baths. It has also a wider applica- 
tion, being concerned with all forms of public comfort 
stations. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



37 




OPEN 

COURT. 

(23 feet S(iuare.) 



DINING 
ROOM. 



Residence of 
F. J. Sterner, 
Arcliitett, 
New York City. 



38 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



39 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 







THE LOTOS CLUB, NEW YORK. 

(See illustrations in Plate Forms.) 

ON ACCOUNT of the plan conditions and the require- 
ments of the various floors and <;onsequent spacing 
and sizes of the window openings, the fa(;ade of the 
Lotos Club pre- 
sented certain diffi- 
culties in composi- 
tion. It became 
apparent from the 
outset that no ver- 
tical architectural 
treatment could be 
used as the windows 
were of varying 
widths and did not 
come over each 
other. It seemed 
to the architect that 
the exterior should 
express the three 
divisions of the 
floors ; — the first and 
second which were 
devoted to the usual 
club requirements, 
the next three which 
were used for bed- 
rooms, and the pic- 
ture gallery floor 
which required a blank wall treatment. This meant 
three horizontal bands of almost equal height. Con- 
sidering these conditions it seemed best to treat the 
fai^ade as one large rich surface having an interesting 
texture and in which the windows would happen simply 
as incidents. 

Above the ground floor the fac^ade is built up of 
"Tapestry" brick. These bricks are twelve and one 
half inches long, by two and five eighths inches thick, 
and four inches deep. The surface is very rough and 
varies from cream white to light brown, the general 
color effect being a very light brown. The texture be- 
ing rough absorbs the light, and gives to the building 
a particularly soft and beautiful tone. The mortar con- 
sists of coarse gravel, Portland cement, and a small 
quantity of lime. The joints are five eighths of an inch 
wide. The color of the mortar is a brownish gray. The 
headers forming the diago- 
nal lines measure four 
inches by two and five 
eighths inches, and are 
cream white, standing out 
in a brownish gray field 
with considerable distinct- 
ness without making an 
objectionable contrast. At 
the intersection of the 
white lines thus formed is 



THE DOME OF THE NEW (ilRARD TRUST BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The largest masonry dome in the United States. Over 100 feet in diameter; a free span 

without intermediate steel work, carrying the heavy 5 inch marble covering for the 

finished roof. Work executed by R. Guastavino Company. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



a Greek cross made up of a yellow tile and four square 
bricks, each square brick of a brownish background and 
having a white lotus flower in low relief. The pattern 
work panels between the fifth story windows are made 
up of a combination of the brownish gray brick used in 
the field, and the white brick used for the diagonal lines. 
The belt course of the sixth floor consists of a distinctly 
brown brick with a chain-work pattern in light brown- 
ish gray used in the field. The spandrels and belt 
course over the sixth story windows are made up of 

small squares in 
which the lotus fig- 
ure is alternated 
with the brownish 
gray of the field, 
with single and 
double crosses in 
still darker colors, 
as shown in the 
illustrations. Alto- 
gether there are 
sixteen different 
kinds of brick used 
in the fat^ade. 

The windows 
have been given no 
architectural treat- 
ment, but are en- 
riched by relieving 
arches of lighter 
brick, brick and 
slate sills, ventila- 
tion o p en i ngs, 
flower balconies, 
and other accesso- 
ries, which give an interest to the windows and make 
them count as part of the wall texture rather than as 
framed openings. The brick joints of the wall surfaces 
are treated variously; some portions are raked out and 
others are flush. The joints of certain patterns are 
picked out in different colored mortar. The picture 
gallery wall is enriched with colored terra cotta. 

The fa(,'ade is capped with a widely projecting cornice 
treated with rich beams and panels, all executed in metal 
and painted in rich colors on the soffits. The free use of 
color in the fac^ade has been handled with a certain re- 
serve, yet the impression given is of a rich polychrome 
surface. The building while reminiscent of the Italian 
renaissance is distinctly a modern American building. 



T 




FAIENCE PANEL, 
Designed by W. P 



HE oflicial committee on congestion of population 
in New York City has vigorously grappled with the 

problem of practical and 
just building restrictions. 
It has found a growing 
sentiment among real estate 
experts and others practi- 
cally interested in building 
in favor of height restric- 
tion. The committee's in- 
vestigations have estab- 
lished the following facts: 
The natural ratio between 



FOR SCHOOI.HOUSE, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
McDonald and executed by Rookwood Pottery 
Company. 
Gaber & Woodward, Architects. 



40 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



GEORGE A. 



the demand for ofiice 
room and the demand 
for ground floor space 
determines that only 
a small proportion of 
i)uildings, even in the 
congested district, can 
profitably be built 
high. (In proof of 
this the committee 
adduces abundant 
figures.) Office build- 
ings planned in 1908 
in the office district 
give room for nearly 
four times as many 
people as the average 
demand during the 
past six years. It 
urges that "every 
great office building 
erected will absorb the demand for 
office space which should be distributed 
over a large area." The limit of 300 
feet tentatively proposed by the Build- 
ing Code Revision Commission means 
practically no restriction, and the com- 
mittee tells land owners quite plainly : 
" You will probably lose money by the 
erection of high office buildings, if you 
own small lots covered by low buildings 
assessed as though they were earning 
an income from twenty-five story 
buildings." 

ST. MARY'S CHURCH, McKEES- 
PORT, PA. 

(See illustrations in Plate Forms.) 

Til K church is built of a hard burnt 
red brick with Indiana limestone 
trimmings. The roof is of wood con- 




SCHONEW.M.I). LE ROY 

Awarded First Prize. 





H. K. CULVER. 
Awarded Second Prize. 



struction covered with 
slate. The floors of 
the vestibule and 
aisles are of granita 
— the sanctuary floor 
being of marble mo- 
saic with ornamental 
borders. The altar is 
of marble inlaid with 
Venetian mosaic and 
colored marbles. The 
wall decorations con- 
sist of a series of six- 
teen paintings on 
heavy canvas which is 
pasted to the walls. 
The communion rail 
and confessionals are 
of oak with a fair 
amount of carving, as 
are the pews which 
are simple in design. The cellar is 
only large enough to accommodate the 
heating plant. The seating capacity of 
the church is six hundred and fifty. 
The cost of the church was ten cents 
per cubic foot, which includes furnish- 
ings, fixtures, and wall decorations. 
The building was cubed from one half 
of cellar to one half of roof in height. 
The total cost of the church was 
$50,000. 



BARTON. 



THE HOSPITAL BUILDING COM- 
PETITION — THE SUCCESS- 
FUL COMPETITORS. 

GEORGE A. SCHONEWALD, who 
with LeRoy Barton was awarded 
the first prize of $500, is at present 
connected with the office of Thomas 
Tryon^ architect. New York City, he 





E. p. CHRVSTIE. 



JOHN R. I.AV'TENHACH. 

Awarded Third Prize. 

PRIZE WINNKR.S IN THE HO.SPITAL BUILDING COMPETITION. 



E. li. MC KINNEY, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



41 




I.IBRARV, HAMI.INE UNIVKKSITY, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Built of No. 440 Bronze Brown Brick, Jlade by Twin City Brick Company, St. Paul, Minn. 

Clarence H. John.son, Architect. 



having previously been employed in the offices of Rossiter 
& Wright and Helmle & Huberty. Mr. Schonewald has 
been for four years a member of the Atelier Prevot of 
New York City. Mr. Barton is also employed in the 
office of Mr. Tryon, and obtained part of his architectural 
education in the office of Helmle c^- Huberty. He too 
is a member of Atelier Prevot. 

Harry K. Culver, who was awarded the second prize, 
$200, received his early architectural education in the 
office of Pratt & Koeppe, Bay City, Mich. For the 
past seven years he has been connected 
with the office of Cass Gilbert in New York 
City. 

Edward P. Chrystie, who with John R. 
Lautenbach and E. B. McKinney was 
awarded third prize, $100, is at present em- 
ployed in the office 
of Hunt & Hunt, 
architects, New 
York City. He is a 
member of the Ate- 
1 ier Hornbostel. 
Mr. Lautenbach is a 
graduate of Wash- 
ington University, 
and part of his early 
training was ob- dktaii, hv f. c. bonsack, arcihtkct 

tained in the office Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers, 

of William B. Ittner, 

St. Louis. He is now a member of the Atelier Horn- 
bostel. Mr. McKinney received his architectural train- 
ing in the offices of Warren & Wetmore and Palmer & 
Hornbostel. He is at present a member of Atelier 
Hornbostel. 



A LARGE estate upon the borders of Orange and 
South Orange, N. J., and owned by the Page family, 
is to witness an instructive building operation. One of 
the heirs of the late Henry A. Page, with a view to the 
development of the property, retained an engineer to 
make a special investigation of concrete, hollow tile, and 
other building materials to determine their comparative 
fire-resisting cjualities. As a result, hollow tile was 
adopted, and houses of this material have been planned 
by Architects Squires & Wynkoop and Rossiter & Wright 
of New York. Six houses are now in course 
of construction. They have eight or ten 
rooms each, and the partitions, floors, and 
outside walls are of tile, of which 40,000 
square feet will be used for the whole pro- 
ject. In one of the houses is a floor span 
of eighteen feet. 




T 



HE bad air, 
lighting, and 
acoustics of the 
House of Represen- 
tatives' chamber at 
Washington led that 
body to appoint a 
commission to de- 
vise improvements. 
Three schemes of 
reconstruction, each 



involving an expenditure of about half a million dollars, 
have now been proposed. Each of them contemi)lates 
reducing the size of the house chamber and increasing 
the seating capacity of the galleries. Each contemplates 
also bringing the floor of the chamber to the outer wall 



4^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of the Capitol, thus admit- 
ting natural light and air. 
The bench system such as 
obtains in the English 
House of Commons is 
recommended as being less 
wasteful of space than the 
present 391 desks. One 
plan contemplates a return 
to the semicircular seating 
arrangement of Statuary 
Hall, that part of the Cap- 
itol in which the House sat 
prior to 1859. The other 
two plans call for a chamber 
rectangular in form. Any 
attempt to remove the desks 
will probably arouse considerable opposition. Elliott 
Woods, Superintendent of the Capitol, is chairman of 
this commission. 




-X . -^ 



as^uK^BAa 



BUSII' 
will 



SCJHOOI.HOLSE AT SOUTH HKNl), IND. 

Built of No. 12 Porter Hydraulic-Press Brick, 

Freyerinuth & Maurer, Architects. 



NESS and religion 
be well inixed, 
architecturally, if the First 
German Evangelical Prot- 
estant church of Pittsburg 
carries out its plans. Its 
church building is now on 
a very valuable site, but, 
according to the original 
deeds, the land must always 
be used for church pur- 
poses. The solution of the 
(juestion is certainly thrifty, 
for a fourteen story office 
building is to be built above 
and around the present 
church, with the church 

fa(;ade showing, of course, in the lower middle of the 

structure. 



T 



THE connecting link between the north and south 
^ parkway systems of Chicago is to be either a boule- 

held up as a model in the recent tuberculosis con- vard built on the surface or, as the Commercial Club has 



gress at Washington. Yet it 
has been declared after an 
investigation by local city 
officials to be inadequately 
heated, its patients insuffi- 
ciently and poorly fed and 
governed by obnoxious rules. 
The committee reports that 
the i)atients sleep on the open 
verandas, but are rolled into 
the inner rooms of the shacks 
to dress. These rooms are said 
to be uncomfortably cold, as is 
also the Administration build- 
ing. Cracks one half an inch 
wide are to be seen in the walls, 
and smoke and soot fill the 
rooms, the pipes having been 
improperly adjusted. Since 
experts have praised the build- 
ing, the question arises : What do experts consider 
essentials ? 




recommended, elevated upon 
a long series of arches. The 
former is urged on the grounds 
of economy and expedition by 
the Michigan Avenue Improve- 
ment Association, representing 
property owners, who have 
agreed to share in paying two 
thirds of the condemnation 
cost of the additional thirty- 
four feet needed to widen 
Michigan Avenue to a boule- 
vard width of one hundred 
feet. This association recom- 
mends that the Commercial 
Club withdraw its elevated 
scheme. 



I'ANEI. KOR THEATER, J. E. O. I'RIDMORE, 

ARCHITECT. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE secretary of the treasury has secured for the 
jjroposed new building for the Bureau of Printing 
and Engraving the tier of three scjuares in Washington 
extending from B Street south to the Potomac River and 
bounded by 14th and 15th Street.s, Southwest. With the 
acquisition of this land all the 
property south of Pennsylvania 
Avenue all the way to the river 
and west of 14th Street will come 
into possession of the government 
and will add a substantial strip to 
the area of the mall. The new 
structure, therefore, will have all 
the advantages of park-like sur- 
roundings and none of the restric- 
tions of the rigid building lines, 
obtaining elsewhere in the city. 




IN THE Alumme Weekly., 
published at Princeton, 
Mr. Ralph Adams Cram gives the essentials of his scheme 
for improving the architectural plan of the university. 
The central space around the historic cannon is to be an 
enclosed and guarded area. An existing roadway, and 
the vehicles it attracts, is to be removed to the south be- 
yond the two society buildings, "Clio" and "Whig," 
and eventually a marble terrace is to be built connecting 
them and supporting the campus above while obscuring 
the driveway below. To permit 
the success of this scheme and to 
obtain a splendid axis enclosed by 
the distant hills Mr. Cram declares 
that Dodd Hall will either have to 
be removed and reduced in height 
or done away with altogether. 



GROSS, 



UKTAIL in SCHWAklZ 
ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



L 



ONDON is to have a New Na- 
tional Theater, established as 
a memorial to Shakespeare and con- 
trolled by a board of trustees chosen 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



43 



from men promi- 
nent in the litera- 
ture, drama, music, 
and education of 
the day. Perhaps 
it was New York 
that set the exam- 
ple. Howbeit, the 
prophecy may be 
ventured that en- 
dowed theaters will 
be established in 
buildings especially 
constructed for the 
purpose in at least 
six of our leading 
cities. 



IN GENERAL. 

''Tapestry'' 
bricks made by 
Fiske & Co. were 
used in the fac^ade 
of the Lotos Club, 
Donn Barber, archi- 
tect, illustrated in 
the Plate Forms of 
this issue. 

B. H. Shepard 
has retired from the 
firm of Davis, 
McGrath & Shep- 
ard, architects, and 
a new copartnership 
has been formed 




MAIN KNTRANCE, PAROCHIAL SCHOOL, BROOK LINE, MASS. 

Panel, after Delia Robbia, reproduced in colors by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company 

F. Joseph Untersee, Architect. 



which includes Calvin Kiessling, under the firm name of 
Davis, McGrath. & Kiessling; offices, 1 Madison avenue, 
New York, and 8 Beacon street, 
Boston. 

Gladding, McBean & Co., manu- 
facturers of architectural terra cotta, 
have removed their executive offices 
to the Crocker Building, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Stebbins & Watkins have opened 
an office for the practise of architec- 
ture at 42 Chauncey street, Boston. 
Manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples desired. 

Wilder & White have removed 
their offices from 5 East 42d street 
to 156 Fifth avenue, New York City. 

Janssen & Abbott, architects, an- 
nounce the removal of their offices 
from the Machesney Building to the 
Renshaw Building, Liberty avenue 
and 9th street, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Karl F. J. Seifert, architect, has 
opened an office for the practi.se of 
architecture at 25 West 42d street, 




DETAIL, ST. liARlSARAS R. C. CHURCH, 

liROOKI.VN, N. Y. 

.South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, M.'ikers. 

Melmle & Huberty, Architects, 



New York City. 
Manufacturers' cat- 
alogues and samples 
desired. 

L . Rodman 
Nichols, architect, 
announces the re- 
moval of his office 
to 208 South Center 
street, Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

H. A. Walters has 
been elected fourth 
vice-president of 
the Hydraulic Press 
Brick Company, 
with headcjuarters 
at Chicago. 

One of the most 
conspicuous sites 
for a building in 
this country is that 
occupied by vSan 
Francisco's Cliff 
House. This ugly 
building that gave 
for many years a 
first impression to 
those entering by 
the (xolden (jate 
has recently been 
destroyed by fire. 
It is to be replaced 
by a structure of 

imposing architectural character and destined to be a 

fine ornament to the city. 

The precarious condition of the 
Town Planning Bill introduced into 
the English Parliament by John 
Burns has led the philanthropist, 
Mr. W. H. Lever, to donate annually 
for three years a sum ranging from 
^500 to ^:i,000 for instruction and 
research in the twin subjects of 
town planning and skyscraper archi- 
tecture. Opposition to Mr. Burns's 
bill is centered about the limitation 
of the number of cottages per acre 
as the basis of a town planning 
scheme. 



The architects of Indianapolis 
have organized under the name of 
"Architects' Association of Indian- 
apolis" with a large charter mem- 
bershi]). It has been fully ten years 
since the architects of that city have 
had an organization, and the lack of 
one has been seriously felt on more 
than one occasion where the interests 
of the profession have been at stake. 



44 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The new association includes practically all the best 
architects of the city. The officers are : President, 
Arthur Bohn; vice-president, Clarence Martindale; sec- 
retary and treasurer, Henry Dupont; directors, Wilson 
B. Parker and Anton Scherrer. 

At the annual meeting of the Boston Society of Archi- 
tects these officers were elected: President, Ralph Adams 

Cram; vice-president, 
Arthur G. Everett; treas- 
urer, Charles K. Cum- 
mings; secretary, Edwin J. 
Lewis, Jr. ; executive com- 
mittee, Clarence H. Black- 
all, Louis C. Newhall, 
Alexander W. Longfellow. 

Two blocks on the south 
side of Washington Square, 
New York, were chosen by 
the Courthouse Board as 
the best site for the new 
$7,000,000 county court- 
house. It was the fourth 
site chosen, since the Board 
was authorized by law in 
1903, and the selection was 
endorsed by a committee 
of four supreme court 
judges. Nevertheless, 
opposition straightway set 
in, led by the New York County Lawyers' Association 
and joined by the residents of the quiet Washington 
neighborhood. These influences prevailed at the meet- 
ing of a special committee of the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment and that committee will recommend the 
rejection of the Washington Square site as being incon- 
venient and inaccessible. 

The proposed New York State Lunatic Asylum pre- 
sents another struggle to determine upon a site. About 
a year ago the Lunacy Commission was authorized by 
the legislature to have plans prepared for an elaborate 
group of buildings with a view to utilizing the old 




DETAIL BY EDWARD A. 
yUlCK & SON, ARCHITECTS 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 




Creedmoor Rifle Range on Long 
Island. State architect W^are 
has been at work upon these up 
to the present, when by a bill 
introduced by Senator Raines 
authorizing the commission to 
sell or exchange the Rifle 
Range and to build nearer 
Brooklyn, the subject of loca- 
tion is again opened. New 
York real estate operators are 
astir and ready to bid for the 
Rifle Range if thrown upon the 
market, for it would make a 
suitable nucleus for a new 
suburb. 

In the case of the new im- 
migration station proposed for 
the port of Philadelphia a fine 
site at Gloucester, New Jersey, 
was recommended by the com- 
mercial bodies of Philadelphia 
and practically determined upon 
by vSecretary Straus ; but the 
slip came in acquiring it. The owners of the property 
had patiently negotiated with the Government for nearly 
a year and had ofl:ered the land for an immigrant station 
at a figure less than other parties offered for it. Tardi- 
ness of the Department of Commerce and Labor in act- 
ing in the matter has caused the site to be disposed of 
to private parties and much to the disappointment of 
Philadelphians. If indeed their hopes are to be re- 
vived, it is possible that Uncle Sam will be "held up " 
by someone for a profit. 

The Portland Architectural Club, Portland, Ore., will 
hold its Second Annual Exhibition in the galleries of the 
Museum of Fine Arts, March 22d to April 10th. 

The First Exhibition of the Minneapolis Architectural 
Club, supported by the Minnesota Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, will be held in the Builders' 
Exchange, April 17th to May 3d. 



1)1. I All ^ ];\ I'MNTON & 

RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra 

Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL 
FORMS of the CLASSIC AGES 

Comprisin^,^ the principal examples of the orders of 
columns and their entablatures 

By CONSTANTIN UHDE 

Late Professor at the Technical Higli School at Braunschweig 
Second Edition Revised bv 

R. PHENE SPIERS 

Author of " The Architecture of Greece and Rome," etc. 

Containing 76 plates in color, collotype, and photo- 
lithography, with descriptive letter-press 
Issued also With text in German 
Price, $20.00 

BRUNO HESSLING CO. Ltd. 
64 EAST 12th STREET NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Catalogue will be sent upon request 



Number 34 

Academy Architecture 

Just Published 

As you know, "ACADEMY" is the best of the English 
architectural reviews. This number has 

52 illustrations of residences 26 illustrations of sculpture 

36 illustrations of interiors 31 illustrations of public buildings 

12 illustrations of churches 6 illustrations of schools 

4 full pages in color 

Have you ever seen a copy of "ACADEMY"? #1.75 per 
co])y, preiiaid. 

Complete set — Numbers 8-34 — $42.50 express paid 
M. A. VINSON 

Agent for United States and Canada 
205 CAXTON BUILDING. CLEVELAND. OHIO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII MARCH 1909 Numbkr 3 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, lS'i2. Copyright, l"; ', by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order ; 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

„ Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



PACE 

Brick Enameled . . . . . . . . .Ill and IV' 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... I \' 

Roofing Tile ......... 1\' 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work p.y 

WILLIAM ADAMS; GROSVENOR ATTERBURY; H. VAN BUREN MA(iONIGLE; PARISH cV 

SCHROEUER; CHARLES A. PLATT; CHARLES F. SCHWEINFURTH ; HOWARD VAN 

D. SHAW; WELCH, SMITH & PROVOT AND BOWEX BANCROFT SMITH, 

ASSOCIATED; W. CAREYS ZIMMERMAN. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAr.B 
ARCHITECTTRAL DKTAIL.S FROM ANC'IICNT RO.MAX BriLDIXO.S Fronti.spiece 

GYMNA.SIUiiS — THEIR PLAN AND EOUIPMENT — II M. B. Reach 4.S 

THE SPECIFICATION J- A. F. Cardiff .SO 

STUDENT LIFE AT THE ECOLE DES BEAUX ARTS '. U'alUr I). Illair 52 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS — V 55 

TOMB AT LAKE FOREST CEMETERY flliislralion 57 

SAWIN MEMORIAL IIKSTORICAL BUILDINf,, DOVER, MASS niiislralion 57 

A GROUP OF MANUFACTURIXO BUILDINC.S /Ilinlralioiis ,58 

LITTLE WENHAM HALL .59 

COMBINATION LIFE RAIL AND SURFACE DRAINAGE FOR PLUNGE BATHS 59 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 61 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 

mi ^s ^.n •> DEVOTEDTOTHE-INTEREJTJ-Of -AUCHITECTYRE-IN MATERIALyOFCLAY- „,„,„ ,„.„ 

VUL, Is I\U, .) SI A II til lllO'J 




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Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment — II. 

BY M. K. REACH. 



THE university, preparatory school, high school, and 
Y.M.C.A. combine with their scheme of educational 
gymnastics, free recreative work and athletics. It is with 
the latter particularly that we are more apt to find conflic- 
tion with gymnasium work and a certain amount of " give 
and take " made necessary. In most universities and 
preparatory schools, as well as high schools, gymnasium 
work is recognized as a feature of the regular curriculum 
and is compulsory. Athletics, while voluntary, form an 
important factor in student life, and as probably no other 
department of the institution is so effective in promoting 
that esprit dc corps that pervades the student body of 
to-day, athletics must be accepted at their full value and 
every means offered to properly promote and care for 
their development. Comparatively few of the student 
body to any great extent indulge in indoor athletics, 
however; their physical training comes in the more 
prosaic gymnasium work, and the welfare of the majority 
should not be unnecessarily encroached upon. Experience 
would seem to prove that a majority of gymnasiums 
planned to-day are entirely insufficient in their accommo- 
dation of work demanded. This criticism is made with 
gymnasium work only in mind. The added feature of 
athletics emphasizes the need and it is reasonable to 
suppose that time will increase it. Physical training is 
becoming more and more a factor in educational life. 

I believe that the most practical scheme (and that 
which is most practical is always best) is a separation of 
the two features. I hold this as more especially true in 
college work. One of our newest university gymnasiums 
now in process of construction has a gymnasium floor 
approximately 70 by 100 feet and in juxtaposition thereto 
an indoor "athletic field" 140 feet wide, 190 feet long, 
with banked track and dirt floor. I recall a state normal 
school gymnasium where two floors are given over to 
gymnastic and athletic work. The building was approxi- 
mately 210 feet long, 70 feet wide; the lower room had a 
ceiling height of about 17 feet, the upper room having 
gabled roof with trusses about 20 feet from floor. Various 
indoor games were played in the lower room, which was 
otherwise free from apparatus, and regular gymnastics 
carried on in the upper room. Arrangements such as 
these create ideal conditions in the matter of equipment 
and also in the general scheme of work ; one department 
does not interfere with another and the separate work of 
each is carried on to the best advantage. 

Lack of space and the fact that our currency is not 
always as elastic as our wishes woi:ld direct, compel, in a 



majority of cases that one room serve dual purpo.ses. It 
is with that type I will deal as applied to colleges and 
preparatory schools. 

The estimated amount of space required per capita in 
drill or mass work is placed varyingly from 35 to 50 
square feet. Obviously an architect should know prior to 
drafting plans what his maximum working plant must be. 
There is a certain minimum he should not go below any- 
way and congestion must be avoided if he is to make his 
plant adequate to its needs. It would be safe to estimate 
on the larger number of square feet above given in 
applying his rule. Class work in gymnasiums is con- 
stantly expanding. One college director recently in- 
formed the writer that he aimed ultimately to handle 300 
on his floor simultaneously. Accepting that figure as a 
basis we find that his gymnasium should contain 15,000 
square feet (which it doesn't). Applying the rule that I 
outlined in the original pages of this article, the room 
would measure 100 by 150 feet. I will, however, prove 
that rule by establishing an exception in the case of an 
exceptionally large plant. I believe when the width of 
the room has reached 80 feet and the length exceeds 
120 feet the additional space can well be added to the 
length; that 80 by 190 feet is a better size gymnasium 
than 100 by 150 feet. Particularly where athletics and 
gymnastics are combined, different work at opposite ends 
of room would be the more isolated. Allowing for a 
running track of from 8 feet to 10 feet wide it establishes 
a width suitable for the most popular of gymnasium 
games. — basket ball — and would comfortably provide 
for three courts; from the athletic standpoint it would 
offer opportunity for 60 yard dashes and give a longer 
" straight away " on the track, and allow generally for a 
better arrangement of events. 

Following is a typical ecpiipment for a gymnasium 
of the above character: Twenty-four chest machines, 
twenty-four bar stalls, twenty-four bar stall benches, six 
vaulting horses, six vaulting bucks, six parallel bars, six 
pairs jumping standards, twelve jump boards, six hori- 
zontal and vaulting bars, twelve climbing ropes, six pairs 
flying rings, ten traveling rings, one incline board, six 
spring boards, six adjustable ladders, mattresses, three 
pairs basket ball backstops. 

Fig. 6 illustrates a gymnasium of size specified with 
equipment in place. This eciuipment is not a complete 
assortment of recpiired apparatus in any sense of the 
word. There are numerous individual pieces, regular 
and special, to be included, and much in the line of small 



46 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



miscellaneous material. The items shown, however, are permits of larger squads as several may be engaged at 

the groundwork of the gymnasium — apparatus that is the same time. 

used collectively by "squads" or "classes." I show Working on a unit basis of six it is desirable to pre- 



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this to denote the relative space required in the use of 
different pieces — (being drawn to scale). 

Classes are sub-divided into "units." The average 
working "unit" on most apparatus is six. It is not 
desirable to work too many, particularly on slow exer- 
cises as it allows the last man to get "cold," and is cor- 
respondingly harder to hold his interest. Ladder work 



serve this multiple in providing individual pieces, such as 
chest weights and bar stalls, exercises on which take time 
because they run in series and it would cause confusion 
in class work if, say two units of six each were taken off 
horse work and sent to chest machines, of which there 
were only ten. In providing for apparatus of this class 
it may be assumed that as a rule twelve would be the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



47 




Fii;. 8. A men school gymnasium. 




FIG. 9. A HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASIUM. 



48 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



minimum number installed, twenty-four the maximum. 
Chest machines scale five feet on centers; bar stalls three 
feet. The latter are best installed in one section without 
interstices between uprights and wall space should be 
provided accordingly. If provisions are made for these 
class groups the individual pieces will easily find their 
places. It would greatly facilitate erection of apparatus, 
save expense, and produce better results if wall boards 
were fitted in walls when constructed. They should be 
four feet ten inches high on center for chest weights, and 
seven feet nine inches high on center for bar stalls. 



parallel bar, one pair jumping standards, two jump boards, 
one horizontal and vaulting bar, six climbing ropes, one 
pair flying rings, six traveling rings, one spring board, 
one horizontal ladder, mattresses, one pair basket ball 
backstops. 

Figs. 8 and 9 show interior views of a high school 
gymnasium that presented problems to the manufacturer 
of apparatus. It was very necessary to get the maximum 
amount of work in comparatively limited floor space. 

It will be noted that parallel bars, vaulting horses, and 
vaulting'^bucks are set into sockets anchored flush in the 




lO. SCHOLARS ADJUSTING GYMNASIUM APPARATUS. 



Boards should be six inches wide, one and seven eighths 
inches thick, and stained to match other interior work. 

If the maximum number of three hundred were worked 
on this floor probably not more than one half that num- 
ber would use apparatus. Part of the room would have 
floor cleared and classes carried on in calisthenics, free 
exercises, tumbling, games, etc. 

The average gymnasium will probably seldom run 
classes of over seventy-five, and from that down to 
thirty or forty. In planning a room I would base figures 
on the larger number. Avoid the si/ia// gymnasium where 
possible. Floor space and air space are both desirable. 
Applying the fifty square feet rule, the room should con- 
tain 3,750 square feet, and of the proportions generally 
to be recommended, measure 50 feet by 75 feet. 

Fig. 7 illustrates a gymnasium of this size with the 
following equipment of principal pieces, shown as typi- 
cal: Twelve chest machines, twelve bar stalls, twelve bar 
stall benches, one vaulting horse, one vaulting buck, one 



floor. These sockets are made to fit either piece of ap- 
paratus, which when not in use is compactly stored on 
the wall. It is the storage feature particularly that adds 
to the working efficiency of the room in its saving of 
needed floor space when apparatus is out of use. This 
apparatus was especially designed at considerable expense 
to make this gymnasium fulfil its purpose. 

Fig. 10 shows scholars adjusting apparatus. 

Posts in some cases may be necessary in building con- 
struction, but they are objectionable from the gymna- 
sium standpoint. Observe how they cut up floor space 
and that one of them is padded to lessen chances of injury 
in basket ball games. 

Fig. 11 shows a beautifully arranged preparatory school 
gymnasium. 

There is some diversity of opinion expressed among 
directors on the merits of the running track gallery. 
However that may be it is certain that this feature must be 
added in a gymnasium of the classes which I am at present 



The brickbuilder. 



4^ 



discussing, the running- track events being the princi- 
pal events of athletic contests and those that certainly 
require much preliminary training. While I am very 
strongly against the running track in rooms of inade- 
quate size, it is to be assumed that with a knowledge of 
the work to be carried on, provisions will be made to 
properly care for that need. I should set the minimum 
size of a room combining gymnastics and athletics with 
its running track, at 50 feet by 75 feet. Some directors 
place this minimum at 40 feet by 60 feet. Association 
with many directors and contact with many varied 
problems of gymnasium outfitting lead me to criticise 



of space exists. The concaved formation of the track is 
inconvenient for seating purposes, and more or less harm 
is liable to occur from chairs, stools, or street shoes. I 
believe careful study would develop a supplementary 
platform that could easily be placed and withdrawn and 
which would solve a serious problem in certain types of 
gymnasiums. ( )ne of our larger western universities has 
collapsible seats as used in circuses, that are set up when 
occasion demands on the gymnasium floor and stored in a 
mezzanine passage under the floor, which is centrally lo- 
cated between the locker room and pool below, being above 
a passageway on this floor, and which is reached through 




FIG. IT. 



A PREPARATORY SCHOOL GYMNASIUM. 



this opinion. If the track is made wide enough to really 
serve its purpose to some degree at least, the gymnasium 
work is curtailed out of all proportion to the benefits 
derived. It would seem far the better judgment to have 
a positively good thing than two indifferent if not actually 
poor ones. Other directors, willing to concede the point 
as relating to the track proper are balanced by the 
additional value of its seating capacity. The same rule 
applies, however. The primary object is the need of a 
gymnasium, not a grand stand. First, su])ply that need 
to the full, then build on the furnishings. I think the point 
of these remarks will apply more particularly to Y.M.C.A.s 
and high schools. There is evident a great disposition 
to curtail space in gymnasiums of this character. 

The problem of seating audiences on the running track 
gallery is still in an unsatisfactory state, even when plenty 



tra]5 doors from the gymnasium. Expensive, compara- 
tively, to operate, but effective in its accommodations. 

Office, dressing room, and examining room for the 
physical director should be on the floor with gymnasium. 
It is desirable to have the director's office placed so that 
he can view the gymnasium floor. In the larger uni- 
versities that have a medical director with one or more 
floor directors, the office for the latter only may be so 
placed, and the office for medical director together with 
examining, dressing rooms, etc., may be more isolated. 

Where provision can be made for it a small storage 
room just off the gymnasium, with good wide doors, 
would be of great value. It enables the director to keep 
oft' the floor any apparatus that he may consider undesir- 
able at the time du;;jng class periods and also serves 
when room is used for occasional social functions. 



50 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Specification. 

1!V J. A. V. CARDIFF. 

THE Specification is justly considered of equal im- 
portance with the working drawings to which it is 
complementary. The latter express the architect's con- 
ception and the former describes in minute detail the 
mode of executing it. Together they present the archi- 
tect's projct in a technical language readily compre- 
hended by the builder and his artisans. 

The ability to write successful specifications requires, 
among other things, an acquaintance with the principles 
of architecture, a very general knowledge of and actual 
experience in building construction and its technical 
terminology, and the art of expressing ideas in a system- 
atic, lucid, and concise manner. In the more important 
offices, this branch of the work is executed by a specialist. 

The specification should, above all things, be systema- 
tic in arrangement, precise in diction, and full and 
complete in all respects. The descriptive rather than 
the narrative style should be adopted. The materials 
and workmanship required should be defined with minute 
exactness. The phrasing should be as concise as is con- 
sistent with clearness. Excess of description, elaboration 
of verbiage, repetition, and the use of more than one 
term to express the same thing, should be avoided, thus 
tending materially to render the language clear and 
explicit. Ambiguous or general terms should never be 
used as they are often a fruitful cause of expensive 
litigation. 

This suggests the legal importance of the specification 
in the event of litigation — a matter that should be kept 
constantly in mind. The fact that the wording of the 
specification is generally the basis of over one half of the 
arguments in a lawsuit, emphasizes the need of exercis- 
ing the utmost care in the construction of every sentence. 

An error in etymology which quite frequently creeps 
into the specification is the use of the passive verb in the 
infinitive mood; as, "the work is to be," or " the con- 
tractor is to." Instead of this, the imperative mood, 
future tense, should be used; as, "the work shall be," or 
" the contractor shall." 

The question of how fully or briefly the various 
matters comprised in the specification should be de- 
scribed, is one for the writer's judgment to decide in each 
case. Naturally, much depends upon the nature of the 
work, on whether the bidding will be restricted as in 
private practice or thrown open as in public work, and 
other considerations; so that no fixed rule can be laid 
down. But in the majority of cases, the prime requisite 
is, unquestionably, fullness and exactness in describing 
the materials, the workmanship, and the results which it 
is desired to obtain. In dealing with these matters, and 
in the matter of guarantees required against defects or 
deficiencies arising or discovered in the work, the specifi- 
cation cannot be too full. But in details, especially those 
defining the manner by which the results shall be pro- 
duced, the specification can very easily be too full. And 
no greater mistake can be made than to restrict the 
freedom of the contractor in the method of producing 
certain results, when they can be secured equally well in 
various ways, and the best results to be obtained from 



the contractor are dependent, more or less, on his follow- 
ing the way in which his own experience has taught him 
he can accomplish them most successfiiUy. 

Again, restricting the modus operandi, when in other 
ways, equally good if not better, the desired results may 
be obtained, makes the architect more or less responsible 
for the consequences resultant upon following the speci- 
fied directions; and this matter alone often causes vexa- 
tious disputes. 

When, however, the required results can be more 
clearly defined by describing a method of procedure, it 
should be done; but an opportunity should be afforded 
the contractor to suggest his own course, the architect 
reserving to himself the right to reject it if his judgment 
so dictates. 

Until the working drawings have been well developed, 
or at least finished in pencil, it is not advisable to com- 
mence the draft of the specification, as unforeseen com- 
plications, which affect the specification, continually arise 
up to and even beyond this point and may be overlooked 
if the specification is under way too soon. But, from 
the beginning to the completion of the working draw- 
ings, the draftsman should make notes of any unusual 
conditions which develop, and of such matters of detail as 
would not be readily apparent to the specification writer. 

This memoranda should be supplemented by more 
copious notes made by the specification writer concur- 
rently with the progress of the drawings. For conve- 
nience, it is a good plan to classify the notes under their 
respective trade sections so that there will be before the 
writer, at one time, only those notes which relate to the 
trade whose work is then being described. This permits 
of a better concentration of the thoughts on the work of 
the trade being described, in that it does away with the 
distraction of having to run through a myriad of notes 
of a very miscellaneous character. Also, as the drafting 
of the specification progresses, matters will come up 
which require cross references in other trade sections, 
and memoranda of them can very conveniently be jotted 
down in the classified notes for these sections. 

The specification writer and the head draftsman should 
co-operate in determining on a general line of demarka- 
tion between what should be described and what shown 
on the plans. Very frequently a word or two on the 
drawings covers what is required more clearly than a 
lengthy description in the specification. Again, there 
are times when the character of the various portions of 
a large building is so varied, that it greatly simplifies 
matters to indicate on the plans some details of the 
finishes of the most varied portions. This is especially 
true when a description of the details involves references 
under several of the trade sections. 

All particulars relating to the manner of bidding, re- 
ceipt of proposal, returning of plans and specification 
with proposal, examining of site, the right to accept any 
or to reject any or all proposals, and such other details as 
relate only to the bidding and not to the actual execution 
of the work, should be grouped under a heading such as 
" Instructions to Bidders " rather than under the general 
conditions or in the body of the specification. This sheet 
may be either sent to the bidders separately as a supple- 
ment to the specification, or better, bound in front of the 
specification. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



51 



A very important adjunct to the specification, and one 
which it is properly within the province of the specification 
writer to draft, is the form of proposal. This should 
accompany every specification when being issued forbids 
and is required for uniformity and precision of wording. 
It is particularly necessary when the specification provides 
for alternative methods of construction. In some offices 
a regular form of proposal is printed and sent out in 
duplicate so that the contractor may retain one copy for 
his files. Also, the printing is frequently, and advisedly, 
done with copying ink so that the contractor may make 
an impression of the estimate in his letter copying book 
if he has adopted that method of keeping his records. 

The object of the general conditions, which precede the 
trade sections of the specification, is to cover such condi- 
tions as apply generally to all or most of the different 
trades comprised in the work to be done, and those details 
which cannot be properly classified under the different 
trade descriptions. This should be carefully borne in 
mind and such matters as are applicable to only one or a 
very few of the sections, should each be described under 
its respective trade section, rather than in the general 
conditions. 

When a separate specification is made for each trade, 
such matters as the removal of rubbish, water supply for 
building purposes, watchman, temporary office, etc., 
which are usually comprised in the general conditions, 
should be distributed among the various trade specifica- 
tions to the best advantage for securing the required 
results. 

In the general conditions there should also be described 
some of the matters usually mentioned only in the con- 
tract. The matters of fire and liability insurance, bond, 
arbitration of disputes, liquidated damages, and guaran- 
tees are all items which entail expense to the contractor, 
and his attention should be called to them in the specifica- 
tion so that, in bidding on the work, he can take into 
account the cost that he would incur in complying with 
such stipulations. Providing for such matters only in 
the contract, generally leads to a claim on the part of the 
contractor for an increase in his quoted price to cover the 
cost of these items. The claim is just, but coming at a 
time when a contract is about to be closed at a prearranged 
price, is rather vexatious. 

Again, such matters as will require attention during 
the progress of the work, should be put in the specifica- 
tion rather than in the contract, for the very obvious 
reason that they are less likely to be overlooked. The 
former is constantly referred to while the latter is seldom 
consulted — certainl}' it is not as accessible as the speci- 
fication, and seldom, if ever, is a copy kept at the job. 

The contract should contain only such matters as the 
consideration, manner of payment, provision against 
liens, and such other stipulations as pertain solely to the 
articles of agreement between the owner and the con- 
tractor. In this respect the form of contract adopted by 
the Michigan Chapter of the American Institute is better 
than the uniform contract adopted by the American 
Institute of Architects and the National Association of 
Builders. 

Following the usual opening clause and index of the 
specification there should be given a resume oi the work 
intended to be done, under a marginal heading such as 



" Work Required." Immediately after this, a summary 
of the work to be done under other contracts should be 
given under a separate marginal heading such as " Work 
Omitted." The necessity for knowing just what is not 
included occurs rather frequently during the prosecution 
of the work and should be made clearly evident as above 
suggested. 

The specification should be divided into sections pro- 
portionate to the number of different trades comprised in 
the work to be done, and each trade section should be 
strictly limited to a description of the work which 
properly comes within its province as determined by 
the usual or customary practice in the locality in which 
the work is to be prosecuted. 

As to the proper sequence for the trade sections, a very 
good way is to arrange them, as far as possible, in the 
order of their subsequent execution. The same secjuence 
should obtain in the arrangement of the various items 
described in each section. 

Each trade section of the specification should be 
started at the top of a page so that the general con- 
tractor, if he so desires (and he usually does), may 
readily .separate the sections to give each of his sub- 
contractors the portion that relates to his individual 
branch of the work. 

Each trade section should commence with a preamble 
calling attention to the general conditions and the fact 
that they apj^ly with equal force to each and every 
section of the specification. This precaution, although 
unnecessary from a legal standpoint, is advisable for the 
purpose of emphasis; and, in the event of the specifica- 
tion being separated into parts, serves to remind the 
sub-contractor, or persons bidding for the general con- 
tractor, that the section is incomplete if not accompanied 
by the general conditions. 

Immediately following the above preamble, and under 
a marginal heading such as "Work Required," there 
should be given a summary of the work comprised in 
the section ; and, if there is any work usually done by the 
trade whose work is being described but which it is not 
contemplated including, it should be particularly ex- 
cepted under a separate marginal heading such as 
" Work Omitted." 

The pages of the specification should be numbered 
conseciitively and an alphabetical index to the section 
headings provided, to facilitate the hasty reference so 
necessary during the prosecution of the work. 

All paragraphs should be numbered, as it will be found 
to be a great convenience in corresponding, when there 
is occasion for a reference to items in the specification. 
Also, in describing a subject which entails a reference to 
an item in another section of the specification, a paren- 
thetical reference to its paragraph number, placed in 
the body of the paragraph, is a great convenience to all 
who have subsequently to refer to the specification. The 
numbering should be consecutive as a specification rather 
than serially for each section. 

The frecjuent use of marginal headings, for the items 
described under each section, makes them easy of ref- 
erence. 

The use of marginal sketches is at times most valua- 
ble, as they greatly assist in the clear interpretation of 
descriptions. 



52 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



In the more important buildings, when the character 
of the work in the various portions varies to a consider- 
able degree, a tabulation of the finishes, room by room, 
will be found most valuable. This tabulation is in the 
form of a supplementary section to the specification and 
its chief value lies in its giving a synopsis of the finish of 
any one room without the necessity of running through a 
myriad of detailed description to find information of a 
general character. 

Specifications for alterations which are much involved 
should describe the work generally ; that is, item by item 
without reference to trades. This may then be followed, 
if desired, with a more detailed description separated 
into trade sections. 

Alternative methods of construction affecting many of 
the various branches of the work, greatly add to the com- 
plexity of a specification and increase the chances of over- 
sights; and should, therefore, be avoided as much as 
possible. 

When necessary, such alternatives are less complex if 
described in the form of an appendix at the end of the 
specification, rather thanbyreferences distributed through- 
out the specification. In the section descriptive of the 
work of each trade affected by the alternative, a note is 
made calling attention to the appendix. The method of 
construction most likely to be adopted should, of course, 
be specified direct; leaving the less likely methods as the 
alternatives. 

Every specification should bear the date of its com- 
pletion. 

Binding the leaves of a specification at the side instead 
of at the top, similar to book binding, has much to recom- 
mend it and of late is being more generally adopted. 

Complete records of the issuance and return of specifi- 
cations should be kept, and if each copy of the specifica- 
tion is numbered it will be of great assistance in keeping 
track of them. 

Questions brought up by the contractors when bidding, 
such as omissions, misdescriptions, ambiguous expres- 
sions, discrepancies between drawings and specifications, 
etc., which are at all important in their nature, should be 
made the subject of an addendum, issued to each and 



every one of the bidders so that they will all figure on an 
equal basis. 

Any modifications in the work as specified, should be 
carefully described by means of an addendum bearing 
the date of the modification; so that at the completion 
of the work the specification will be an exact description 
of the manner in which the work has been executed, 
rather than a description of how it was at one time con- 
templated executing it. A neglect of this precaution has, 
in the writer's experience, been a source of endless 
trouble in cases of subsequent alterations and additions 
to the buildings, the adjusting of losses by fire and the 
replacing of burned structures. The addenda are placed 
at the end of the specification and numbered as additional 
pages to the specification. Each addendum is also given 
a serial number. 

Previous to the signing of the contract, any modifica- 
tions in the work as specified may be made by correcting 
the descriptive matter itself, but modifications made 
during the ])rosecution of the work are better provided 
for by means of addenda. At the description of each 
item which is modified by the addenda, a note is made 
such as "See Addendum page . . . ". The use of ad- 
denda is much to be preferred to letters authorizing the 
modifications. 

Any modifications made in the specification should, if 
at all possible, be made in every copy, as the existence 
of incomplete or void copies is bad practice and very 
likely to lead to troublesome disputes. 



IDENTIFIED AND ACKNOWLEDGED AS 
PART OF CONTRACT DATED_^-i%:2*2.- 

OWNER.iW^-'iJ^-QlTlfc^^^ 

CONTRACTOR S^^^^yB^, AdV^^^- — 



For convenience in the matter of signing specifications 
and contract drawings, the use of a rubber stamp such as 
is illustrated is suggested. 



Student Life at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 



r.V WALTKR 1). I'.I.AIK. 



SINCE the Ecole des Beaux Arts is the goal of a large 
number of American students it may be well to in- 
quire into the requirements of the entrance examinations. 
These are divided into two groups, the architectural 
and the mathematical. The first comprises architectural 
design, i.e., the csquisse, drawing, and modeling, and 
is open to everyone. One hundred and fifty students 
receiving the highest marks are allowed to take the 
second group, comprising written and oral examinations 
in plain, solid, and descriptive geometry, algebra, arith- 
metic, and history. Fifty Frenchmen and fifteen for- 
eigners are chosen to enter the Ecole from the combined 
results of the two groups. The marks received in each 



subject are multiplied, to give the total mark, by a vary- 
ing coefficient; for architectural design fifteen, draw- 
ing ten, modeling five, mathematics fifteen, history one 
(the highest mark in any subject being twenty). 

The most important examination is the rsc/nisse, for 
which twelve hours are allowed. With a fair knowledge 
of design on the part of the student it is a matter of 
drawing or indication, as the French say — that is, 
presenting an idea in a clear, concise, unequivocal 
manner. One should give the greatest part of the 
twelve hours to the conception of his idea and to seeking 
the proportions and requisite character, leaving to the 
last few minutes its final expression and rendering. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



53 



The French methods of drawing columns, details, and 
motifs should be acquired as they will be found to be, 
' as it were, a shorthand of architectural notation. 

In doing preparatory csquisses it is well for the 
student to allow himself no more time than he will have 
in the examination. His idea should be expressed 
clearly, be correct in proportion, and imbued with the 
spirit and character of the program. To aid this, 
familiarity with the well known buildings of Paris, the 
Garde Meuble, the Louvre, the Monnaie, the Archives, 
the Luxembourg — to mention no others — their motives 
and elements, is indispensable. They should be com- 
pared, analyzed, and studied. Each problem's prototype 
should be visited. Seeing a building is worth more than 
an attentive study of its photograph. Since no part of 
Paris is devoid of architectural monuments the student 
when he leaves indoor work, can continue his studies 
during walks to the various parts of the city. A 
generous allotment of time to this instruction is desir- 
able from every point of view. It increases the stu- 
dent's fund of knowledge, scanty on arrival, upon which 
he must draw for inspiration. It gives him ideas of 
character and scale, shows him that building material, 
be it stone, brick, wood, or iron, can be plastic, capable of 
expressing emotional qualities; be sad, severe, reveren- 
tial, gay, as the subject is — tomb, law-court, church, or 
theater. He will thus begin to understand what the 
French mean by character — that a building to be good 
— to speak now only of the exterior, omitting considera- 
tions of plan — must reveal its destination and convey an 
emotional idea in harmony with its function. The great 
moral law in architecture, in little as well as big things, 
should be " Thou shalt not lie." 

The search for character is the task the French student 
sets himself, when he has once acquired a sufficient 
knowledge of architectural elements and an appreciation 
of, or a feeling for, proportions. The American must do 
likewise. His chief aid will consist in examining the 
monuments about him. These the French have seen all 
their lives, so that much that the American must learn 
is innate with the French. The French student knows 
what makes the architectural elements — for example a 
pendiment — change its emotional note, be grave or gay, 
public or domestic in feeling. He has at his command 
an architectural notation in which to express his ideas 
and a language in which to discuss them. 

Drawing in charcoal from the cast is almost as im- 
portant as design. Most Americans, due to the little 
attention given to drawing in our schools, are less effi- 
cient here than in design. Accuracy and the expression 
of the character of the object are desired ; if there be a 
flood of light, its portrayal in delicacy of tints and 
shadows; if the shadows be well defined and clear, a 
rendering of strong contrasts. To see accurately both 
form and values is the first requisite — to express what is 
seen so that another may behold its form and sentiment, 
the second. 

Modeling is closely related to drawing and as it is 
easier, few students give much attention to it. Indeed 
it is said in the Quarter that the highest marks go to those 
who do the least before the examinations. 

In the three subjects of the first group whatever the 
student does before reaching Paris is beneficial. The 



more time he devotes to them, the more able he will be 
to profit quickly from his new environment. 

In mathematics the French go deeply into theory. 
The American, if he desires, can get French textbooks 
from Pourchet, rue des Beaux Arts, for plain and solid 
geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. From them a knowl- 
edge of French methods and a vocabulary of mathe- 
matical terms, useful for the oral examinations, can be 
derived. English textbooks, while not so useful, will 
of course serve to refresh knowledge long forgotten. 
The reader will doubtless smile at the thought of an 
examination in arithmetic, for his ideas of arithmetic 
probably stop at the multiplication table, but neglect of 
the subject may be followed by disagreeable conse- 
quences at the oral examination. 

In descriptive geometry the French present their 
mathematical "piece de resistance," which is, in spite of 
the boasts for thoit)ughness of some of our technical and 
architectural schools, unknown in our country. In this 
subject the American must learn almost entirely abroad 
from private coaching, textbooks, and discussion with 
other students until his knowledge is available without 
hesitation, for demonstrating before a blackboard difficult 
and complicated problems. 

The written examination, the epiire, for which twelve 
hours are allowed, is perhaps the most arduous test in the 
entire course of the school and consists in solving a series 
of revolutions, projections, and shades and shadows — 
operated upon some complicated form. The complete 
series is seldom finished, despite the twelve hours alloted 
to the task. 

Pending the result of the examinations many leave 
Paris and visit for rest and recreation the cathedral towns, 
Coucy le Chateau, Fontainbleau, or any interesting place 
nearby. As meals and rooms at the average inn of a 
small town rarely exceed in cost 9 francs per day, such 
trips are as inexpensive as they are enjoyable. 

If the student be admitted to the school, he becomes a 
member of the second class. If he has studied in a pre- 
paratory atelier — feeder for one of the regular ateliers — 
he becomes after initiation one of the tiouvcaux of his 
atelier and is compelled to give one day of each week to 
working for the older men and in addition three days each 
month just previous to the date when the alternating bi- 
monthly problems of the first and second class are due. 
The period of service lasts a year, after which the 
cx-nouveaux becomes in his turn beneficiary of the 
system. 

During this period the American gets a working knowl- 
edge of French used by the students, a combination of 
slang and expressions not to be spoken before refined 
people. He likewise, if he attends lectures, acquires a 
technical vocabulary which will later on be useful for the 
oral examinations and courses in which textbooks are not 
used. The reading of a daily paper such as the Mar/in 
or Petit Journal will supply a current vocabulary better 
than any book and give an amusing insight into the poli- 
tics of the country. 

In the second class there are courses in stereotomy 
perspective, mathematics, construction, history of archi- 
tecture, drawing, modeling, and design, which latter 
consists of the elements of architecture and problems 
rather of fac^^ade than of plan. The credits given are in 



54 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



design "a mention " and a " premiere mention," counting 
one and two values respectively, or, as in all subjects, 
there may be no recompense, a "four" or "veste" as it 
is called. In the other subjects there are mentions and 
third medals. Four values in design, two in elements of 
architecture, and mentions in all the other courses are 
required to complete the work of the second class. 

In the first class the student is occupied only with 
drawing, modeling, and design, in which serious and 
interesting programs are given, including the decorative 
competitions, the Rougevin and Godeboeuf. 

The credits are in design — mention, second medal, 
and first medal, counting one, two, and three values 
respectively; in drawing and modeling, mention, and 
second medal. Ten values in design, one in modeling, 
and one each in drawing from the antique and from life, 
are required before one is qualified to present a thesis. 

An erroneous impression of the leitgth of time neces- 
sary to go through the Ecole has been formed. If the 
quality of one's work is such that medals are received, the 
time need not much exceed three years, and has often 
been less. 

The hotels of the Latin Quarter are patronized by the 
newly arrived students until more definite plans are 
formed — Hotel Jacob, rue Jacob, within a block of the 
school, and Hotel Foyot, near the Luxembourg gardens, 
are typical. At the former a furnished room can be had 
for 55 francs per month, at the latter for 75 francs. 
Meals are taken at pensions or restaurants. The restau- 
rants, such as the Pre'aux Cleres, Tyrion, and most eco- 
nomical of all, one in the rue de Beaune frequented by 
the neighborhood's bakers, picturesque in their large 
white caps, are the meeting places of students in which 
they discuss their work over meals. The pensions may 
be used for a few months by those just arrived, but their 
cheapness, varying from 150 francs upward for room and 
meals, is not sufficient compensation to long hold one. 
The students soon make acquaintances and in groups of 
two or more hire apartments, which can be had as 
cheaply as 600 francs per year, the tenant paying in 
addition certain taxes which the landlord hands on to his 
tenants when imposed on him by the state or city. In 
the apartment which I had and which consisted of two 
bedrooms, kitchen, and studio, the taxes amounted to 
about 100 francs, and the rent to 600 francs per year. In 
old buildings where quarters are cheap, it must be 
understood that there are none of the modern conve- 
niences or necessities, except running water. The 
cheapest have neither gas nor electricity and are reached 
by many stairs. Yet the French merchant will send his 
boy each morning with a four-cent loaf of bread, a small 
quantity of butter, and a jug of cream up to the loftiest 
quarter. One hundred and ten steps led to the one I 
occupied and each morning the loaf of bread stood, end 
on, the French custom, upon the door mat. Breakfast, 
i.e., coffee and rolls, may be had on the wide sidewalks, 
served from a caf^, at the cost of 35 centimes and a tip 
of 10 centimes to the waiter. 

Lunch and dinner may be had as cheaply as 2 francs 
50 centimes or 3 francs 50 centimes at the Pre'aux 
Cleres, rue Bonaparte, or similiar restaurants, where the 
regular tip to the waiter is three cents per meal. Some 



Americans keep house, for which purpose a competent 
servant who cooks, goes to market, does the housework, 
and can be hired for $7.00 per month. Of the expensive 
cafes La Tour d'Argent and Laperousse are well known 
for the excellency of their special dishes. 

Usually the price for a table d'hote luncheon through- 
out the smaller towns of France is 1 francs 50 centimes. 
In the large cities meals can be had at these low prices, 
but not of the quality and variety afforded in the 
villages. Culinary skill exists throughout France and 
the traveler will make, on this score, many compari- 
sons to the detriment of his own land. 

Dining al fresco is very common. The sidewalks, 
which are wide, are utilized for the purpose, and dotted 
with tables and people, contribute much to the animated 
aspect of the streets. Each cafe has its set of habitues 
to whom the cafe is a club where games, especially cards 
and checkers, are played, and papers read after meals. 
One is struck by the leisurely atmosphere of these small 
numberless cafes — no cry of " what next " from waiters, 
no prodding to order this and that — places where one 
glass of beer may be consumed the entire evening and 
not provoke angry or scornful glances from employees 
or proprietor. 

Of the students' celebrations, the Ballade du Rougevin 
following the rendue of the problem of that name is 
interesting. Floats from all the ateliers gather in the 
courtyard of the school to meet the competitors coming 
from their work. A motley crowd with banners, lan- 
terns, and calcium lights goes singing and cheering 
through the narrow streets of the Quarter to the 
Pantheon where a bonfire of the floats is the culmination. 
Viewed from this distance it is very silly, not at all busi- 
ness-like, or practical, but when were manifestations of 
animal spirits, of exuberance of life, sensible? Their 
charm is rather in their irrelevancy, their nonsense. 

The Ouat'z Arts Ball is the artistic tradition and 
triumph of the Quarter. Students and professors only 
are admitted to it, after their costumes have been ap- 
proved. Its gorgeousness of color and sumptuousness 
of effect are a dazzling and successful appeal to the 
sensuous. 

The ateliers, with the exception of the three housed in 
the Ecole, occupy quarters in old buildings where cheap- 
ness and dirt keep company. A crowd of students is not 
a desirable neighbor: they sing much, often through the 
night. The walls of the rooms are decorated with 
caricatures and pictures until a dark somber tone is 
attained that accords well with the dirt, dishevelment, 
and confusion of the place. The lighting is by candle, 
each man furnishing his one or two candles that are 
stuck to the board on which he is working. The air 
of the room is close, for there is no ventilation. Silence 
never prevails. Jokes fly back and forth, snatches of 
songs, excerpts from operas, at times even a mass may 
be sung, yet amid the confusion and babble — strange as 
it may seem — work proceeds. 

The fruits of that work should be an architectural 
point of view from which all problems, however 
various, are to be seen and studied, an architectural 
mode of expression and language, and a knowledge 
of monuments and buildings of many epochs. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 29. 




;5£rCo:VD -rtoop, PLxrf- 




HOUSE AT LAWRENCE, L. L, N. Y. 
William Adams. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDE R. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 30. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 32. 




THE B R I C K B U 1 L D E 1< . 

VOL, 18. NO. 3 PLATE 33. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 34. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 35. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 3. PLATE 36. 




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THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 38. 




VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. 




:'lt // FROM ■ I il I I M/v-h' 

HOUSE FOR DR. CHARLES E. BRJGGS, EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PL.ATE 39 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 3. PLATE 40. 




TtlE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 3. PLATE 41. 



HOUSE AT PATTERSON, M. J. 
Welch, Smith & Provot, 

AND 

BowEN Bancroft Smith, 
Associate Architects. 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 42. 




HOUSE AT PATTERSON, N. J. 
Welch, Smith & Provot, and Bowen Bancroft Smith, Associate architects. 




RECEPTION HALL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Standard Architectural Books — V. 



55 



Schools. 

EDMUND MARCH WHEELWRKiHT, F.A.I. A.: 
Architect of the city of Boston 1891-1895. School 
Architecture, a general treatise for the use of archi- 
tects and others ; with descriptive illustrations. Boston, 
Rogers & Manson, 1901 ; 4to (.27 by .20 by .03), 15-f 
329 p., ill. ; cloth, $5.00. Mr. Wheelwright describes his 
book well when he says in his preface that he has " sought 
to keep within the province of the architect, and not to 
trespass upon that of the educator, or of the engineer- 
ing, sanitary, or hygienic expert." He has himself built 
some most attractive schools, and is disposed to give the 
element of beauty in design its proper place. In the text 
of his work he has used to advantage the sixth volume of 
the fourth part of the " Handbuch der Architektur " 
noticed in our first article. His Boston schools are illus- 
trated in a monograph by Francis W. Chandler entitled 
"Municipal Architecture in Boston from Designs by 
Edmund ]\I. Wheelwright." Boston, Bates & Guild, 
1898 ; 2 vols. 

Joseph A. Moore: Inspector of public buildings, state 
of Massachusetts. The School House, its Heating and 
Ventilation, published by the author, 1905 ; 8° (.24 by 
.16 by .015), 8 + 204 p., ill., plans; cloth, $1.80. This 
book has a chapter on the architecture of schools, but is 
mainly devoted to a thorough discussion of the hygienic 
phase of the subject. 

Felix Clay, B. A. : Architect. Modern vSchool Buildings, 
Elementary and vSecondary ; A treatise on the planning, 
arrangement, and fitting of day and boarding schools 
. . . with special chapters on the treatment of class 
rooms, lighting, warming, ventilation, and sanitation. 
London, Batsford ; New York, Scribner's Sons, 1903 ; 4to 
(.285 by .195 by .05), 20 -f- 459 p., ill.; cloth, 25s. net. 
Clay's book gives English practice mainly and develops 
the scientific side of the subject. It is, apparently, the 
latest of the special works. 

Libraries. 

John Willis Clark, M.A., F.S.A. : Author of the Archi- 
tectural History of the University of Cambridge. The 
Care of Books; an Essay on the Development of Libraries 
and Their Fittings, from the Earliest Times to the End 
of the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, at the Univer- 
sity, second ed. 1902; 4to (.27 by .18 by .04), 18 + 330 p., 
ill., pi., plans; cloth, 18s. net. The vast production of 
books in modern times has forced upon us the stack 
system and has made our libraries mechanical. It is 
pleasant to be brought into contact with the sympathetic 
i)itimitc of older methods of housing books, when they 
were less plentifixl, and more keenl}- delighted in. 
Clark's " Care of Books " is a thorough discussion of the 
development of library construction from the earliest 
efforts to the moderm period. Every architect who 
builds libraries should have this book, and will do well 
to return, when he can, to the earlier types. The illus- 
trations are made from old examples hardly to be found 
elsewhere. 

Theodore Wesley Koch : Librarian University of Michi- 
gan. A Portfolio of Carnegie Libraries, l)eing a separate 



issue of the Illustrations from "A Book of Carnegie 
Libraries." Ann Arbor, Michigan, George Wahr, pub- 
lisher, 1907; 8° (.25 by .16 by .02), 120 plates in portfolio, 
abundant plans; $2.50 net. The creation of the Carnegie 
foundations, coming rapidly, and resembling each other 
closely, has forced the development of a peculiarly 
modern type of small library buildings, which have been 
for the most part as well designed as possible. Mr. Koch's 
portfolio presents the series well, with many photographs 
and plans. His general work on Carnegie libraries will 
be valuable when it appears, although only incidentally 
concerned with architecture. 

Free Public Library Commission of Massachusetts. 
Ninth Report, Boston, Wright and Potter Printing Com- 
pany, state printers, being Public Document No. 44, 
1899; 8° {.li by .15 by .05), 17 + 465 p., many photo- 
graphic illustrations ; apply to the secretary of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This report is espe- 
cially valuable for a large number of photographic illus- 
trations of working libraries. There are no plans. At 
the end of the volume is a section on the general library 
legislation of Massachusetts, beginning with 1798. 

Theatkrs. 

Edwin O. vSachs: Chairman of the British Fire Preven- 
tion Committee and E. A. Woodrow. Modern Opera 
Houses and Theaters; examples selected from play- 
houses recently erected in Europe ; with descriptive text. 
A treatise on theater planning and construction, and 
supplement on stage machinery, theater fires, and pro- 
tective legislation. London, Batsford, 1896-97-98; fol. 
(.575 by .415 by .055), 3 vols., ill., 220 pi., il paged 
pi.; 315s. unbound. A part of the third volume has been 
published separately under the title, "Stage Construc- 
tion," Batsford, 1898. These three large volumes on 
theaters constitute the most exhaustive treatise published 
on this subject. All the most important theaters built 
up to the date of publication are included, as well as a 
thorough discussion of theoretical matters connected with 
the subject. Notwithstanding its cost the book should 
be in every considerable office. 

William H. Birkmire; The Planning and Construc- 
tion of American Theaters. New York, John Wiley, 
1896; '8° (.235 by .155 by .025), 10 + 117 p., 38 pi., 2 
paged pi. ; cloth, $3.00. Birkmire's little book contains 
an excellent sketch of the history of American theaters 
and descriptions of the leading buildings; but its chief 
value is in the careful account of American methods of 
construction and legal limitations. 

William Paul Gerhard, C.E. : Consulting engineer. 
Theaters ; Their Safety from Fire and Panic, Their Com- 
♦ fort and Healthfulness. Boston, Bates & (Juild Co., 
1900; 8° (.22 by .15 by .02), 5 + 110 p.; cloth, $1.00. 
In his publications on theater construction Mr. Cierhard's 
point of view is that of the practical engineer looking 
out for the many details essential to the comfort and 
safety of crowded buildings. 

William Paul Gerhard, C.E. : Theater Fires and Panics, 
Their Causes and Prevention. New York, John Wiley & 
Sons, London, Chapman & Hall, 1896; 8° (.19 by .13 by 



k 



56 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



.015), 7 -|- 175 p.; cloth, $1.50. This book contains a 
valuable bibliography of material on theaters, which 
includes books and articles in periodicals. 

Hospitals. 

Sir Henry Burdett, K.C^B. : Editor of the Hospital. 
Hospitals and Asylums of the World; their origin, 
history, construction, administration, management, and 
legislation ; with plans of the chief medical institutions 
accurately drawn to a uniform scale, etc. London, J. & 
A. Churchill, 1891-93; text, 4to (.27 by .19 by .06), 4 
vols., plates, 1903; fol (.51 by .35 by .02), 1 vol., 112 pi. ; 
cloth, 168s. net. Vols. II and IV contain bibliographies. 
Burdett on hospitals is the most important and most 
extended work on the subject. The entire history of 
this class of buildings is given, with the practice in every 
country; and abiindant examples. The research on which 
the work is based has been exhaustive, so that up to its 
date of publication it may be considered a complete body 
of practice in hospital architecture. For the practice 
since 1893 one must depend upon reports in the archi- 
tectural journals, where detailed drawings of all impor- 
tant hospitals may be found. 

Albert S. Ochsner, B.S., F.R.M.vS., M.D. : Professor 
of clinical surgery, University of Illinois; and Meyer J. 
Sturm, B.S., architect. The Organization, Construction, 
and Management of Hospitals; with numerous plans and 
details. Chicago, Cleveland Press, 1907; 4to (.28 by .21 
by .04), 600 p., ill. ; cloth, $7.00. The book of Ochsner 
and Sturm does not take the place of Burdett with its fine 
body of examples; but on the theoretical side it is better, 
being based upon later practice. The sections devoted 
to lighting, plumbing, ventilation, and like matters are 
valuable in themselves and in their general application. 

Sir Henry Burdett: The Cottage Hospital; Its Origin 
and Progress, Management and Work, etc. London, 
J. A. Churchill, 1877 ; 12mo (.19 by .13 by 0.25), 13-t-5 
-j-272 p., ill., 1 pi. ; 3d ed. rewritten, enlarged 1896; cloth, 
10s. 6d. We cannot, in our bibliography, include the long 
list of Sir Henry Burdett's publications on hospitals, but 
this little work on the cottage type may be profitably 
added. 

Bridoes. 

Edward Cresy (1792-1858): Architect, civil engineer, 
F.S.A. A Practical Treatise on Bridge-Building, and on 
the Equilibrium of Vaults and Arches, with the Pro- 
fessional Life and vSelections from the Works of Rennie. 
London, John Williams Library of the Fine Arts ; New 
York, Wiley & Co., 1839 ; fol. (.575 by .465 by .015), 3 
p., 18 copper plates; 42s. Modern books on bridge 
building are entirely concerned with structural matters, 
and are to be classed with engineering and not archi- 
tecture. Of the old books on masonary bridges, Cresy 
is probably the best, giving the fine English j^ractice of 
the early nineteenth century. • 

GrKKN HOUSES. 

Lord & Burnham Co. : Greenhouses as We Build Them, 
and other catalogues and circulars of greenhouse con- 
struction. New York office, St. James Building, 1907. 
In the absence of special works on this subject we may 
recommend the catalogues of a leading firm of architects 
which has devoted itself to this type of buildings. 



The Arts Allied to Architecture. 
Civic Art. 

Georges Eugene Haussmann, Baron, 1809-1891 ; Prefet 
de la Seine 1853-1869: Meinoires. Paris, Victor Havard, 
1869-1893; 8° (.23 by .155 by .04); 3 vols., 5 por. ; 
22.50 francs, unbound. The reconstruction of Paris by 
Napoleon III was the first large attempt to meet the 
problems of civic construction. In a surprising number 
of cases these problems were met and solved correctly. 
The best record of the work is in these reminiscences of 
a clever old man. Anyone undertaking the study of 
civic art should commence with Haussmann's Memoires. 
He will be immensely amused by the way. 

J. Stiibben, Stadt-Baurath in Cologne: Der Stiidtebau, 
being the ninth half volume of the fourth part of the 
Handbuch der Architektur. Darmstadt, Bergstrasser, 
1890; 4to (.275 by .2 by .04); 9+561 p., ill., 12 pi., 104 
paged pi., 1 table; Zl marks. As important as the build- 
ing, is its emplacement in the general plan of the city or 
town. The complete art of the city has been thoroughly 
illustrated by Stiibben in his Stiidtebau, which is the 
standard manual on this subject. 

Camillo Sitte : Director of the Gewerbeschule in 
\'ienna. Der Stiidtebau nach seinen Kiinstlerischen 
Grundsiitzen. Vienna, Carl Graeser & Co., 3d. ed., 1901; 
8° (.225 by .145 by .015); 7 + 180+4 p., ill., 4 pi. ; cloth, 
7 marks. The Haussmannizing of Paris carried the 
French sense of classic symmetry to its logical conclusion. 
The effect in Paris is fine, but copied in every European 
city the result was a degree of monotony, against the 
burden of which a more modern school, with Sitte at its 
head, rebels. Sitte's book is held to the artistic side of 
the subject, and is sympathetic toward all the older 
schools of civic arrangement. 

Charles W. Eliot: President of Harvard University. 
Charles Eliot, landscape architect. Boston and New 
York, Houghton Mifflin & Co. 1903; 8° (.23 by .16 by 
.03); 2 vols., ill., pi., portraits, maps, plans; cloth, $3.50. 
The second volume of this book covers the period during 
which Mr. Eliot was the landscape architect to the Met- 
ropolitan Park Commission of Boston, and is the best 
record of the intelligent reconstruction to which that city 
has been subjected. 

Charles Mulford Robinson: Modern Civic Art; or. 
The City made Beautiful. New York, G. P. Putnams 
Sons, second ed. 1904; 8° (.23 by .155 by .035); 12+381 
p., photographic pi. ; cloth, $3.00. It would be pleasant 
to notice more of Mr. Robinson's enthusiastic work on 
civic art, but this one volume must suffice. "Modern 
Civic Art " is for the general reader and intended not so 
much to instruct as to interest him in multitudinous 
matters which are often forgotten and neglected. 

Jardinage. 

Edouard Andre : Jardinier principal de la Ville de Paris. 
L'Art des Jardins, traite general de la comjiosition des 
Pares et Jardins. Paris, Masson cditeur, 1879; 4to (.29 
by .21 by .07); 8+888 p., 520 ill., 11 pi. ; 35 francs, un- 
bound. Andre was in the line of succession after the 
great Alphand as the supreme authority in the manage- 
ment of the Jardinage of Paris. He prints many historical 
plans, but the chief value of his book is in its practical 
side. It is concerned mainly with the modern informal 
class to which practically all our parks belong. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 




lO.MI; Al I.AkK IdKI'.sr IKMK. I I'.kN , I , A K K lOKI'.ST, ILI, 

James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 




SAW I, HISTORICAL BUILIJING, DOVER, MASS. 

Philip I!. Howaid and Walter P. Henderson, Associated, Architects. 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



59 



Little Wenham Hall. 

Editor of The Brickbuilder. 

Dear Sir : — In making an extensive search through 
the various libraries of the country for interesting pic- 
tures of brickwork I have encountered numerous refer- 
ences to " Little Wenham Hall " in Suffolk, England, in 
which a number of writers have commented in a very 
interesting way on the brickwork. 

Singularly enough, however, I have been unable to 
find a photograph of this building in any of the eastern 
libraries, and thinking that it might interest your readers 
I sent a photographer to the building and obtained two 
fairly good photographs, one at small scale, and one 
taken at close range showing the brickwork in detail. 
If you care to do so I should be pleased to have you 
publish these pictures. 

, In "Domestic Architecture in the Middle Ages", 
T. Hudson Turner, I found the following description : 

" The history of this building is involved in great 
obscurity. In the year 1281 the manors of Great and 
Little Wenham of Stamford, County Suffolk, were held 
by Petronilla de Holbrok. The estate of Little Wen- 
ham was subsequently the seat of the family of Brews, 
whose descendants possessed it in the reign of Henry 
VIII. The material of the walls of this house is chiefly 
brick mixed at parts with flints. These bricks are 
















DETAIL, LITTLE WENHAM HALL. 




LITTLE WENHAM HALL, SUFFOLK, ENGLAND. 

mostly of the modern Flemish shape, but there are some 
of other forms and sizes, bearing a general resemblance 
to Roman brick or tiles. The color of the bricks varies 
considerably. The buttresses and dressings are of stone. 
The plan is a parallelogram with a square tower at one 
angle, on the outside the scroll molding is used as a string 
and it is continued all round, showing that the house is 
entire as originally built. The ground room is vaulted 
with a groined vault of brick with stone ribs which are 
merely chamfered ; they are carried on semi-octagon shafts 
with plainly molded capitals. The windows of this lower 
room are small plain lancets widely splayed internally." 
Very truly yours, 

J. Parker B. Fiske. 

(Fiske & Company, Inc.) 



Combination Life Rail and Surface Drainage Overflow for 

Plunge Baths. 



A VALUABLE invention in the form of special shaped 
enameled bricks, which furnish a combination life rail 
and surface drainage overflow for plunge baths, has been 
very generally adopted in recent work. The ideas ex- 
pressed and developed in the design were conceived and 
worked out for the purpose of eliminating many vital 
objections and faults which are commonly found in 
almost every plunge bath which has been built. By the 
use of these special shaped bricks a complete and efficient 
surface drainage system is obtained which removes all 
scum, dried skin, saliva, and other floating matter from 
the surface of the water, and prevents the accumulation 



of this objectionable matter on the sides of tank, thus 
reducing to a minimum the necessity of cleansing. 
Dirt from the feet of observers mixed with drippings 
from bathers — a common nuisance in most plunge rooms 
— is by capillary attraction diverted into the gutters 
which extend around the tank, while the overflow of the 
tank serves to carry the soiled water in the gutters oft" 
through the drainage outlets. 

One of the especially valuable features of this in- 
vention is the life rail, which is formed at the water's 
edge by the use of the brick. The rail so formed is 
much more convenient and practical than festooned life 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



SiaBETTi 




PERSPECTIVE 



ropes, or rigid bronze rail- 
ings which are usually placed 
high up to prevent interfer- 
ence with the swimmer. It 
is helpful to the nervous 
beginner, as he does not have 
to reach high out of the 
water, which action has a 
tendency to force the body 
under water. It has the ad- 
vantage over the metal rail 
in not interfering in any way 
with the diver. The cap 
courses can be made verti- 
cally flush with the life rail 
if desired. The life rail is a 
help to the swimmer in get- 
ting out of the tank, and if 
need be it is a convenient place in which to expectorate. 
Fig. 1 shows the life rail, glitter, and (juoin finish 
cap course. 

Fig. 2 shows in sections A and R how easily the dis- 
tance between 
water level and 
floor line can be 
varied to suit 
special require- 
ments. The nearer 
together these are 
the more ideal are 
the conditions, in- 
cluding greater ease 
in getting out of 
the tank. 

A cap course of 
marble may be used 
if preferred, and is 
advisable as it can 
be furnished with 
fine tinting or cor- 
rugati'm not practi- 
cal in enam el ed 
brick. Further- 
more with marble the thickness of cap course, from 
rabbet to the top, may be made less than with brick. 
Thickness of overhang must be slightly in excess of 

total fall of gutter — 
usually 1}{ inches in 
10 feet= ' 8 inch per 
foot. 

Fig. 3 shows plan 
and perspective of re- 
turn of gutter behind 
life rail, also the miter 
finish of the inverted 
gutter and the turn of 
the life rail around 
the four vertical corn- 
ers of the tank, which 
are made with Inter- 
nal BuUnose finish, 
eliminating sharp 
corners and facilita- 



CORNER OF PI.lNdE. 




PLUNGE HATH IN Y.M.C.A. AT STAMFORD, CONN. 

Equipped with life rail, surface drainage and sanitary gutter combination in enameled brick. 

TTacy, .Swartwout & Litchfield, Architects. 



ting cleansing. The removal 
of overflow is accomplished 
by the sloping gutter^ as 
shown in Fig. 1. Outlets 
are usually located in sides 
and ends twenty feet apart, 
with ten foot grade sloping 
each way on one eighth inch 
fall to the foot. Flooding 
of the floor is impossible if 
the number and size of out- 
lets are sufficient. The lip 
in the life rail is especially 
strong and the cap course 
needs nospecial bondingif set 
in cement. If desired, metal 
tie rods may be used to give 
an added strength to either. 
It may be observed that the removal from the surface 
of all impurities by this arrangement makes the bath 
look far more inviting, whereas under the old methods 
surface impurities are only removable by emptying the 

tank, by which 
process they are 
deposited on the 
sides and bottom 
of the tank, which 
have to be washed 
off with a scrubbing 
brush and hose — 
this in turn throw- 
ing the whole tank 
system out of com- 
mission for a con- 
siderable time. 
Furthermore t^he 
dirt and .scum once 
having beenallowed 
to dry on the sur- 
face of the tank 
require considera- 
ble eff"ort to remove 
it, and this leads to 
the use of rough cleansing materials which ultimately 
tend to dull the face of the lining. 





T"o 





PI AM or C-UTaR *T CORNER 



FIG. 2. SECTIONS SHOWING 
HEIGHTS OF FLOOR ABOVE 
WATER LEVEL OBTAINED BY 
USING ONE OR MORE COURSES 
OF STANDARD OR FLAT STRETCH- 
ERS ABOVE SANITARY GUTTER. 



[E natatorium in the Phipps liuilding, Pittsburg, 
Grosvenor Atterbury, archiect, illustrated in the 

plate form of this issue, has a Guastavino glazed tile 

ceiling over the 

swimming pool. The 

span of the ceiling 

arch is about fifty 

feet, the length about 

o'ne hundred and 

twenty-five feet. The 

color scheme is cream 

white and green, the 

border tile being in a 

dull mat glaze, with 

panels in corrugated 

tiles of a more lus- 
trous green, (aias- 

tavino tiles are used 

in the steam -rooms, 

rest-rooms, lavator- fk;. 3. perspfxtive plan of 

ies, galleries, etc. gutter at corner. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



61 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellanv. 



THE Council of Fine Arts held its first meeting in 
Washington, February 9. Of the thirty members 
composing the council, twenty-six were present. In 
organizing, Mr. Trowbridge, of Trowbridge & Living- 
ston, was elected chairman, and Mr. James Rush 
Marshall, of Hornblower & Marshall, was chosen secre- 
tary. Various sub-committees were formed, so that 
questions submitted to 
the council by the presi- 
dent or his cabinet offi- 
cers may be considered 
by those familiar with 
special subjects, and 
then presented to the 
entire council for action. 
Under the established 
custom, whereby the 
orders of one president 
remain in effect until 
changed or rescinded 
by another, the council 
will continue to exist 
after Mr. Roosevelt's 
departure from the 
White House. Already 
Mr. Taft has shown his 
sympathy with its ob- 
ject and work. The 
most important action 
of the council at its 
initial meeting was to 
report strongly in favor 
of locating the Lincoln 
Memorialat theextreme 
western end of the Mall, 
where it was first de- 
signed to be placed by 
the Senate Park Com- 
mission's Plan. 



missioner of educa- 
tion, and five persons 
to be appointed by the 
governor — including 
one painter, one sculp- 
tor, and one architect, 
and two other persons 
not members of any 
branch of the profes- 
sion of fine arts — from 
lists to be supplied by 
the Fine Arts Federa- 





IJ IMS is if ■=ilHl I|||||, 



11 11 ii 




A 



STATE Art Com- 
mission for New 




DETAIL liV J. WALTER STEVENS, 

ARCHITECT. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



WHITE liUILDINC;, SEATTLE, WASH. 
White mat glazed terra cotta, executed by Atlantic- Terra Cotta Company 
furnished by Hydraulic Pressed Brick Company. 
Ilowells & Stokes; Architects. 



York is provided for 
in a bill recently intro- 
duced into the legisla- 
ture. The commission 
is to be composed of 
eleven members: The 
governor, the presi- 
dents of the Albright 
Art (iallery of Buf- 
falo; the Albany His- 
torical vSociety; the 
Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, and the Brook- 
lyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences; thecom- 



IT HAS been esti- 
mated that the 
amount of wood annu- 
ally consumed in the 
United vStates at the 
present time is twenty- 
three billion cubic feet, 
while the growth of the 
forest is only seven bil- 
lion feet. In other 
words, Americans all 
over the country are 
using more than three 
times as much wood as the forests are producing. The 
figures are based upon a large number of state and local 
reports collected by the government and upon actual 
measureiuents. 



DETAIL BY FRANCIS H. 
KIMBALL, ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra 
Cotta Company, Makers. 

tion of New York, the 
Central New York 
Chapter, and the Buf- 
falo Chapter of the 
American Institiite of 
Architects. • 

The term of office is 
to be three years, except 
in the case of the first 
members of the com- 
mission, whose terms 
are to be fixed by lot at 
one, two, and three 
years. They are to 
receive no compensa- 
tion other than reim- 
bursement for expenses. 



Brick 



H 



ARVARI) UNIV1':RSITY olfers to members of the 
associate societies and to the individual members 
of the Architectural League of America, three scholar- 
ships in architecture for special students. The scholar- 
ships will be forwarded to those who stand highest in a 
competition in architectural design to be held in May. 
The competition will be conducted in the various cities 
by the League through the organizations affiliated with 
it; on a program prepared by the architectural depart- 
ment of the Harvard University, and will be judged by 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




the professor of 
architecture in the 
university and a 
Boston architect 
selected by the 
League. These 
scholarships entitle 
their holders to free 
tuition in Harvard 
University for one 
year. The cost of 
such tuition other- 
wise is $150 per 
year. If the num- 
ber of candidates 
and the quality of 
the work done in 
the competition 
should warrant such 
action, the department of architecture of Harvard Uni- 
versity will recommend to the authorities the award of 
similar scholarships to the two competitors standing next 
highest on the list to the successful ones. Candidates 
should notify Emil 
Lorch, chairman of 
the Committee on 
University Fellow- 
ships, Architectural 
League of America, 
Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan, by April 10 
of their intentions 
to take part in the 
competition. 



I \ I I lAlK I .KOINDS. 



MANUFACTURERS I i 1' i \i - - 

Built of pink face brick, made by Twin City Brick Company. 
Clarence H. Johnston, Architect. 



competition is to 
receive §250 quar- 
terly for two and a 
half years. The 
sub.scribersof $5,000 
each are: Mrs. Goe- 
let, Mrs. Harry 
Payne Whitney, 
Mrs. Auchmuty, 
Mrs. W. K. Van- 
derbilt, and Mrs, 
Alex. G. Cochran. 
The preliminary 
competition, open to 
every American, was 
held March 13 at 36 
East Twenty-second 
street, New York. 




THE passage of what is known as the commissioner's 
bill at Washington provides for the supervision of 
the building and loan associations of the District of 
Columbia by the Comptroller of the Currency. "This 

gives the thousands 
of depositors the 
protection and ad- 
vantage of govern- 
mental supervision 
for the first time," 
declares Commis- 
sioner Macfarland. 



I'ACTORV OF THK Nil. SON MACHINE CO.Ml'.\NV, KRIUdEPORT, CONN 
Walls built of terra cotta hollow tile of warm rich orange tones, made by 
Henry Maurer & Sons. 
Meloy & Beckwith, Architects. 



A JAPANESE 
Commission 
appointed for the 
purpose of studying 
the effects of earthquakes upon buildings has recom- 
mended a system of channeled and fitted bricks. It also 
endorses the method of thickening the walls with a con- 
cave curve at the base, resembling the roots of a tree as 
they grow into the 
trunk. The latter 
scheme has been 
tried with success 
in southern Italy. 



C'' REAT activity 
y in building is 
to be observed 
among the colleges 
of the country. 
Martjuette Univer- 
sity has announced 
a plan for centralizing its now scattered buildings. An 
engineering building to cost about $200,000 will be 
started within six weeks. A law building to cost $100,000 



will follow, and later a gymnasium. 



A NUMBER of 
American 
women have sub- 
scribed $25,000 for 
the competition of 
the Paris Prize to 
be held by the New 
York Society of 
Beaux Arts Archi- 
tects. The income 
will send a student 
to the Beaux Arts 
every three years. 
The winner in the 




PUBLIC SCHOOL, CHICACO. 

Built of " Shawnee " brick, made by Ohio Mining& Manufacturing Company. Furnished 

by Thomas Moulding Company, Chicago. 

Dwight H. Perkins, Architect. 



. . . A bill pending 
in the Minnesota 
legislature carries 
an appropriation of 
$300,000 for the 
purchase of a tract 
of fifty acres to be 
added to the present 
campus of the Uni- 
versity of Minne- 
sota. Upon this 
groutid is to be lo- 
cated the new men's 
building, for which 
$250,000 is now 
available. The re- 
gents will signalize 
their "greater 
campus" scheme 
by putting into 
effect a large pro- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



^>3 



gram of construc- 
tion. The legisla- 
ture has been called 
upon for more than 
$1,000,000 to be 
devoted to the erec- 
tion of new build- 
ings, and it is hoped 
that several times 
that amount may 
be spent on im- 
provements within 
the next five years. 
Mr. Cass Gilbert 
has been retained 
to supervise the 
work of beautifying 
the campus and 
effecting a new 
alignment of the 
buildings. . . . 
At the University 
of Michigan a men's 
dormitory seems 
now assured. It is 
and to house three 
hundred students. 
A commons build- 
ing is also being 
projected for the 
near future. . . . 
The University of 
Virginia has re- 
tained Warren H. 
Manning, the Bos- 
ton landscape archi- 
tect, to carry out, 
as far as may now 
be possible, the 
original design of 
Jefferson's for the 
development of the 
natural and arti- 
ficial features of the 
campus. . . . The 
fund for the Harper 
Memorial Library 
at the University of 
Chicago has been 
completed, and 
there is now on ex- 
hibition, in the office 
of Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge, a 
plaster model show- 
ing this and other 
neighboring build- 
ings as the group 
will appear when 
completed. . . . 
The University of 
Maine is about to 
dedicate its new 




llall of Agricul- 
ture. . . . Williams 
College has received 
the gift of a large 
tract of land, and 
from another donor 
a sum of money for 
improving this 
property for the 
purposes of intram- 
ural sport. 



o 



A FIRKPI.ACE IN 



THE (lAINSBOROrilH STUDIO, 
NEW YORK CITV. 



WEST 59TH STREET, 



Built of " Tapestry " bricks and tiles which range in color from Indian red through varying 

shades of brown, purple, olive, and blue. Fiske & Company, Inc., Makers. 

Charles W. Buckham, Architect. 



being planned six stories in height 



X E o f t li e 
finest ap- 
pointed municipal 
lodging houses in 
the world was the 
one opened in New 
York a few weeks 
ago. It is equipped 
with electric eleva- 
tors, shower baths, 
fumigating retorts, 
immaculate sleep- 
ing quarters, and extensive commons. It will accommo- 
date nine hundred 
men. By eleven 
o'clock of the eve- 
ning on which it 
was thrown open 
three hundred and 
eighty-three per- 
sons had registered. 




(IROUP OF APARTMENTS, CHICA(;0. 

Faced with wire cut dark red brick, made by Western Brick Company, Danville, 111. 
Borst & Hetherington, Architects. 




THE plaza of 
the new Union 
Station at Wash- 
ington is to be 
ornamented by the 
Columbus Memor- 
ial Statue and large 
architectural foun- 
tain for which Con- 
gress appropriated 
$100,000. The 
modeling of the 
statue has been 
awarded to Lorado 
Taft, who is a 
relative of the 
President. 



RAILWAY DEPOT, NEWHURU, OHIO. 

Roofed with Imperial Spanish red tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 
R. Trimble, Architect. 



TIIF State As- 
sociation of 
Architects has been 
formed in Pennsyl- 
vania. The asso- 
ciation comprises 
delegates from the 
Chapters of the 
American Institute 
of Architects in the 
state. D. Knicker- 



64 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



backer Boyd of Philadelphia was 
elected president, and William L. 
Baily, secretary and treasurer. 
Among the topics considered by 
the association at its first meeting, 
which was held at Harrisburg on 
February 23, was the revision of 
the building laws and the registra 
tion of architects. 



IN GENERAL.- 
Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt, Sr., has 
donated something over $1,000,000 
for the erection of four model tene- 
ments for persons suffering with 
tuberculosis. 

City Engineer Darnell of Kansas 
City has been studying the various 
methods by which large cities dis- 
pose of their sewage, and declares 
that of Columbus, Ohio, the largest 
and best in the country. 

The Ethical Culture Society of 
New York has commissioned 
Robert D. Kohn to design a new 
hall to be built at Central Park, 
West and Sixty-fourth streets. 

As recently as 1908 there were 
in use in Kentucky as many as four thousand five hundred 
old log cabin schoolhouses. 

The American Institute 
of Architects, through its 
secretary, Glenn Brown, the 
Octagon, Washington, D.C., 
has issued a circular in 
which is given the revised 
.schedule of charges as re- 
corded by the convention 
which was held at Wash- 
ington in December. 

The municipality of Pau, 
France, has erected a beau- 
tiful building for the Wright 
Brothers, and thus archi- 
tecture has come to serve 
aerial navigation as it al- 
ready provides the terminii 
of every other form of nav- 
igation and transportation. 
The new building is 70 by 50 feet and contains, besides 
six bed rooms and a kitchen, enough space for two aero- 
planes. 



At a Vassar College lunch- 
eon in New York a few weeks 
ago. Sir Caspar Purdon 
Clarke told how the Metro- 
politan Museum was steadily 
to enlarge to six times its 
present size. It will then 
occupy twenty acres of 




MAT (W.AZE FAIENCE WALL FOUNTAIN, 

NAVAI, V.M.C.A., NORFOLK, VA. 

Modeled by Francis G. Plant, executed by 

Hartford Faience Company. 

Louis Jallade, .Architect. 



two years. 




\..M.C.A. I;UILUIN(>, INUIANAI'Ol.lS, INI). 

Terra cotta trim, made by Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company 
faced with Hydraulic-Pre.ss Brick. 
Foltz & Parker, Architects. 




DETAIL BY (lEORClE ROOSEN, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



ground in Central Park. The 
money for this expansion is steadily 
coming in, and Sir Caspar declared 
that patience was all that was nec- 
essary to see the construction of 
the largest art museum in the world. 

The Columbus Society of Archi- 
tects, Columbus, Ohio, has peti- 
tioned Congress to approve and 
adopt the site selected by the Burn- 
ham Commission for the Lincoln 
Memorial at Washington. 

The firm of Lohman Sc Place, 
architects, Seattle, Wash., has been 
dissolved. George Lohman will 
continue the practice at the same 
address, 16 Hancock Building. 

The preliminary examinations 
for the Rotch Traveling Scholarship 
will be held at the office of the sec- 
retary, C. H. Blackall, 20 Beacon 
street, Boston, on Monday and 
Tuesday, April 12 and 13, to be 
followed by the sketch for competi- 
tion in design on Saturday, April 
17. The successful candidate re- 
ceives $2,000, to be expended in 
foreign travel and study during 
Candidates must be under thirty years of 
age, and have been engaged 
in professional work during 
two years in the employ of 
a practising architect resi- 
dent in Massachusetts. 

George Lawrence Smith 
has opened an office for the 
practice of architecture at 
22 Congress street, Boston. 

Charles G. Badgley, 
architect, Seattle, Wash., 
has removed his office to 
the White Building. 

Potter & Lundberg, 
architects, Tacoma, Wash , 
have dissolved copartner- 
^^'alis ship. C. F. W. Lundberg 
retains the present offices 
in the Provident Building. 
Mr. Potter has formed a copartnership with A. P. Merrill, 
under the firm name of Potter & Merrill, office 317 

Provident Building. Manu- 
facturers' samples and cata- 
logues desired. 



W. E. Nelson, architect, 
has opened an office in the 
Shupert Building, San An- 
gelo, Texas. Manufacturers' 
samples and catalogues 
desired. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



65 



SPECIAL SHAPED BRICK FOR PLUNGE BATHS. 

THE special shaped bricks used in forming the life 
rail, cap course, and gutter for plunge baths, illus- 
trated and described on another page of this issue, are 
the invention of the American Enameled Brick & Tile 
Co. of New York. These bricks have already been 
used in baths for the Y.M.C.A. at Stamford, Conn., 
Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield, architects; Sailors' Home, 
New York City, Boring & Tilton, architects; Racquet and 
Tennis Club at Cambridge; Willard School, Troy, N. Y., 
M. T. Cummings & Sons, architects; Episcopal Guild 
Hall, Marq-uette, Mich., Carleton & Kuenzli, architects. 



We reproduce here an illustration which appeared on 




CLAV PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The pyramid of burned clay would be 4,294 feet high and represent a 
value of $158,942,369. 




KKSSNKk i;l I l,l)IN(, 



CM U Ai ;(). 



Terra cotta e.xterior, executed by Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 
Jenney &• Mundie, Architects. 

the first page of the Scioitific American for January 30, 
giving a graphical comparison of the magnitude of clay 
products for the year 1907. 

The total value (probably estimated) is given as 
$158,942,369, divided up as follows: 



Common Ijrick 

Vitrified paving brick 

Front brick 

Ornamental brick . . . 

Enameled brick 

Fire brick 

Stove lining 

Drain tile 



S^wer pipe 

Architectural terra cotta 

Fireproofing 

Hollow building tile or blocks. 

Tile, not drain 

Miscellaneous 

Pottery 



Quantity. 



9,795,698,000 
876,245,000 
585,943,000 



Value. 



$58,785,461 

9,654,282 

7,329,360 

361,243 

918,173 

14 946,045 

627,647 

6,864,162 

11 482,845 

6,026,977 

3,162,453 

1,088,165 

4,551,881 

3,00(1,201 

30,143,474 



WANTED. — Draftsman — married — American — of more 
than ten years' experience in first-class offices, desires position 
and working interest in business with a reliable architect, in a 
thriving city of Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio. A position where in- 
tegrity, industry, and conscientious efforts will be appreciated. 
Good designer, detailer, practical, systematic, and well edu- 
cated. Address, W. F. C, Care The Brickbuilder. 



WANTED. — First-class draftsman who has had experience. 
Graduate of an architectural school preferred. One whose 
talents would enable him to become head draftsman in a short 
time. Write stating experience and salary expected. 
Wetherell (^ Gage, architects, 202 Youngerman Blk., Des 
Moines, la. 



WANTED. — Competent architectural draftsman six years' 
experience at design, detail, superintendence, and estimates, 
desires position as draftsman or assistant manager. Best 
of references as to ability and character. West preferred. 
Address, Richmond, Care The Brickbuilder. 



" Recent English 
Domestic Arcliitecture" 

Edited by MERVYN E. MACARTNEY 



36 pages of text 
164 pages of illustrations 



118 photographs of houses 
67 photographs of interiors 
58 plans 



The illustrations are accompanied Ijy the plans and in 
many cases by photographs of the interiors, also by 
concise descriptive notations on each home. 
Bound in strong, green buckram binding, size 8 3-4 in. 
by 12 1-4 in. Sent on receipt of price. $2.50, 
express prepaid. 



Importer, Dealer 
Books OD Architecture 



M. A. VINSON 



205 Caxlon Buildinft 
Cleveland, Ohio 



66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






-o ^^ ** ^^ <» ^^ »»■ 



-«»-^^*»- 



-«»-^^».«»-^to.«»- 



-*»-^^«»-^^«»-^^«»- 



>«» ^^ ♦»-' 






COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE. 

To be built of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles at a cost not exceeding 

$10,000. 



FIRST PRIZE $250., SECOND PRIZE $150., THIRD PRIZE $100. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a house with walls, floors, and partitions built of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles. 
The cost of the house, exclusive of the land, is not to exceed f 10,000. 
A detailed statement of costs must accompany each design, this statement to be typewritten on one side only of a 
sheet of paper measuring 11 inches by H'/i inches. 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the amount named to execute 
will nf>t be considered. 

The particular object of this Competition is to encourage a study of the possibilities in the use of Terra Cotta I lollow 
Tiles in the exterior walls of houses. Here is a material which is durable, economical in original cost and construction, 
desirable in its weatherproof qualities, and one which is cajiable of meeting the esthetic demands of the designer. Its 
largely increased use, especially in the eastern .section of the country, is evidence of its popularity as a building material 
which has passed the experimental stage. 

The i)lan should provide accommodations for a family of five — three adults and two children — and two servants. 
There are no restrictions as to size, shape, or style of house — except the cost — nor the size, .shape, or location of lot. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

While the method of construction for walls, floors, and partitions is to be determined by the designer, the following 
suggestions are ofiered as being practicable and admi.ssible. 

First. Outside walls may be of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles eight inches thick (12 inches by 12 inches by 8 inches), the 
blocks being heavily scored on two sides. Stucco may be used for an out.side finish and plaster applied direct to the block 
for interior finish. 

Second. Outside walls may be of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles ten or twelve inches thick with same finish as suggested 
above. 

Third. The outside walls may be faced with brick, with a backing of eight inch tiles. 

I'ourth. The outside walls may be built with outer and inner walls, with an air space of two inches between, using 
in the outside wall a four inch hollow tile, and on the inside a six inch tile. The treatment of the face of such a wall, and 
the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls are left to the designer. 

For the fioors, one of the long span hollow tile terra cotta block systems now on the market, which are adapted up to 
spans of twetity feet without the use of steel beams, or a system which employs hollow tile terra cotta blocks in connection 
with light steel construction. The roof need not be of fireproof construction. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet the front and a side elevation at a scale of four feet to the inch ; also plans of floors at a scale of eight 
feet to the inch. On another sheet details showing clearly the scheme of construction for the exterior walls, the floors and 
partitions, together with other details drawn at a scale sufliciently large to show them clearly. Graphic scales to be on 
all drawings. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets 
one inch from edgres, giving a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be made in black line without wash or color. All sections shown are to be cross-hatched in such 
manner as to clearly indicate the material, and the floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a notn dc pln}nc or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope 
with the 7iom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of 
'Piiii: BKiCKHfiLDicR, 8,5 Watcr street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 1, 1909. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from lime they are sent until returned, although reason- 
able care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account : first, the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the 
materials employed ; second, the adaptability of the design as shown by details to the practical constructive retjuirements 
of burned clay ; third, the relative excellence of the design. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of Thk Rrickiutildkr, and the right is reserved to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by 
enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first tiiere will be given a prize of $250. 
For the design placed second a prize of $ 1 50. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

In the study of this problem competitors are invited to consult freely with the manufacturers of burned clay fire- 
proofing, or their agents. This Competition is open to everyone. 

The prize and mention designs will be published in Thu Brickiu-ildick. 



« 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII 



APRIL 1909 



Number 4 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 18';2. 



Copyright, iwi, by ROGERS 4. MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single numbers ............. 



. . . . . . $5.00 per year 

...... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6.00 per yeai 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PACK 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile ......... IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PAGE 
11 
II 

II and in 
III 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

CASS Giy^ERT; PELL c^ CORBETT; POND & POND; RIPLEY & RUSSELL; 
STRATTON cS: BALDWIN; HORACE TRUMBAUER. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

CAPITALS AND OTHER ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FROM ANCIENT ROMAN BUILDINGS Frontispiece 

GYMNASIUMS -THEIR PLAN AND EOUIPMENT - III V.B.Rea.h 67 

THE HOUSING PROBLEM-II George li. Ford 76 

TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES FOR WALLS OF HOUSES C. II. Hughes 80 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 83 







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NVVV<<<<<<»»»»V»VVV^V^»>»»»»^>»»»»»WV>>^»>»»»»»I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 18 NO, 



DEVOTED-TO -THE-INTEREJIT-Of •ARCHITECTVP.E-IN MATERIAL^OrCLAY- 



,\ I'll II. 1110!) 




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Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment — III. 



BY M. B. REACH. 



Gymnasiums for Armories. 

GYMNASIUM work in the armory assumes a dif- 
ferent character from similar work in educational 
institutions in that there is less trained, compulsory, or 
educational work and more individual or voluntary appli- 
cation. The gymnasium is recreative and looked upon 
as a social factor planned to further cement the purposes 
of the body organization — a club feature as it were. 
Consequently it is of secondary rather than primary con- 
sideration in the plans of the building. This is an era of 
physical upbuilding, however, and the work of the gymna- 
sium pervades all organizations to greater or lesser de- 
gree, and the architect who knows his conditions will plan 
accordingly. 

Where possible the gymnasium or recreative room 
should be separate from the main drill hall, which, at 
best, is ill adapted for apparatus work. A room of not 
less than 40 feet by 60 feet should be assigned for this 
purpose, and I recommend, without running track or 
gallery. If the building conditions will permit a separate 
room for hand ball it would be found most desirable. 
The end or side walls of the gymnasium could be de- 
signed for this purpose, but it would interfere with other 
work and play in that room, and a separate provision, 
therefore, for this popular game is advisable. 

I do not know of any gymnasium that includes in its 
equipment a regulation hand ball court, which should be 
about 60 feet long, 24^ feet wide, and 35 feet high in the 
front, tapering down to 33 feet at the back wall. Most 
gymnasiums content themselves with the front wall. 
Where possible, however, the two side walls add mate- 
rially to the science, pleasure, and sport of the game, and 
the majority of hand ball is probably played in a room 
not over 20 feet wide, 25 or 30 feet long, with a ceiling 
height of perhaps 15 or 16 feet. 

The general specifications for the gymnasium room 
may be taken from the preceding instalments of this 
article. 

Fig. 12 fairly represents a typical equipment, of which 
the following is a list: 

Four triplicate pulley weights, two rowing attach- 
ments, two abdominal mat attachments, one wrist roll, 
one vaulting horse, one vaulting buck, one parallell bar, 
one low parallel bar, one horizontal and vaulting bar, one 
spring board, one pair jump standards, two jump boards, 
one inclined board, one adjustable ladder, six traveling 
rings, one pair flying rings, one trapeze, two climbing 



ropes, one climbing pole, one striking bag disc, one pair 
basket ball goals, mats, miscellaneous small and cal- 
isthenic apparatus. 

Where it becomes absolutely necessary to use the main 
drill hall for gymnasium purposes certain provisions 
should be made to care for types of overhead apparatus 
that can ill be spared from a needed equipment. Owing 
to the great height of the overhead truss work and also 
the usual arched construction, it proves an expensive 
operation for the gymnasium contractor to provide suit- 
able supports, and when installed they are apt to look, 
as they are, after-thoughts that fit poorly in their en- 
vironment. 

As most armories, I believe, have a spectators' gallery 
this might be utilized to good advantage if suspended at 
proper height and made of ample width. As I write this 
it occurs to me that I have seen an armory with a wide 
gallery at one end, but whether of sufficient height for 
apparatus I do not recall. I would assume that a very 
considerable seating capacity was desirable and a wide 
gallery in itself of great utility. This would be enhanced 
where the hall was used for a gymnasium, if suspended 
16 feet from the floor. For the best usage it should 
approximate 25 feet in width, although 5 feet less than 
this could be recommended as workable. A gallery of 
this description would well care for all needed suspended 
apparatus excepting the traveling rings, which advisedly 
should be suspended adjacent a side wall similar to 
arrangement shown in Fig. 13. This fixture could be 
supplied by the gymnasium outfitter in pipe construc- 
tion or made part of the truss work plan. 

Fig. 13 suggests an armory equipment following out 
the ideas outlined in the foregoing. The apparatus 
shown in this plan is generally covered by the list for 
Fig. 12. All apparatus on the floor is portable. 

(Gymnasiums kor Ci.ubs. 

The average " club " gymnasium is generally found to 
be somewhat between the institutional class and that 
exemplified by the armory, with a leaning toward the 
latter. Class or educational work will be found to some 
extent with a regular physical director in charge. (Jroup 
work, however, is irregular. The room is more recrea- 
tive in character and the use by the individual subservient 
to his inclination. The c(|uipment of apparatus will 
parallel that shown for the armory, with the addition of 
a few more wall pieces for class work. 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



69 




GYMNASIUM KOR THE WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA INSTITUTION KOR THE BLIND, PITTSBURC, PA. 

Janssen & Abbott, Art-hitects, 



70 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DISC A SAO. 



□ lS£CriaN BAR 
STALLS A BENCH. 



TR/r CHEST 
WE/CHT. 



rOLD/HC 

KOW/HC 

ATTACHMEr^T. 



PARALLEL 
BAR, 



Other than in the design of a large athletic club I 
would recommend the elimination of a running track. 
A gallery might prove desirable at one end of the room, 
but this feature may depend upon the space available for 
gymnasium use. Except in the case of a very minor club 
I would suggest that there be no curtailment upon a clear 
space of 40 feet by 60 feet. 

Adjoining the gymnasium room there should be courts 
for hand ball and a fair sized room for boxing. Some 
clubs provide a separate room for wrestling, and as this 
art receives more or less attention, particularly in athletic 
clubs, no mistake would be made in suitable provisions 
for its indulgence. It is possible, however, to count a 
wrestling rug of 16 or 18 feet square a part of the gymna- 
sium equipment, and a corner of the room set off for its 
use. This should only be tolerated in circumstances 
that provide ample room 
for the regular work of the 
gymnasium proper. The 
rug with mat underneath is 
cumbersome, heavy, and 
not easily moved, conse- 
quently may be considered 
as practically a permanent 
fixture in estimating the 
working capacity of the 
room. The proportion of 
space per capita, outlined 
in my first instalment, 
would probably hold good 
here. There is, however, 
the thought that those gym- 
nasiums leaning more to- 
wards the recreative side 
will demand more space. 
Man in his play calls for 
more room than man in his 

work, and becomes more disgruntled if his needs are not 
reasonably fulfilled, particularly where he is paying for 
the purpose of playing. I have frequently heard criti- 
cisms from different members of clubs I have visited of 
inadequate facilities in one department or another, and 
up to a certain reasonable point such criticisms are justi- 
fied. It is my opinion, however, that a gymnasium of 
60 feet by 80 feet would prove ample accommodation for 
almost any club excepting the occasional and rare metro- 
politan athletic club. With 40 feet by 60 feet as the 
minimum and 60 feet by 80 feet as the maximum the 
problem of space is fairly well confined. In a gymna- 
sium of the latter size the question of the track or gallery 
may be decided upon the merits of the individual case. 
I am showing no plans of ecjuipment, owing to similarity 
of list already illustrated as typical of an armory gymna- 
sium. There would be an increased number of chest 
machines and possibly some bar stalls. 

The Private Gymnasium. 

The private gymnasium, which may be accepted as 
meaning that in a home, can hardly be treated by rule. 
The individual and conditions offer too great a possibil- 
ity of variety, no two cases being alike. Briefly, a very 
complete home equipment can be installed in a room 
from 20 feet to 25 feet wide and 30 feet long. The ceil- 



."/,"/ 


■ ■^ ■ ■ 






HORIZONTALAVAULTlC. 
BAR. 






/VAr. 



ing height may be 16 feet as the maximum and 14 feet 
as the minimum. 

Fig. 14 shows a. typical equipment of which the follow- 
ing is a list: 

One triplicate chest weight, one section bar stalls and 
bench, one folding rowing attachment, one folding hori- 
zontal and vaulting bar, one parallel bar, one pair flying 
rings, one suspended ladder, one striking bag disc and 
bag, mats, medicine balls, and calisthenic apparatus. 

Gymnasiums kor Women. 

As a manufacturer I particularly like to see a woman's 
gymnasium beautifully clear as to side wall? and free 
from running tracks regardless the size of room. Some, 
if not the most prominent educators in women's gymnas- 
tics, hold a sustaining opinion in .this question. I, theie- 

fore, feel safe in taking my 

stand 



SUSPENDED 
LADDER. 



o 



* 



FIG. 



14. 



that running tracks 
sacrifice more good than 
they accomplish under 
these conditions. 

Practically all of our 
more prominent gymna- 
siums for women are 
equipped after what is 
known as the Swedish sys- 
tem. This calls for more 
overhead work than is usu- 
ally installed under the 
American system, but re- 
quires no modification in 
the suggestions previously 
made as to truss construc- 
tion. A running track pro- 
jecting out into the room 
frequently cuts into a very 
much needed amount of 
space for overhead apparatus and further interferes with 
the most ideal arrangement in providing means for get- 
ting such apparatus out of the way. In the ordinary 
gymnasium, there is not so much of it, and as a rule 
it is attached to hoists and pulled up against the ceiling. 
In the vSwedish equipment there is apt to be a very 
considerable quantity of such apparatus (see Figs. 15 
and 16) and the regular hoisting arrangement is both 
slow and difficult for a woman to handle. By way of 
illustration suppose we consider a gymnasium having 
fifteen climbing ropes. (They are apt to range from 
twelve to twenty in number.) If the ceiling were 20 feet 
high each rope would weigh approximately 16 pounds, 
and being hoisted in groups are heavy. The preferable 
arrangement is to suspend each rope from a traveling 
carrier overhead, the carriers being chained to each other 
the proper distance apart. One pull brings an entire 
nest of ropes into position, the guiding or pulling rope 
being wrapped around a wall cleat to hold them in place, 
and with ecjual ease they may all be pushed back flat 
against the wall and stored in limited space. 

Other apparatus is also more or less detrimentally 
affected by the running track, according to type and use. 
A spectator's gallery at each end I consider advantageous 
in most institutions if the room is not too small, and even 
at times a gallery may be provided along one side. In 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



71 




h.. I^. GYMNASIUM FOR STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, liRIDGF.W ATER, MASS. 




FIG. 16. GYMNASIUM FOR SIATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 1: 1< I DGF.W ATER, MASS. 

Hartwell, Riiliar.Isoii & Diiver, An liitei ts. 



72 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



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74 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



75 




any event such galler- 
ies should not be less 
than 10 feet from the 
floor and preferably 
12 feet. 

It has always ap- 
pealed to me as par- 
ticularly good where 
the seating space in a 
gymnasium extends 
back from the wall line 
at about 12 or 15 feet 
up, and over the 
smaller rooms, in 
juxtaposition to the 
gymnasium, that re- 
quire only about half 
the ceiling height — 
offices, examining 
rooms, dressing rooms, 
halls, etc. This may 
be done at either sides 
or ends and not inter- 
fere with the equip- 
ment in any way. 

The floor plan shown 
in Fig. 17 serves as a 

type for a women's gymnasium and equipment of which 
the following is a list: 

Room 60 feet by 90 feet. Two booms, four bar sad- 
dles, fifteen sections bar stalls, fifteen bar stall benches, 
one vaulting horse, one vaulting box, three jump boards, 




Lrtk 



C.^ 



46V94' 



six balance beams, 
three pairs jumping 
standards, three spring 
boards, fifteen climb- 
ing ropes, one inclined 
rope, two adjustable 
ladders, two vertical 
window ladders, one 
horizontal window 
ladder, five rope lad- 
ders, nine climbing 
poles, two sets basket 
ball goals, two pair 
flying rings, mats, 
miscellaneous small 
apparatus. 



; VESTIBULE. ■ 



T 




GPPUND rLOOR; 



}IOI!ART C0I,I,E(;E (JYMNASIUM. 
Arthur C. Nash, Arcliitect. 



H IC average 
American citizen 
loses nearly ten dollars 
a year by fire to one 
dollar lost by the aver- 
age European. The 
nation, the state, and 
the municipality are 
partly to blame, but 
the real blame rests 
on the citizen himself. Six hundred and fifty thou.sand 
parcels of property burned and a fire loss of $2,500,000,000 
is the record of fire damage in the United States for a 
period of twenty-one years. Of the property burned 
170,948 were dwellings. 



76 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Housing Problem — II 



BY GEORGE B. FORD. 



THERE are two points of view from which the design 
of model tenements may be considered. The first 
is the practical point of view. The second is the social 
or humanitarian point of view. With very few exceptions 
the plans of e.xisting tenements have been considered 
only from the practical side. The arrangement that will 
give the maximum number of rooms per floor on a given 
sized lot has been reduced almost to a type. Many of 
these plans are marvels of ingenuity in giving the maxi- 
mum rental space on a given lot. In every case the 



Labor, a report edited by Dr. E. R. L. Gould on the 
"Housing of the Working Classes," four requisites to 
model housing — "Privacy," "Health," "Safety," 
"Comfort." 

Privacy may be treated as one of the features condu- 
cive to comfort, so that with these heads of Safety, Health, 
and Comfort we have a basis on which to commence 
studying the question. 

Saieiy may be taken as freedom from trouble arising 
from one of the following causes: Fire, contagion, vermin, 



Seventy-ninth Street. 




=^=^ 



Seventy-eighth .Street. 

BLOCK PLAN OF MODEL TENEMENTS FOR CITY AND SUBURBAN HOMES COMPANN, AVENUE A, BETWEEN 

SEVENTV-EKIHTH AND SEVENTY-NINTH STREETS, NEW YORK. 

Three types of plans in one group. 



existing building codes have been stretched to their limit. 
The cost of construction through processes of elimination 
and experiment has been reduced almost to a minimum. 
It must be admitted that from the speculative standpoint 
the last word has been said in tenement design, but one 
cannot help questioning whether the builder of such tene- 
ments is really getting the maximum return possible for 
his money invested. The great question is: Should 
return on investment be .solely a pecuniary one ? This 
brings us to the other point of view, the social or humani- 
tarian. This is the only side of the question on which 
progress can be made. How can we better living condi- 
tions ' How can we improve family life ? In searching 
for a point of departure in considering this subject I 
noticed in an 1895 Report of the United States Bureau of 



or burglary. Protection against fire is well cared for in 
the present building laws and is simply a matter of fire- 
proof construction and isolation. The same is true in a 
large measure for protection against vermin. Protec- 
tion against burglary or against contagion is largely a 
matter of isolation and is much more easily attained in a 
fireproof house than in a non-fireproof house. There is 
no object in dwelling upon the question of safety at greater 
length, because most of the matters pertaining to it are 
too well known to need discussion. 

Health is a vital factor in model housing. It may be 
considered from the following points of view: The ques- 
tion of obtaining light and sunlight in the apartments. 
The question of obtaining air and ventilation. The 
question of avoiding dampness. The question of avoid- 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 4. PLATE 43. 







^^: 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 44. 




k 



DORMITORY, AND GROUP PLAN, WHEATON SEMINARY, NORTON, MASS. 

Ripley & Russell, Architects. 



J[ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 4. ■ PLATE 45. 





ST. FRANCIS HOME FOR ORPHAN BOYS, DETROIT, MICH. 
Stratton & Baldwin, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 46. 




FLOOR PLANS 

ST. FRANCIS HOME FOR ORPHAN BOYS, DETROIT, MICH. 
Stratton & Baldwin, Architects. 




[ 



(jjg-V- 



V^AV J?00?f 



£01 



ZOCffCK. ROOM 



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17 



■S:;tsjE:yve-j\T plxpv-^ 




■ ■5Ecoy>rD fl. OOK Platj- 



coMMaNift XM I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 4. 



PLATE 47. 




NEW YORK SCHOOL OF APPLIED DESIGN FOR WOMEN, NEW YORK, N. Y, 

Pell & Corbett, Architects. 



I 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E ]^ . 

VOL. 18. NO. 4 PLATE 48. 





■SscoT^D ■ & Third Floor Pi. ;?7VJ' 




■]STjif£zz:?i7^/:v£; Floor -Pljhtv-, 



■3ASe^F:TfT ■ FLOOR PLATf- 




FLOOR PLANS AND DETAIL OF FIRST STORY. 

NEW YORK SCHOOL OF APPLIED DESIGN FOR WOMEN, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Pell & Corbett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 49. 




MADISON HIGH SCHOOL, MADISON, WIS. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 50. 




DETAILS OF MAIN ENTRANCE, MADISON HIGH SCHOOL, MADISON. WIS. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



I 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. IS. NO. 4. PLATE 51. 




M-^^ ^' 



•PLAN- TMRQ- LINE: A-A- 



SC^t^^ tBK=taM=lB 



•owe HALFELEVAT/ON • Of ■ MAIN • ENTRANCE ^AY' 



>3ECTION-ON CENTRE-LINE- 

30 3S 40 45 



DETAILS. MADISON HIGH SCHOOL, MADISON, WIS. 
Cass Gilbert, Architfct. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE W. 





.J*-".,^ JSc- ■- . ^-r^l-r ■ - ::x. -!a^l>' "t^^ .^ .VT-Tr J! 



MALONEY HOME FOR AGED MEN, SCRANTON, PA. 
Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



THE B RIC K BU I L n E R. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 53. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 54. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 4. PLATE 55 




AJir;^ 





FLOOR PLANS, BUILDING FOR THE WOMEN'S BAPTIST HOME MISSION SOCIETY, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Pond & Pond, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 4. PLATE 56. 




. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



77 




78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ing contagion. The question of obtaining sufficient 
warmth in winter, and the question of having good sani- 
tary arrangements. 

LicHT AND Sunlight. The whole question of im- 
proving housing hinges on the necessity of obtaining a 
certain amount of sunlight in every living room and every 
sleeping room for a certain time every day. It is abso- 
lutely essential to health for it is practically the only 
agent that exterminates the germs of contagion and 
disease. This was brought out in the International 
Tuberculosis Congress in Washington. A few hours of 
sunlight per day will kill or render harmless the most 
virulent tuberculosis germs. The effect of sunlight on 
the bacteria of 
other diseases is 
similar. Now, if 
some method can 
be devised which 
will fill every liv- 
ing room and 
sleeping room for 
a few hours a day, 
even on the short- 
est day in the year, 
with sunlight, then 
we have made a 
long step in ad- 
vance in the solu- 
tion of thequestion 
of better tene- 
ments. This 
means that every 
window must have 
an unobstructed 
outlook to the 
south, or to some 
point south of 
southwest or 
southeast. If all 
courts can be made 
to open south, or 
to have any south- 
erly orientation, it 
means that some 
sunlight must 
reach every one of 
these windows for, 
at least, an hour a 
day on the shortest day of the year. If all blocks of 
houses were only two rooms deep, and ran in northerly 
and southerly directions, that is, between streets running 
nearly in a northerly and southerly direction, then this 
obtaining of sunlight would be comparatively easy. Un- 
fortunately, no cities are laid out on this principle, so 
that we are forced to make the best of conditions as we 
find them. In New York City, the street plan is the 
worst possible from this point of view. In New York, 
the great majority of the residential streets run east and 
west, which means that, as tenements are at present built, 
one half of the windows must face north, thereby never 
receiving any sunlight at any time of the year. Condi- 
tions, even in New York, might be greatly alleviated, if 
all interior courts were abolished, and outer courts were 




First fux>r plai 



MODEL TENEMENTS, E.\ST 40TH STREET, BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND 
AVENUES, NEW YORK. 

Fireproof, seven stories high, economical arrangement, good investment. 
William Emerson, Architect. 



always made to open to the south or nearly south. These 
courts should be larger at the open end than at the closed 
end, in order to give the maximum light to the further 
end of the court, and, at the same time, obtain the maxi- 
mum rental space. The height of all tenements should 
be limited, so that on the shortest day of the year, at 
noon, when the sun is at its highest point, its rays of 
light will reach the bottom of the ground floor windows 
of every room facing on these courts. This would mean 
limiting the height of such buildings to five, and, in some 
cases, to four stories. 

A'lR AND X'entilation. A free circulation of air 
through the dwelling is of almost as much importance 

from the stand- 
point of health as 
the obtaining of 
light and sunlight. 
■ It is evident that 
the first step 
towards obtaining 
such ventilation is 
to get rid, once 
and for all, of the 
interior enclosed 
court. At best, 
even in the large&t 
enclosed courts, 
there is compara- 
tively little circu- 
lation of air. Wind 
blowing across the 
roofs does not 
penetrate into 
such a court. In 
outer courts, the 
circulation of air 
depends upon 
whether they open 
in the direction of 
the preva i 1 i ng 
wind or not. If 
they do not open 
in such a direction, 
ventilation there 
will be almost as 
stagnant as the in- 
terior court. Here 
again, the ideal 
principle is to have the blocks of houses only two rooms 
deep from front to rear wall, opening on streets or alleys 
along either side. Further, these blocks of houses should 
be broken into small units by open spaces, or open stairs, 
between. This question of stairs is a much debated one. 
In America, with the exception of the White tenements 
in Brooklyn, and the new Shively tenements in New York, 
open stairs in tenements have practically never been tried. 
In Europe, especially in London and Brussels, they are 
the rule rather than the exception. The stair has been 
called the vertical strefet. As such, as long as it can be 
protected from rain and snow, there is no reason why it 
should not be open like the street. There is no (question 
but that such a stair is far more sanitary and far more 
healthful than the customary disease-breeding enclosed 



oecoMD Floor plam 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



79 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, TENEMENT HOUSES FOR SHEPHERD K. 

DE FOREST, ESQ., 203-205 EAST TWENTY-SEVENTH 

STREET, NEW YORK. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 

Stairway which we have now. And such a stair might 
just as well go a little further than these open stairs of 
Europe, and be opened along two opposite sides, instead 
of one side only, coming in between two blocks of build- 
ings, and acting as a ventilating space between them. 
Here, as in the case of light and sunlight, there is a cer- 
tain maximum of efncient height. In the case of the 
open stair this would .seem to be, for normal conditions, 
in the neighborhood of five stories. 

Contagion. The avoiding of contagion is similar to 
the above in its conditions. What applies to the one 
would apply to the other. The more the different apart- 
ments can be separated from one another by a circulation 
of air between them, and by permanent masonry con- 
struction, the less danger will there be of a spread of any 
form of contagion or infectious disease. 

Health in Winter. It is necessary that the warm- 
ing of the apartment in winter should not be according to 



the customary method of simi)ly heating over and over 
again the stagnant air of the rooms. Fresh air must be 
introduced, and foul air must find its way out of the 
rooms. This means that the fresh air from out of doors 
must pass over heat coils under the windows, circulate 
along the floor, up the back walls of the room, along the 
ceiling, back to the space above the windows, where there 
will be some opening for its egress. This should be, 
further, so arranged that it will not be easy for the tenant 
to plug up the.se openings to the outer air. 

Dampness. It is essential to health that the rooms 
should not be damp. This is almost entirely a matter of 
the construction of the exterior walls according to one or 
another of the well-known systems of damp proofing, or 
the leaving of hollow spaces between the outer walls and 
the plastering. 

Sanitary Arrangements. This phase of the question, 
which is so vital to health, is quite well cared for in most 
of the present building codes, but it is, further, essential 
that the toilet room should open to the outer air, and not 
into an enclosed court or shaft, and that there should 
be some means of obtaining a circulation of air through 
it, so that there may never be a chance for air to stagnate 
there. With the type of plan only two rooms deep, 
between narrow streets, running north and south or 
nearly .so, this is comparatively easy to obtain. 




qrx g 



QJJD 




typical floor plan, tenement houses for 

shepherd K. DE FOREST, ESQ., 203-205 
EAST TWENTY-SEVENTH STREET, N. Y. 

This plan is exceptionally economical of space, K'^''"fi about maxi- 

miiin return possible on a fireproof IniildinK. It jj'ves eight 

suites of 2A rooms per floor on a lot Sy d" by 100' 0". 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles for Walls of Houses. 



BY C. H. HUGHES. 



pfiiejl!Siepa^--i 



TERRA COTTA made into hollow blocks and tiles, 
has brought out a new type of construction, which 
is well adapted for walls of suburban houses of a mod- 
erate cost. The block is practically the same as used in 
the floors of large office buildings, but is manufactured 
of a denser material and is much heavier and thicker. 
It has dovetailed scorings on four sides, forming a 
mechanical bond for the stucco on the exterior and the 
plaster on the interior. The standard size is 12 inches 
long, 12 inches wide, and 8 inches deep, which is strong 

and deep enough for 
the average country 
house wall, butshould 
an exceptionally 
heavy wall be re- 
cfuired a 12 inch by 
12 inch by 10 inch or 
a 12 inch by 12 inch 
by 12 inch block can 
be used. Some 
houses are now being 
built with a 12 inch 
wall consisting of 
two 6 inch by 12 inch 
by 12 inch blocks, 
tied together about 
every 12 inches on 
the bed joint with galvanized corrugated wall ties. The 
blocks are laid in cement with the cores vertical. The 
joints are broken vertically giving an air space from 
the top to the bottom, except where interfered with by 
doors and windows. 

The height of a block is 12 inches and as walls have to 
be stopped at predetermined heights, this can be accom- 
plished without chipping the blocks and leaving ragged 
and rough ends. In making the blocks, before they have 
hardened, a wire is drawn through them at right angles 
to the cores. The halves harden as one, yet they can be 
readily broken apart by lightly hitting with a trowel or 
hammer. 

With 8 inch blocks no special corner blocks are nec- 




FIG. I 



A STANDARD liLOCK. 
Size 12" by 12" by 8". 




Co/encR Block 



Hollow Tilc Wmlls. 




A JA.MIl BLOCK. 



FIG. 3. 



essary, but where 10 inch and 12 inch blocks are used 
they are, as the 10 inch only gives a 2 inch bond on the 
corners and the 12 inch none at all. To get a bond for 
these sizes a 
16 inch by 12 
inch by 12 inch 
block (Figs. 3 
and 4) is used 
for both. 

When a 
stucco finish is 
desired, the 
cement is ap- 
plied in two 
coats, first a 
rough scratch 
coat abotit }4 
inch thick and 
then a finished 
coat of y^ inch. 

Owing to the scoring on the blocks the cement gets a 
firm grip on them, and will not crack and fall off. 

Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate the wall construction of a house 
built at St. James, Long Island, N. Y., L. A. Butler and 
Ford, Stewart and Oliver, architects. 

By modifying the size and shape of the blocks, they 
are suitable for window sills, lintels, and other details 
which were 
formerly built 
of concrete or 
brick. Take 
for instance the 
window open- 
ings as shown 
in Figs. 2 and 
7. Here a jamb 
block is used 
with the main 
portion, 8J4; 
inches long by 
8 inches deep 
by 12 inches 
high, and with 
a lip 3^ inches long by 2^ inches deep. On the end of 
the lip will be noticed a dovetail score for taking the 
.cement finish. Behind the lip the window frame is 
placed. This arrangement secures a water-tight joint 
around the frame, and prevents any moisture from get- 
ting in on the inner face of the wall. 

For window sills, the wall is finished off with 4 inch by 
12 inch by 12 inch blocks with the 12 inch faces horizon- 
tal, which cover the vertical cores so no water from the 
outside can work in. 

The blocks are adaptable for lintels, as is shown in Figs. 
6 and 7. Two rows of 2 inch by 12 inch by 12 inch blocks 
are used, one on the outside of the wall and the other on 
the inside, with the space between them filled with con- 
crete which is re-inforced by steel rods. There are two 
points in this construction that are particularly note- 




FIG 



4. A CORNER BLOCK. 
Size 16" by 12" by 12'. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



8i 




kk;. 5. 



HOUSF,, sr. JAMES, I.. I., N. V, 



worthy: First, in a house built of terra cotta blocks that 
are to be given a stucco finish, the old method was to use 
solid concrete beams for the lintels, but it was always 
found difficult to match the shade of this concrete with 
the stucco or vice versa. With the new method, the 
walls, lintels, and window sills can be given the stucco 




Method 0/ Corhstroction 
/or 

Wmdow^ilb and Lmtcb 



/ioLLowT/Lc Walls 
CoN3 TR uc Tion roR 

Win DOW Opt: nines 



FIG. 7. 

finish at the same time, thus securing one shade through- 
out. Second, the concrete lintels admitted dampness to 
the inside of the house, but none is admitted when blocks 
are used. 

The floor construction is natiirally divided into two 
classes, viz: fireproof with terra cotta floors and concrete 
beams, and non-fireproof with wood joists. Fig. 8 shows 




the fireproof construction. On top of the wall blocks 
1 inch by 8 inch tile slabs are laid, and on them rest 
reinforced concrete beams. Between the beams are the 
floor blocks with the cores parallel to them. Blocks are 
laid on the outside, covering the ends of both the beams 
and floor blocks. Above the floor, the wall is built the 
same as below. 

Referring to Fig. 9, a house at St. James, L. I., it will 
be noticed that the concrete beams are about 2 inches 




FK;. 6. HOUSE, ST. JAMES, I,. I., N. V. 

above the blocks, and here the floor was tiltimately cov- 
ered with a layer of concrete. 

For a non-fireproof floor the wall is stopped and a 
course of brick is laid. On the outside, .5 inch blocks are 
placed and behind them a layer of cement, and then more 
blocks bringing the wall up to the regular thickness. 
The floor joists rest on top of the bricks and the ends are 
covered with concrete. See Fig. 10. 

Fig. 11 is of a fireproof roof built of blocks with re- 
inforced concrete rafters. The blocks are laid in rows 



rMff TikSitb 




Hollow T/le Wmlls 

WITH 

JyfiCPKoor /loon Co/isTRvcr/oN 



'HolkyyT^k 



— ^ ^Cf/t/orcce/ Coftcrtle Seorru 
/6'of? Ce/tft'j 
-JltcJ Rud ^ciii/brci rneiit 
(T^/3/t.Jor Carrt/Oa/cd ) 



^e„'^,/^ y/a/ITTk 



V\V,. 9. HOUSE, SI. JAMES, I,. I., N. V, 



FIG. 8. 

with the cores horizontal and with about 4 inches of 
concrete reinforced by a steel rod between the rows. 

For an ordinary wooden roof, bolts are placed in the 
cores of the two upper blocks and the cores filled with 
cement. See F"ig. \Z. Across the top, a plank is laid, 
that is held in position by the bolts with nuts and washers 
on the ends. The rafters rest on the plank and the usual 
roof con.struction is then followed. 

Besides the fireproof cpialities the blocks have the 
further advantages of being sanitary, and walls and floors 
built of them arc moisture and sound proof. The air 



82 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



Tikfillinf ie/mcit 




■J Holler, Tilt BIkk 

at ^hw Ijeirat only 

^ourjc o/ BrKK 03 
Seerina for f/oor Deamj 



Hollar' Term Colto Tile 



MoLLorrTiLi: Wiill3 
Wood FLooa Consmt/cTion. 



space is also a very important feature, as sudden changes 
of temperature are not so noticeable in the house, which 
is kept warmer in winter and cooler in summer. 

Fig. 13 shows a house at Cedarhurst, Long Island, 
N. Y., L. Boynton, architect. Note the stenciling of 
the stucco under the roof eaves, which is done in red 
and blue imitating Italian Mosaic work. From the road- 
way it is impossible to distinguish it from the real. 
With a stucco finish no painting is required — and the 
combination of cement and terra cotta has a long life. 

Should color effects be desired, they can be readily 
obtained by using different kinds of clay. Colors rang- 



fk/i/ic Root Co/ij 7ve uct/on 

HOLLOVY TiLC W/ILL3 



i^et 




"^O' Hb/ltnTlhtM 



KIG. 12. 

ing from a light buff to a deep chocolate brown are in 
common use. 

To entirely disapprove any statements made on the 
weakness of terra cotta under compression, tests have 
been made on blocks at the Engineering Laboratories of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Ma.ss. 
Three blocks 12 inches high by 12 inches long by 10 inches 
wide with an outside shell Js inch thick and webs -^ inch, 
with six cores, of hard dense material were tested in an 
Emery machine. Each sustained a load of 300,000 pounds, 
or 5,560 pounds per square inch of sectional area, which 
was the full load capacity of the testing machine. 

The first cost of a house should not be taken as the 
basis on which the contract is awarded. The mainte- 



nance and repairs should be carefully considered and the 
prospective owner should before deciding make an 
estimate on the valuation of the house in five years. If 
such an estimate is made, it almost always shows the 
advantage of terra cotta block construction over all 
others. 

The following figures while more or less approximate 
(they were approved by two well known architects and 











■TT 










.1 ^^^Hi 


'mW^ 


-jIIHHHI 


^^^■' ^B . 1 



KK;. II. ROOK HUII.T OF HI.OCKS WITH KKI.NKORCKU 
CO.NCRETK RAKTKKS. 

two reliable builders) give an idea of the cost of a house 
using different types of construction in the vicinity of 
New York City. The figures are perhaps fair for any 
large city. 

Frame construction, all wood $10,000 

Brick outside walls, wooden interior .... 11,(X)0 

Stucco or expanded metal, wooden interior . . 10,250 
Hollow terra cotta blocks stiiccoed, wooden 

interior 10,500 







i JS^k 


•IKS 


■ -"^'^ ^^B^^^l 







no. 13. HOUSK AT CKDARHl RST, I.. 1., N. Y. 

Hollow terra cotta blocks stuccoed, fireproof 

throughout, except roof 12,000 

Hollow terra cotta blocks faced with brick, fire- 
proof floors 14,000 

Brick walls, fireproof floors 15,000 

Houses can be built with terra cotta blocks for walls 
and floors with wooden roofs, at a cost of twenty-two 
cents per cubic foot; if built with wooden floors and 
roof, at eighteen cents per cubic foot. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



«3 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 



MADISON HIGH SCHOOL, MADISON, WIS. 

CASS (JILBERT, ARCHITECT. 

THE building was designed in the Jacobean style of 
architecture, which style was considered best adapted 
for school buildings and permits the minimum width of 
piers and mullions, and the maximum area of window 
openings lighting the 
rooms. The adoption 
of this style of archi- 
tecture is considered 
more intimate, and 
follows the style of 
the old college build- 
ings at 0#:ford and 
Cambridge in- Eng- 
land, and has been 
used with great suc- 
cess in some of the 
more recent school 
buildings in America. 

The exterior ex- 
presses logically the 
arrangement of the 
plan, window and 
door openings being 
placed frankly where 
they appear in the 
numerous rooms. 
The exterior is faced 
with vitrified face 
brick and trimmed 
with Bedford stone. 
The brick are rough 
and uneven in color, 
thus giving a color 
quality to the wall and 
a certain vigor and 
strength. The un- 
evenness of color and 
roughness of texture 
supply in part the 
"texture" quality 
which would otherwise 
have to be given by 
carved detail or orna- 
ment. The very wide 
mortar joints add to 
the color effect and to 
the appearance of 
rugged strength not 

otherwise possible in a building of flat surfaces and wide 
window openings. 

The construction of the building is of substantial char- 
acter, the corridors and stairways being fireproof. The 
minimum amount of woodwork has been used, the finish 
being simple and practical throughout. The corridors 
are lined with face brick. The floors thereof are of 
cement, insuring a sanitary condition in the building. 







i^'^'^-^yWhiit nil 




PAKKVIKW APAR TMKN TS, MADISON WI-.M K, NKW \()RK. 

flray terra cotta from sidewalk to roof furnislied by Atlantic Terra Cotta Compauy 

Ilanlc & .Short, Architects. 



A large assembly room with a stage and dressing room 
adjacent thereto is located on the main floor of the build- 
ing and provided with ample exit therefrom. On account 
of lack of funds the original design of the architect could 
not be completed. The room lacks in that respect, and 
also lacks color decoration which should be done in 
harmony with the style of the building. 

A large and spacious gymnasium extending the full 
height of the basement and ground story is located 
directly under the assembly hall, amply lighted by 
extensive windows from the rear. Showers, lockers, and 

toilet rooms for boys 
and girls are located 
on each side adjacent 
to the gymnasium. 

The heating and 
ventilating plant is 
located directly in the 
rear of the gymna- 
sium and outside of 
the limits of the 
building proper. The 
building is heated by 
a combination system, 
i.e., steam for heating 
purposes and forced 
blast tempered air for 
ventilating, and so 
arranged that either 
the direct or indirect 
system can be used 
independent of each 
other. 

The building has 
been planned as a cen- 
tral high school build- 
ing and comprises, 
besides the regular 
studies, instructions in 
manual training and 
domestic economy. 

On the third floor 
are located biological, 
chemical, physical, 
and electrical labora- 
tories and lecture 
rooms, the library and 
free-hand and me- 
chanical drawing 
rooms. On the second 
floor are located class 
and recitation rooms, 
aLso teachers' retiring 
room. On the main 
floor are located class 
and recitation rooms and offices of the superintendent 
and principal. In the ground story are located the 
manual training and domestic economy departments. 
Ample toilet facilities are provided, the main toilet 
rooms being located in the ground and fir.st story. Pri- 
vate toilet rooms are also provided for the superinten- 
dent, princii)al, teachers' retiring room, and manual 
training director. 



nP^ 



L:f!Ff irrfljf 



I iftrr 



ILL' "^f ' 'tS 



'IIJ 



84 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The building has 
been substantially 
constructed and its 
cost (approximately 
fourteen cents per 
cubic foot) com- 
pared with the 
buildings con- 
structed in recent 
years in different 
cities of the United 
States is certainly 
very low. It is 
doubtful if the 
building could be 
duplicated at the 
same cost. 




A 



T THE meet- 
ing of the 



Philadelphia Chap- 
ter, A. I. A., held on the evening of April 13th, a resolu- 
tion was adopted that the chapter make application to 
the board of directors of 
the American Institute of 
Architects for authority to 
include in the territory of 
the chapter, in addition 
to the city of Philadelphia 
and vicinity, all other terri- 
tory in the state of Penn- 
sylvania not granted to any 
other chapter, in order that 
the Philadelphia Chapter 
may incorporate in its by- 
laws a provision for non- 
resident membership as 
there are many men in 
active practice in the vari- 
ous parts of the state, some 
of whom are members of 
the Institute, although not 
attached to any chapter. 
A motion was also adopted 
that it is the sense of the 
chapter that the work of 
the American Institute of 
Architects should be given 
all possible publicity with 
a view of forming higher 
professional standards and 
educating the public in 
architectural matters and 
urging the president and 
board of directors of the 
American Institute of 
Architects to appoint a 
Committee on Publicity to 
give, with the approval of 
the said board, the affairs 
of the Institute generally 
as much publicity as possi- 
ble. In view of the fact 



^A.i;>w Al DK.AL KKACH, N. J. 
Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon tiles. 
David .•\ch, Arcliitect. 



that the fortieth 
anniversary of the 
founding of the 
Philadelphia chap- 
ter will occur in 
October next, a 
committee consist- 
ing of Messrs. W. D. 
Hewitt, George R. 
Stearns, Albert 
Kelsey, Horace W. 
Sellers, John T. 
Windrim, Ed. A. 
Crane,and D.Knick- 
erbacker Boyd was 
appointed to take 
steps for a fitting 
commemoration of 
the eve«t. 




At a convention 
of the Pacific coast architects held March 22d, the Archi- 
tectural League of the Pacific Coast was formed, and the 

following officers were 
elected: President, Willis 
Polk, San Francisco; vice- 
president, E. F. Lawrence, 
Portland; secretary, J. D. 
Myers, Seattle ; treasurer, 
Myron Hunt, Los Angeles. 
The objects of the league 
as set forth in its constitu- 
tion are as follows: The 
securing of affiliation be- 
tween chapters of the 
American Institute of 
Architects and architec- 
tural clubs; the formation 
of similar organizations in 
cities where none now ex- 
ist; the establishing of a 
circuit of annual architec- 
tural exhibitions ; an annual 
convention of architects; 
the promotion of scholar- 
ship work by draftsmen. 



AZ 



UNIVERSITY Cl.UH, CHICAGO. 

Fireproofed throughout with terra cotta hollow tile. Made by 

National Fire- proofing Company. 

liolabird & Roche, Architects. 



DVAN'CES inthe price 
rooms in the new 
dormitories at Yale will add 
about five and one half per 
cent to the annual revenue 
from these buildings. This 
plan is apparently a substi- 
tute for the proposed in- 
crease of tuition, which 
was not received with favor 
when raised in the corpora- 
tion a year ago. Thus does 
improved architecture im- 
prove university finance. 
In future no low priced 
dormitories are likely to be 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



85 




built unless o r - 
dered by donors. 
The lower prices 
will continue, 
however, to apply 
to the older build- 
ings, while the 
rooms in the new 
Haughton Hall 
will rank next to 
Vanderbilt Hall 
(the highest priced 
dormitory) in ren- 
tals. All prices 
are considerably 
lower than those 
charged in private 
dormitories. 



of the owner or 
his agent." An- 
other change pro- 
vides that the lien 
shall be limited 
to the amount un- 
paid on labor 
performed or 
materials furn- 
ished. 



DliTAILS 
the title 



TERRA COTTA COLUMN FOR CHICAGO 
AND NORTHWESTERN DEPOT. 

Made by American Terra Cotta and Ceramic 

Company. 

Frcst & Granger, Architects. 



ONE of the 
bills intro- 
duced at the last 
session of Con- 
gress, and destined 
to come up for con- 
sideration in the 
future, was that 
of Representative 
Landis' providing 
$250,000 for the 
erection of a summer home for the President. It is 
proposed to build the mansion on the reservation of the 
Military Academy at West Point. This would avoid the 
necessity of purchasing land and 
would enable all the money to be 
devoted to the building of the exe- 
cutive's summer home. . . . On 
February 19, Representative Bede 
of Minnesota introduced a bill ap- 
propriating $100,000 for the erection 
of homes in Washington for the 
Speaker of the House and the Vice- 
President. 




DETAII, 



AT THE instance of real estate 
interests. Senator Agnew has 
introduced a bill at Albany to amend 
the lien law of New York State. 
One feature is that the interest of 
an owner of real property shall not 
be affected by the lieu for labor or materials which may 
have been performed or furnished at the request of a 
tenant or purchaser, "except upon the written consent 




BV A. C. I.ONGVKAR, 
ARCHITECT. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Cojiipany, Makers. 



IS 

of 
an architectural 
journal which 
made its first ap- 
pearance in Jan- 
uary of this year. 
It is published 
monthly at 392 
Strand, London, 
England, (sub- 
scription price, 
12 s h i 1 lings ). 
The contents 
will consist en- 
tirely of illustra- 
tions which will 
be made from 
especially-taken 
photographs re- 
produced to a 
large size, and accompanied in every case by measured 
or scaled drawings, and by such par- 
ticulars as are necessary or interest- 
ing. Examples of modern work by 
leading English and French archi- 
tects will be given, as well as fine 
examples of old work. The work is 
edited by Mr. R. Randal Phillips, 
an architect by training, and for a 
number of years associate editor with 
the ]hiildcrs' Journal and Architec- 
tural lingiucit\ London. Mr. Phillips 
will no 'ioubt be remembered by 
readers of The Bkickduilder as 
our London correspondent. 



CORN E.XCHANCI. I;ANK, CI11CA(;(J. 
Built of brick made by Ohio Mining & Manu- 
facturing Company, Thomas Moulding 

Company, Chicago, Agents. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



\t^ 



SAM L' EL CABOT (In 
Mass., has just iss 



nc), Boston, 
ued a very 

interesting booklet treating of waterproof stains for 
staining and waterproofing all kinds of cement buildings 
— plaster, stucco, rough-cast, concrete, or blocks. We 





DETAIL BV JOHN DAYTON, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, .Makers. 



DETAIL. 
Executed by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SI'ORK HUlI.DINc;, CHKSTNUT STREET, PHII.ADKI.I'H I A . 

Terra Cotta by Cunkling-ArmstronK Terra Cotta Company. 

William Steele & Sons, Architects. 

are especially glad to call the attention of our readers to 
this booklet, because it answers in detail very many cjues- 
tions that have been asked of us. It would be needless 
to here give a resume of the contents of the work for a 
copy will be sent on application. It is perhaps enough 
to say that the whole subject is adequately covered and 
the standing of the firm is a guarantee of the reliability 
of the statements made. 



IN GENERAL. 



Olof Z. Cervin, architect, formerly of Moline, 111., has 
removed his office to Rock Island, 111. 

St. Paul is to have a new twelve-story hotel. The cost 
is placed at $1,000,000 and the doors are to be thrown 
open to guests the first of fiext 
year. One of the novelties ad- 
vertised for it are " dust-proof 
doors." 



Putnam & Cox, of Boston, 
are the architects for the pro- 
jected $1,000,000 gymnasium 
for Harvard. 

The manager of the Hotel 
Astor, New York, declares that 
he will spend $20,000 in devot- 
ing 60,000 square feet of the 
Hotel Astor roof to an airship 
station, which is to be in readi- 
ness May 1st, for the use of 
aeroplanes and dirigible bal- 
loons. 



Photographs of the architects were placed beside those 
of several notable persons in the sealed copper box em- 
bedded in the corner-stone of the new chapel at the West 
Point Military Academy. The setting of this stone took 
place on April 5th. 

President Butler, of Columbia, Seth Low, of the Na- 
tional Civic Federation, or Justice Gaynor is declared 
acceptable as umpire in the dispute between the carpen- 
ters and sheet metal workers of New York City as to 




DETAIL HY CHAKI.ES I- . 
Made by Northwester 



UICKSON IiUII,UlN(;, NORFOLK, VA. 

Built of " Ironclay " brick. Made by Ironclay Brick Company. 

Ferguson & Calron, Architects. 

which trade has the right to hang the metal doors now 
used in large buildings. 

A bill before the New York legislature provides for 
the establishment of a state school of sanitary science 
and public health at Cornell. The provision for exten- 
sion work by means of reports and bulletins promises to 
be of material aid to the building industry in putting 

before it the results of the 
university's laboratory and 
research work. 

The Park Board of Denver 
determined April 2d upon the 
expenditure of about $2,750,000 
to complete what is known as 
the MacMonnies Civic Center. 
This consists of the parking of 
a space in the neighborhood of 
the Capitol grounds, the build- 
ing of a fountain, and the erec- 
tion of a museum. 

The second annual exhibition 
of the Portland, Oregon, archi- 
tectural club was held in the 
WHITTLESEY, ARCHITECT. galleries of the museum of fine 
n Terra Cotta Company. arts, March 22d to April 10th. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



8 




LANDSCAPE PANEL FOR FIREPLACE. 
Executed in faience by Rookwood Pottery Company. 



In addition to the work exhibited from the offices of 
Pacific coast architects there was a liberal exhibition of 
work contributed by eastern architects. The " Year 
Book," published under the direction of M. A. Vinson, is 
a notable example of club catalogue work. 

The second exhibition of the New Jersey Chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects was held in the 
Newark free public library, March 18th to 31st. The 
catalogue was well up to the standard of those issiied in 
connection with architectural exhibitions. The officers 
of the chapter are: Charles P. Baldwin, president; Fred 
W. Wentworth, vice-president; Thomas Cressy, second 
vice-president; George W. Von Arx, treasurer; Hugh 
Roberts, secretary. 

" Western Colonial " bricks, made by the Western 
Brick Company, of Danville, 111., were used in the vSt. 
Francis Home for Orphan Boys, Detroit, Mich., vStratton 
& Baldwin, architects, illustrated in the plate form of 
this issue. 

At the meeting of the Illinois Chapter A. I. A., held 
April 12th, the Building for the Women's Baptist Home 
Mission Society, Chicago, Pond & Pond, architects, illus- 
trated in this issue, was awarded the Gold Medal by the 

Chapter. The body of the 
building is built of a side cut 
red paving brick with light 
gray bricks in the frieze and 
gables. The bricks were made 
by the Western Brick Company 
and furnished by Thomas 
Moulding Company, their 
Chicago agents. 

The interior trimmings in 
the Natatorium, Phipps Build- 
ing, Pittsburg, Pa., Grosvenor 
Atterbury, architect, illus- 
trated in The Brickbuilder for 
March, were executed in poly- 
chrome terra cotta by the 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

vSayre & Fisher bricks were 
used in the Home for Aged 
Men at Scranton, which is illus- 
trated in the plate form of 
this issue. 

The kitchens in the dining 



hall of the Wheaton Seminary, illustrated in the plate 
form of this issue, are flushed in white enameled brick 
made by the American Enameled Brick & Tile Co. 

John W. (rates has notified the town council of Port 
Arthur, Texas, that he will erect a §100,000 hospital 
there and large business college buildings and dor- 
mitories, all of which he will give to the town. 



A COMPLETE set of sjiecification blanks for archi- 
tects and 'builders has just been published by 
T. Robert Wieger, architect, Denver, Colo., formerly 
with Frank E. Kidder, architect and author. The speci- 
fication fully comprehends all branches of work for all 
classes of buildings in a brief, concise, and yet complete 
manner, and is a great help and time saver to architects 
and builders. The blanks are neatly printed, one side, 
on bond paper, 6;/( inches by 10^ inches. The complete 
set has forty-four pages. These blanks may be obtained 
from Mr. Wieger in one or more sets, as desired, at a 
nominal cost. 




DETAIL FOR SCHOOL 
BUILDING. 

Executed in terra cotta by 

Brick, Terra Cotta & 

Tile Company. 

Henry C. Pelton, Architect. 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR, by William 
Arthur. A Handbook of Cost Data for Estimating all 
Classes of Buildings. A practical working guide to figur- 
ing the cost of labor and material in building construction, 
from excavation to finish ; with various examjjles of work 
presented in detail, and with labor figured chiefly in hours 
and quantities. A handbook for architects, builders, 
contractors, appraisers, engineers, .superintendents, and 
draftsmen. With 437 pages, including a 13-page index. 
Cloth bound. Price, $2.50, delivered. David Williams 
Company, Publisher, New York. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE .SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE offers full professional 
training; in a rouR vk.vr course leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option is allowed in ARCiiiTECTrRAL 
ENGINEERING. The GR.\Dr.\TE VE.VR grants a Master's degree, 
allowing specialization in advanced work. Advanced 
.ST.XNDiNc; is granted to college graduates. Oualitied dr.m'ts- 
MEN, desiring advanced technical training, are admitted with- 
out examination to the two ve.\r speci.\l course leading to a 
Certificate of Proficiency, and technical studies only may be 
taken by other per.sons of approved fitness. Ii.lu.str.^ted 
annual sent on application. For full ini-ormation address 
Dr. J. H. Penniman, Dean, College Dcjjartmont, 

University of Penn.s\lvania, 

Philadelphia. Pa. 



" Recent English 
Domestic Architecture" 

Edited by MERVYN E. MACARTNEY 



36 pages of text 
164 page* of illuttrattons 



118 photographR of houtes 
67 photoBraphfl of interior* 
58 plans 



The illustrations are accompanied by the i)lans and in 
many cases l>y photographs of the interiors, also by 
concise descriptive notations on each home. 
Hound in strong, green buckram binding, size 8 3-.} in. 
by 12 1-4 in. Sent on receipt of price. $2.50, 
express prepaid. 



Importer. Dealer 
Books on Architecture 



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88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 






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COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE. 

To be built of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles at a cost not exceeding 

$10,000. 



FIRST PRIZE $250., SECOND PRIZE $150., THIRD PRIZE $100. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a house with walls, floors, and partitions built of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles. 
The cost of the house, exclusive of the land, is not to exceed 510,000. 
A detailed statement of costs must accompany each design, this statement to be typewritten on one side only of a 
sheet of paper measuring 11 inches by 8>4 inches. 

Desi.is^ns which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the amount named to execute 
will not be considered. 

The particular object of this Competition is to encourage a study of the possibilities in the use of Terra Cotta Hollow 
Tiles in the exterior walls of houses. Here is a material which is durable, economical in original cost and construction, 
desirable in its weatherproof qualities, and one which is capable of meeting the esthetic demands of the designer. Its 
largely increased use, especially in the eastern section of the country, is evidence of its popularity as a building material 
which has passed the experimental stage. 

The jjlan should provide accommodations for a family of five — three adults and two children — and two servants. 
There are no restrictions as to size, shape, or style of house — except the cost — nor the size, shape, or location of lot. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

While the method of construction for walls, floors, and partitions is to be determined by the designer, the following 
suggestions are offered as being practicable and admissible. 

First. Outside walls may be of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles eight inches thick (12 inches by 12 inches by 8 inches), the 
blocks being heavily scored on two sides. Stucco may be u.sed for an outside finish and plaster applied direct to the block 
for interior finish. 

Second. Outside walls may be of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles ten or twelve inches thick with .same finish as suggested 
above. 

Third. The outside walls may be faced with brick, with a backing of eight inch tiles. 

Fourth. The outside walls may be built with outer and inner walls, with an air space of two inches between, using 
in the outside wall a four inch hollow tile, and on the inside a six inch tile. The treatment of the face of such a wall, and 
the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls are left to the designer. 

For the floors, one of the long span hollow tile terra cotta block systems now on the market, which are adapted up to 
spans of twenty feet without the use of steel beams, or a system which employs hollow tile terra cotta blocks in connection 
with light .steel construction. The roof need not be of fireproof construction. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet the front and a side elevation at a scale of four feet to the inch ; also plans of floors at a scale of eight 
feet to the inch. On another sheet details showing clearly the scheme of construction for the exterior walls, the floors and 
partitions, together with other details drawn at a scale sufficiently large to show them clearly. Graphic scales to be on 
all drawings. 

The siEC of each sheet is to be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets 
one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be made in black line without wash or color. All sections shown are to be cross-hatched in such 
manner as to clearly indicate the material, and the floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope 
with the nom dc plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of 
The Brickbuilder, 85 Water street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 1, 1909. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from time they are sent until returned, although reason- 
able care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account : first, the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the 
materials employed ; .second, the adaptability of the design as shown bv details to the practical constructive requirements 
of burned clay ; third, the relative excellence of the design. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of Thu BRiCKBuii.niiR, and the right is reserved to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, mav have them bv 
enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first tiiere will be given a prize of $250. 
For the design placed second a prize of $ 1 50. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

In the study of this problem competitors are invited to consult freelv with the manufacturers of burned clav fire- 
proofing, or their agents. This Competition is open to evervone. 

The prize and mention designs will be published in The Brickbuildkr. 



♦»- 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII 



MAY 1909 



Number ^ 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1842. 



Copyright, !■"'■, by ROGERS & MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States. Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single numbers ............. 



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SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

„ Terra Cotta 

Brick 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fircproofing 
Roofing Tile 
Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PAGE 

. Ill .in,l IV 
I\' 
IV 
IV 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



KIRCHHOFF & ROSE; LEHMAN & SCHMITT; McKIM, MEAD & WHITE AND 

BEARDEN & FOREMAN, ASSOCIATED ;. GEORCJE S. MILLS; 

A. F. ROSENHEIM; THOMAS, CHURCHMAN & MOLITOR. 



LETTERPRESS 



CAPITAL.S AND OTIIKK ARCHITF.CTrU AL DKTAILS TKO.M ANCIICNT ROMAN BUILDINCS Frontispiece 

GYMNASIUMS — THEIR PLAN AND E(JUIPMKNT — IV V . It Kra, li X9 

WARMING AND VENTILATING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOSPITAL lillLDINGS — I. 

/>. I). Kimball 95 



TESTS OF BRICK COLU.MNS AND TERRA COTTA I5LOCK COLUMNS 

THE HOUSING PROBLEM — HI 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 



98 



Geoif^r II. Fnrd \m 
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VOL. 18 



DEVOTEDTO •THE-INTEREJTJ-OF-AR.CHITECTVRE-IN MATERIALy-OrCLAY- 



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Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment — IV. 



BY M. K. REACH. 



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IT WILL be observed in studying the plans and ecjiiip- 
ments of men's and women's gymnasiums that there 
is sufficient similarity between equipments to permit 
their adaptation to either with comparatively few 
changes in the nature of additions. In a co-educational 
institution where one gymnasium is planned to accom- 
modate the two .sexes the extra cost of equipment is in 
comparatively small ratio, and the general scheme of 
arrangement would remain very much the same. vSepa- 
rate entrances to the gymnasium from the locker rooms 
must be provided and the location of locker rooms 
should insure the proper degree of privacy. I like the 
scheme where the en- 
trances to separate 
dressing rooms from the 
gymnasium are at each 
end of the gymnasium 
and by the offices of the 
director in charge. 
Hence, in an institution 
having a director for 
men and one for women, 
as is usually the case, 
their offices and exam- 
ining rooms can be so 
located as to properly 
guard against any intru- 
sion through the gymna- 
sium and permit the 
inside work of each to 
be carried on at all 
times. 

The merits of coalescing the working ecjuipments 
must be judged by conditions. In some instances it is 
in every way practical, efficient, and economical. In 
others I think it a mistake. A church gymnasium, 
which usually is, and should be, in the adjoining parish 
house or guild hall, can be so operated with the best of 
results. Gymnasiums of this class are social and recrea- 
tive; the work and hours may be regulated to satisfy all, 
and accomplish the purposes of the organization. The 
same rule would undoubtedly hold true in many normal 
schools and colleges. Very often there is a decidedly pre- 
dominating majority of one sex which simplifies matters 
and seldom do we find the frightful amount of congestion 
and specific conditions that exist in other institutions 
where combined work is objectionable. It devolves into 
a problem of simple mathematics after all — amount of 



FIG. l8. PLAYROOM FOR CHILDRKN. 

Ec|uipment : Four swings, four see-saws, one children's athletic .slide, 

small game apparatus, bean bags, hoops, jump ropes; rubber balls, etc. 



work to be done divided by the working hours. We all 
experience similar problems and when obvious that ad- 
justment is necessary we add the machinery, men, or 
rooms and go ahead to get the result. Unfortunate it is 
at times, that our scheme of education is so lacking in 
practical methods. 

Any modern public school has provisions made in its 
plan for a gymnasium, (gymnasium work is gradually 
being accepted by our educational bodies as necessary, 
and therefore desirable. In is a compulsory part of the 
curriculum. Our schools, particularly our city schools, 
are all crowded and under congested conditions of this 

kind. I hold that one 
gymnasium for girls and 
boys coml)ined is inade- 
quate and about as pro- 
ductive of results and 
progress as a motor car 
of (SO horse power size 
and design with a single 
horse-power engine. 

The school hours are 
short and the attendance 
large. (Mass work for 
the individual two or 
three times a week is 
almost farcical. If there 
is any merit in this 
branch of work, any 
profit, mental, physical, 
or moral, why such half- 
hearted measures ? Why 



not ]5rovide the maximum of eflficiency and reap a paying 
result? We are undoubtedly making serious mistakes in 
designing .school buildings that cannot possibly accom- 
modate the children of the present in any satisfactory 
manner, and which are constantly growing more con- 
gested. ICducation through play is now sweeping the 
country broadcast. Schools having yards are ecpiipping 
them with gymnastic and playground apparatus. Others 
bemoan the fact that they are destitute of opportunities 
to keep abreast. Schools in New York are utilizing their 
roofs. 

These are the present conditions at the incejUion, 
almost, of this broad educational policy. What will be 
the conditions ten years hence when the movement com- 
mences to show its growth ? So far as new buildings are 
concerned it depends entirely upon the enlightened archi- 



90 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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FIG. 19. A GIRLS GYMNASIUM. 

ICquipineiU : Twelve sections bar stalls, twelve bar stall benches, twelve climbing ropes, two springboards, two jump standards, two pairs flying 

rings, six traveling rings, one incline board, two swinging booms, two vaulting horses, two jump boards, two adjustable ladders, basket 

ball goals, mattresses, miscellaneous small apparatus. 



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Equipment : Twelve sections bar stalls, twelve bar stall benches, two pair jumping standards, two spring boards, two pair flying rings, one sus- 
pended horizontal bar, two parallel bars, two vaulting horses, two vaulting bucks, four jump boards, one incline board, six traveling rings, 
six climbing ropes, two horizontal and vaulting bars, two adjustable ladders, twelve chest machines, one pair basket ball goals, 

niMttresses, miscellaneous small apparatus. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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GYMNAMIM FOR MEN AND WOMEN, STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, CEDAR KAM.S, lA. 



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HG. 2 1. CO-KDUCATIONAI, COLLEGE OR NORMAL SCHOOL GYMNASIUM. 

IC(|iiipment : Two horizontal and vaulting bars, two adjustable ladders, two vaulting horses, two vaulting bucks, two parallel bars, four juniii boards, tw< 

pair jumping standards, two spring boards, two jiair flying rings, six traveling rings, one incline board, six rope ladders, twelve ilimbing ropes, one 

horizontal window ladder, two vertical window ladders, two swinging booms, twelve chest weights, eighteen sections bar stalls, eighteen bar 

stall benches, two pair basket ball goals, mattresses, miscellaneous small apparatus. 



92 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




(;nmnasu;m for men and women, state normai schogi,, cedar falls, l.\. 



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FIG. 22. A CHURCH GYMNASIUM. 

Kquipment : Twelve bar stalls, twelve bar stall benches, six chest weights, one vaulting horse, one vaulting buck, two jump boards, one parallel bar, one 

horizontal and vaulting bar, one suspended horizontal bar, one adjustable ladder, si.\ traveling rings, one pair flying rings, six climbing ropes, one 

giant stride, one striking bag disc, one swinging boom, one pair jump standards, one spring board, one incline board, one pair basket ball 

goals, mattresses, miscellaneous small apparatus. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. ^ 



93 





NEW GYMNASIUM AT ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, ANNAPOLIS, MI). 
Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 





BASEMENT PLAN. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

(;^■MNASIU^I at f.EORCETOWN UNH'FRSITY. 




m in m 

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GYMNASIUM \ 'I < .1 m- • . I \ ■ ' \ ■- i M \ I I- - I I ', , w \ - M I \ ' . I " \ , I >. t 
Ewing & Chappell, Anliilects. 



ith one small gym- 

')1 of to-day without 

the children from 



94 

tect and the school board. Scht 
nasium will be as badly off asth 
a yard. Most of our schoob 
primary through the gram- 
mar grades. The smaller 
children should haveagood- 
sized playroom, preferabi • 
on the ground floor. T' 
might be equipped wit 
few pieces of play appara- 
tus such as slides, tellers, 
and swings. There hould 
be a separate gymiiasium 
for boys and one for girls. 
It might be said that in a 
school suffering for room 
the space of one gymnasium 
would mean another needed 
class room or two. Granted 
that it would increase the 
school capacity to the ex- 
tent of one hundred pupils, 

devoted to gymnasium work it would make it possible to 
accommodate at least four or five times that number 
during the average school period, and extend by just 
that much a 
branch of 
educational 
work, here- 
tofore badly 
neglected, 
but now rec- 
ognized as 
an impor- 
tant factor 
in produc- 
ing the best 
kind of chil- 
dren. In 
one case 
there is a 
larger plant 
incomplete. 
In the other 
a smaller 
plant of 
greatest 
working 
efficiency. 
However 
the rule 

may be ajjplied to educational methods commercially 
there would be no choice. 

The gymnasiums could both be located on the top 
floor or possibly the one for the girls midway in the 
building. 

Fig. 18 serves as a type for playroom — plenty of light 
and air. Fig. 19, a girls' gymnasium and equipment. 
Fig. 20, a boys' gymnasium and equipment. While I 
have illustrated in the latter two figures rooms SO feet by 
75 feet it may be understood that 40 feet by 60 feet pro- 
vides opportunities for good work. It is, of course, 
desirable to have the greater space if obtainable. In a 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




PARISH HOrSK GV.MNASHM, CHRIST CUIRCH, CINClNNAri. 




GKNEKAI. VIKW ANU I'IRST FLOOR PLAN, C.NMN ASIU.M, SEWARU PARK, CUICA(;0 
Perkins <.V Hainiltmi, Architects. 



boys' gymnasium 50 feet by 75 feet it might be found 
desirable to provide a running track. That may be 
governed by the individual conditions. I would not 

suggest a track for an ele- 
mentary school in any 
smaller room, and not at all 
if the room is to be used by 
both girls and boys. 

There is gradually grow- 
ing into prominence an- 
other sort of educational 
center in the shape of the 
municipal gymnasium and 
playground. I will treat of 
theequipmentof such build- 
ings in my next article, but 
mention them now as be- 
longing to the co-educa- 
tional series. The rules 
applied to public school 
gymnasiums hold good 
here. The same congestion 
prevails and the gymnasiums are apt to be crowded 
at all open hours. Undoubtedly the best ends are 
attained where separate provisions are made for men 

and women, 
or boys and 
girls. The 
object of 
the public 
gymnasium 
is to provide 
a place 
where chil- 
dren may go 
for a better 
kind of fun 
than they 
obtain in 
the streets. 
Whileseem- 
ingly social 
and recrea- 
tive it really 
does not be- 
long in that 
class of 
gymnasi- 
umsbecause 
fundament- 
ally it is ed- 
ucational in principle, only the educational pill is home- 
opathically administered and is sugar coated. This 
gymnasium, therefore, should be open to all boys and 
girls when they otherwise would be on the street, and 
the less its work is curtailed the better its effects. 
Then also, the problem of administration is greatly 
simplified where separate provisions are made for the 
care of both sexes. 

Most plans drawn up follow out these lines. I see 
some, however, from time to time, that unite the 
two parts and have, therefore, made mention of the 
subject. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



95 



Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to Hos- 
pital Buildings — I. 



KY D. D. KIMBAI.L. 



IT IS not possible in an article of this character to 
cover the entire field involved in the warming and 
ventilating of hospital buildings, but it is the purpose of 
the writer to give, in as concise form as possible, a brief 
treatise on the subject which shall give to the architect 
and builder a definite idea of the history, literature, prac- 
tices, and value of ventilation. 

An explanation of some well established standards and 
methods of warming and ventilating as applied to hospital 
buildings, and some rules and formulas will be given. 
The elements, forces, and difficulties involved will be 
briefly considered, and brief references will be made to 
the subjects of air filtration, air cooling, and relative 
humidity. 

Probably the earliest recorded application of the prin- 
ciples of ventilation was made about the middle of the 
fifteenth century to the mines of Saxony, it having be- 
come necessary to supply fresh air to replace gases which 
formed and interfered with respiration and use of the 
miner's lamp. This work consisted of the use of fires in 
ventilating shafts, and later of large bellows and paddle 
wheels for the horizontal tunnels. Long before this, 
however, doctors had realized the need of fresh air for the 
sick and the importance of a constant renewal of the air 
supply within the homes of the sick. The development 
of building ventilation seems to have begun with the 
work of Sir Christopher Wren in the House of Parliament 
about 1660. This work went through various stages and 
was not perfected until about 1835 by Dr. Reid, the old 
system having been destroyed by fire. 

Modern ventilation work may be said to have com- 
menced with the work of Tredgold, an English engineer, 
who published in 1824 a work of great value, which was 
revised and reissued in 1835. In France the earliest 
attempts at building ventilation occurred about 1840 in 
connection with a Paris hospital, in fact all the earliest 
attempts at ventilation in France were in connection with 
hospital buildings. 

The subject of ventilation in the United States began 
to receive consideration about 1849 when the Committee 
on Public Buildings of the Hou.se of Representatives in 
the State of Massachusetts reported upon the ventilation 
of Representatives' Hall, a second report being made 
early the year following. 

In 1866 a report was made upon the ventilation of the 
Halls of Congress, followed by other similar reports on 
the ventilation of the House of Representatives. 

It was not until about 1862 to 1864 that the amount of 
air really required for ventilation was correctly deter- 
mined, this being developed as the result of the work of 
the Army Sanitary Commission in connection with an 
investigation into the sanitary condition of the English 
army during the Crimean war. 

Dr. Parkes in his manual of Hygiene stated in 1864 
that 2,000 cubic feet of air per hour per occupant in a 
room should be furnished, which coincides with the aver- 
age present practice. 



The earliest literature upon the subject of real interest 
appeared about 1815. Among the earliest authorities of 
value are Thomas Tredgold, already referred to; E. 
Peclet, 1854 and 1861, and M. Pettenkofer, 1858. Among 
the later authorities of value should be mentioned Wm. J. 
Baldwin's books on steam and hot water heating, etc., 
and Professor Carpenter's "Principles of Heating and 
Ventilation." One of the most convenient books upon 
heating will be found to be "Steam Heating" by Wm. 
G. Snow, while for a very complete and general history 
and discussion of the subject " Ventilating and Heating," 
by Dr. John vS. Billings, will be found most interesting. 
Among the most valuable contributions to the develop- 
ment of this science will be found to be the transactions 
of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating 
Engineers, which record many valuable tables, tests, and 
discussions. There are a number of current magazines 
treating more or less extensively of this subject, among 
which might be mentioned the " Heating and Ventilating 
Magazine " treating of heating and ventilating work ex- 
clusively, and the " vSheet Metal Worker " devoted largely 
to this subject. 

The necessity for providing artificial heat during the 
fall, winter, and spring of the year is apparent, a lack of 
heat or a surplus thereof involving discomfort, and both 
alike endangering health. In the case of hospital warm- 
ing especially is it most desirable that the temperature 
should be kept as nearly uniform as possible. 

The value of ventilation is still too little appreciated 
even in hospital work. The word "appreciated " is used 
advisedly as it is more a lack of appreciation than a 
matter of real ignorance. It is not uncommon to find a 
member or members of a building committee, and even 
an architect, willing to sacrifice the ventilation of a hos- 
pital building to save money with which to secure archi- 
tectural effect, more space, or other equipment. Such a 
committee or such an architect fails to realize that a 
hospital without adequate ventilation is little better than 
a hospital without medicine, and fails to realize also that 
a hospital properly ventilated will reduce the average 
number of days required to effect a cure from twenty- 
five per cent to forty per cent, greatly increase the per- 
centage of cures, and increase the capacity of the same 
hospital in proportion to the lessened number of days 
required to effect a cure. 

At the S. R. Smith Infirmary at Staten Island a com- 
parison was made in two wards of the same natiire, con- 
taining the same class of patients, in which case it was 
found that in the ward without ventilation an average of 
sixteen days was required to effect a cure, while in the 
ventilated wards the average was ten days. In the 
Dublin Lying-in Hospital the death rate under old con- 
ditions reached fifty per cent of those born, while for an 
equal period with improved sanitary conditions the death 
rate fell to five per cent. It has been reported that in the 
Boston City Hospital the death rate changed under the 
improved conditions from forty-four per cent to thirteen 



g6 T H E B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

per cent in the surgical ward^ .ri'l from twenty-three compounds which are thrown off during respiration. As 

per cent to six per cent in i other wards. Such the oxygen is essential to life and is contained in the air, 

instances can be multiplied, so Jiat there would seem to there must be a sufficient amount of fresh air supplied to 

be as ample reason for the ir.suillation of suitable venti- give the necessary oxygen, 

lation as for the provision < ncdicine. . Because a room is large and contains a large amount of 

The matter of ventilation involves principally the mat- air for each occupant does not lessen the importance of 

ter of air supply and it may, therefore, be well to consider ventilation if the room is to be occupied for any consider- 

the nature and composition of the air and the part which able length of time, for the air within the room will soon 

it plays in ventilating work. become vitiated and must be removed and replaced. In a 

The air is made up approximately as follows : room containing 1,000 cubic feet of air, per occupant, less 

than one hour is recjuired to so impoverish the air that it 

Nitrosren 78.30 parts in 100 ■,, ^ • ^ i ^ r i • • i • - ,. ,^^^ 

^ in -rn Will Contain twelve parts of carbonic acid gas in 10,000 

Oxvgen . 20.70 ,,,,,, ^ . .^ ^ , . . ° 

Carbonic Acid 04 parts of air if no fresh air IS supplied. A lack in the sup- 
Watery Vapor 01 ply of fresh air brings about a diminished amount of oxy- 

Ammonia Trace gen and an increased amount of carbonic acid gas; that 

,. ,^, . J. re ^ , i-^- I, . is, it lessens the upbuilding elements while increasing the 

The above vanes slightly in different localities, but , . , t^, • , . ,. 

r , . . i • ., . destructive forces. Physical energy is a direct result of 

such variations as are found are apt to be in the greater ■-,■ ■ r i. •,•,,, 

, ^ V- , , oxidization of carbon withm the body, and mental energy 
amount of ammonia and watery vapor which may be . . , , , . , *'■' 
^ J ^, , ,^ ^. , • r , c >.-i ^5 quite as dependent as physical energy upon the sup- 
found, the latter sometimes forming four per cent of the , ^ • ^, • , , , ^ . . 

. , ' ^ ^, . m u ^1 c 1 • P^y o^ P^^e ^1^- The withdrawal of a ciuantity of oxygen 

weight of the air. There may be other gases found m z, ^, . , ^ , , , . , . 

, *■ . , , ,,.,,,,. . from the air equal to one five-hundredth of its volume 

the air but they are usually considered as local impuri- , , , . . ^ 

. , /. . ,, .• r r reduces the luminosity of a candle light one twentieth, 

ties. 1 here is also a certain specially active form of i , . , )■ , , , . v 

,, , . X 1-- t. •. • 1-^ 1. . ^^^ the vital energy of the human being suffers quite as 

oxvsfen called ozone in an amount which it is diincult to , on 

■'*' much. 

^, ' r ■ .• 1 Y, •.• - r A standard temperature of 70° for an occupied room is 

The process of respiration changes the composition ot ,, ■,-,,■ . . 

.,,,,, • . , " r ,1 ' generally accepted, and there is no reason why there 

the air breathed to approximately as follows: , ,i , , • . , , 

should not be an equal insistence upon a standard as to 

Nitrogen 75 parts in 100 the quality of air, for there is no difficulty in determining 

^^ys^^"^ ^^ " '• " the proper quality of the air to be breathed or in procur- 

Carbonic Acid Gas 4 •_ ,. 

. mg such air. 

VVaterv\apor 3 ,, ,, ,, ° 

The following paragraph is quoted from Professor 

The importance of a renewal of the air to supply more Carpenter's book: 

oxygen, and also of bringing about the removal of the "The breathing of impoverished air results of neces- 

vitiated air with its products of respiration and emana- sity in the dulling of the vital fire in the body and 

tions from the body as indicated by the carbonic acid gas the keen edge of intellect. It means a weakened body 

in the air, will be readily seen by noting the change in and a dulled mind. A lowered vitality of the body, 

the composition of the air as it is discharged from the besides exposing it to an increased liability to communi- 

lungs. cated, contracted, or constitutional disease, also impairs 

As will be seen from the above the nitrogen forms the its effectiveness as a vital mechanism. The aggregate of 

bulk of the atmosphere. It is practically inert in the physical and mental vitality lost through ignorance or 

processes of combustion and respiration, excepting so far indifferent regard, and even culpable disregard of the 

as it takes up some heat and renders the oxygen less exact and delicate dependence of the activities of body 

active. Ozone, which is of more recent discovery, may and mind on the maintenance of a normal, including 

be considered practically as oxygen. The solid matter atmospheric environment, surpasses all common concep- 

and bacteria found in the air will be referred to later tion or belief. That air quality is fully as important as 

under the subject of air filtration. food quality in the production of vital energy isaconcep- 

The two elements which are of the most interest in a tion which has yet to be borne in upon the public, if not 

discussion of the subject of ventilation are carbonic acid the professional belief and conscience." 

gas, referred to below, and the oxygen, the latter being The air supply should be as carefully considered in the 

universally known to be necessary to the burning of a selection of a home, school, or hospital as the question of 

candle or the maintenance of life. food supply. The evil effects of long-continued breath- 

A fire may be put out by an extinguisher which will ing impure air are not such as to attract immediate 
largely increase the carbonic acid gas in the air, and like- notice unless the impurity is great or the condition as to 
wise the process of oxidization in the body is arrested if temperature and moisture are such as to produce imme- 
the amount of carbonic acid gas in the air is unduly in- diate discomfort. The injury inflicted upon the system 
creased or the supply of oxygen is stopped or seriously by breathing air deficient in oxygen or otherwise con- 
diminished, taminated is only noticeable after a lapse of time and is 

Oxygen is that element in the air which is of the then more often assigned to other causes. By careful 

greatest importance to human beings. It is essential and long-continued study the bad effects of breathing 

in both heating and ventilating work, being the active foul air have been fully demonstrated, demonstrated be- 

element in combustion and in the similar processes which yond dispute, by comparing the results of the occupancy 

go on within the human lungs where it acts upon the of well ventilated and poorly ventilated prisons, ships, 

carbon and impurities in the blood, forming chemical barracks, hospitals, etc. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 



Ventilation in a hospital is of greater importance than 
elsewhere for the reason that the patients therein are 
in a weakened, exhausted, and enervated condition and 
are, therefore, especially susceptible to the effects of im- 
pure air or unsanitary surroundings. vShocks due to 
accidents, or a collapse sometimes attending surgical op- 
erations, reduce the vitality and render the patient un- 
usually susceptible to lack of proper surroundings. The 
vital resistance is diminished or in some cases appar- 
ently lost, making necessary the most helpful of sanitary 
conditions. 

The liability of the spread of disease by contagion or 
infection is greatly increased by insufficient ventilation. 
Diseases of the respiratory tract are especially aggravated 
by defective ventilation. 

The demand for proper ventilation would seem to be 
part of a general desire for cleanliness. Few of us would 
care to put on underclothing immediately taken from an- 
other person or put into our mouths articles of food and 
drink which have been in other people's mouths, yet we 
take into our lungs with but little or no hesitation the air 
that has but just come from other people's mouths and 
lungs or from close contact with their soiled clothing or 
bodies. 

The evidence of results obtained in buildings properly 
ventilated is constantly reducing the number of "those 
who oppose proper provision for good ventilation in 
public buildings and particularly in hospitals. Never- 
theless such cases frequently occur and only very re- 
cently has a case occurred where a member of a building 
committee opposed proper ventilation methods because 
the cost of installation seemed great, and it is to be 
regretted that the architect seemed to approve of the 
position of this committeeman for no better apparent 
reason than that he needed the money for use in the 
construction of the building. This committeeman's argu- 
ment was that he had no special ventilating system in his 
home, yet the members of his family when sick seemed 
to get well just the same, entirely neglecting the fact 
that in the case of the hospital there are many sick people 
confined as against the one in the home, and that the one 
sick person in the home has the constant attention of one 
or more people, while in the case of the hospital there are 
many patients dependent upon the care of comparatively 
few nurses who know nothing about ventilation and give 
no attention thereto. The statement offered does not 
prove that the sick one would not have obtained a quicker 
recovery had there been a proper system of ventilation in 
the home, nor does the fact that death did not ensue offer 
proof that another under similar conditions would not have 
died or at least have suffered severely for lack of proper 
ventilation. The further fact is overlooked that usually 
the entire cubic contents of the house may be considered 
as applied to the patient in the home as against perhaps 
1,000 cubic feet of space per patient in the hospital. 

The further argument was offered that the windows 
could be used, thus securing natural ventilation. No 
adequate ventilation can be obtained from windows in 
cold weather without subjecting the patient to most dan- 
gerous drafts, as the air obtained therefrom is necessarily 
cold and heavier than the air within the room. 

The statement that money was not available for venti- 
lation might just as well be applied to the supply of 



medicines. It would be better to utilize less expensive 
construction or build a slightly smaller hospital properly 
ventilated, which would accomplish more than the larger 
building lacking ventilation. 

Complaint that the system of warming and ventilation 
as designed is complicated is unfortunately true in a few 
cases, and the engineer designing a system which is com- 
plicated and difficult to operate is to be condemned, 
whether the hospital be small or large. This, however, 
is not a good reason for condemning ventilation as a 
whole, as a system may be designed for even a large 
hospital which will be simple and readily operated. The 
further statement that the system will not be used if in- 
stalled is without value as affecting this matter, for the 
same statement might be applied to the medicines or the 
other equipment of the hospital, to the shame of those in 
charge. 

If much has been made herein of the importance of 
this matter it is because it is felt that too frequently the 
architect, as well as the committeeman, lacks a proper 
appreciation of the importance of the subject. The archi- 
tect is the professional adviser of the owner and should 
see to it that a thing so vitally affecting the purpose of 
the building receives proper consideration. 

This lack of appreciation is often the greatest difficulty 
encountered in the design of proper ventilating systems. 
It is ofteii allied to another difficulty, that of a lack of 
sufficient funds with which to provide for ventilation 
after satisfying the owner's demand for space and orna- 
mentation of the building. 

Another serious difficulty is often found in the unwill- 
ingness of architects or owners to grant sufficient space, 
properly located, for the installation of flues, registers, 
or radiators. 

Poor building construction will frequently involve the 
heating engineer in trouble, particularly in the matter of 
loosely fitting windows or window frames. It has been 
demonstrated by tests that the difference between win- 
dows loosely fitted and windows properly fitted with 
metal weather stripping is such as to permit of a reduc- 
tion in certain cases of as much as twenty-five per cent of 
the radiation surface that would be installed if windows 
were without stripping. 

Too great care cannot be used in the selection of mate- 
rials used in the installation of the heating and venti- 
lating system. This statement is not intended to give 
warrant to the selection of materials which are unneces- 
sarily expensive, but inasmuch as the heating and ven- 
tilating system constitutes the working element of the 
building it is of special importance that only good mate- 
rials be used. It is better that less marble or limestone 
be used in the ornamentation of the building, or that less 
space be enclosed, than that the success or life of this 
important part of the building should be endangered. 

The warming of a building involves the warming of 
the air contained therein, the warming of the walls, fur- 
niture, etc., and the furnishing of suflficient heat to make 
good the losses through and about the windows, through 
the walls, and heat losses due to ventilation. 

The ventilation of a building, particularly a hospital, 
involves the introduction of a constant quantity of fresh 
air, in such a way as to give a thorough distribution 
throughout the building without drafts. 



98 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The point at which the fresh air is taken from the out- 
side must be selected with a view to securing air as free 
from dust or other impurities as possible rather than with 
a view of its nearness to the heating surfaces. 

A complete ventilating system may involve a filter 
system or humidifying system, and if the building be so 
located that it is desirable to use the building during the 
summer without opening the windows, because of the 
quality of the air in the vicinity, it may be necessary to 
provide methods of filtering, dehumidifying, and cooling. 

Frequently the heating effects of gas lights must be 
taken into consideration, as well as heat gains from the 
occupants of the room which amount to approximately 
400 B. T.U. per hour per occupant. An ordinary gas jet 
(16 candle power) will give off 3,000 B.T.U. per hour; 
a Wellsbach 640 B.T.U. per hour; a 1,200 candle power 
arc lamp 3,600 B.T.U. per hour, and a 16 candle power in- 
candescent light 160 B.T.U. per hour; while a 5 foot, 16 
candle power gas light vitiates as much air as four adults. 

The heating effect of electric lights and persons occu- 
pying a room are well ilhistrated in a test recently made 
in a theater while occupied. The air entered the build- 
ing from the outside at 48°, picking up a sufficient amount 
of heat from the ducts, walls, and floors before entering 
the room to raise it to 54° at the point of discharge in the 
floor, and the temperature was further raised to 70° dur- 
ing its passage to a point six feet above the level of the 
floor, all without the use of any part of the heating 
system. 

There are many refinements in calculation which are 
important in the case of the large work but which are 
ordinarily neglected, as for instance the increase in vol- 
ume of air as it is warmed. Assuming that 1,000 cubic 
feet of air at zero degrees Fah. is taken in through the 
fresh air intake and is raised 120° in passing through 
the heater its volume is increased to approximately 1,260 
cubic feet. After reaching the room and becoming dif- 
fused it quickly cools to 70°, at which its volume becomes 
approximately 1,100 cubic feet. It will, therefore, be 
seen that the amount of air actually secured for venti- 
lating purposes depends on the point at which it is meas- 
ured. Ordinarily it is perfectly safe to neglect this 
change in volume if the air is measured at its lower 
temperature, excepting in the adjustment of volume 
dampers applied to individual rooms, in which case such 
corrections may be required as to insure a slight excess 
of entering air over the air exhausted in order to secure 
a plenum condition in the room which will aid largely in 
preventing indrafts through the windows, etc. 

The formula used in making such a correction is as 
follows : 



V 


= 


the original volume of air ; 


V: 


= 


the final volume of air ; 


Ti 


= 


original absolute temperature 


T^ 




final ,, ,, 
Then V, = V Tj 



Absolute temperature equals 460° plus the number of 
degrees above zero at which the air is measured. 

In the case of the air introduced to and exhausted 
from a room the air is usually breathed at approximately 
70*^, at which temperature it may be properly measured. 

A theoretical discussion of flues, fans, radiator effi- 
ciencies, and the hundred and one other details involved in 
warming and ventilating engineering may not be under- 
taken within the limits of a discussion of this nature, but 
concrete methods with definite rules, formulas, and tables 
as will be most frequently required in the practice of such 
engineering will be given. 

The proper temperature for living rooms, school, and 
similar rooms is ordinarily considered to be 70°. The rela- 
tive humidity, however, has much more to do with com- 
fortable temperature than is generally supposed, and this 
matter will be referred to later. With a proper relative 
humidity there is no question but what a temperature of 
68° would be better than 70° for the class of rooms above 
mentioned, and there are many homes and some schools 
in which this, and sometimes less, is maintained as a 
standard. In England, with its more humid climate, 60° 
is the usual standard. For churches and other audito- 
riums, where people are inclined to sit with more or less 
of their wraps upon them, a temperature of 62° and some- 
times even 60° is quite sufficient, while in gymnasium 
drill halls, etc., a temperature of 60° or less is satisfac- 
tory. In hospitals the temperature shovild ordinarily be 
68° to 70°, except in special cases where a less tempera- 
ture is desirable, and in such places as operating rooms 
and their connecting rooms, in which a temperature of 
85° is desirable with methods provided for raising this 
to 98° if necessity arises, as in a case of shock to the 
patient. 

Certain hot rooms in hot baths are maintained at 160° 
to 180°. In this connection it is interesting to note that 
while one may enter a room at this temperature, it is 
impossible to stand water at a temperature over 120° be- 
cause of the more rapid transmission of heat in the case 
of the water. 

The temperature of occupied rooms should be uniform, 
and the requirements of the Massachusetts statute that 
there shall not be a variation of more than 3° in the dif- 
ferent parts of a school room is not unreasonable. Indeed 
in hospital work this is more than would be permissible. 



Tests of Brick Columns and Terra Cotta Block Columns. 



ARCHITECTS and engineers will be interested in a 
publication of the Engineering Experiment Station 
of the University of Illinois on the properties of brick 
and of terra cotta block in compression, as determined 
from experimental work carried on in the materials test- 
ing laboratory. The publication is Bulletin No. 27, Tests 
of Brick Columns and Terra Cotta Block Columns, by 



Arthur N. Talbot and Duff A. Abrams. It gives the 
results of tests of a number of piers or short columns 
built under a variety of conditions. Hard and soft bricks 
and blocks were used; and lime mortar, natural cement 
mortar, and lean and rich Portland cement mortar were 
tried. The effect of indifferent workmanship was deter- 
mined. Both central and eccentric loadings were used. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 57. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 5. PLATE 58. 




■*die*»»: 



HOUSE, STABLE AND GARAGE. MILWAUKEE, WIS 
KiRCHHOFF & Rose. Architects 





■/V*.*^ FLaafi PLJt>f 



PLANS OF HOUSE 



DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE TO HOUSE. 




plKSTftOOK PLXf 



PLANS OF STABLE AND GARAGE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 5. PLATE 59. 





HOUSE AT LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
A. F Rosenheim, Architect and Owner. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 60. 




i 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 61. 




DETAILS 

OF 

ENTRANCE 

PORCH. 



HOUSE AT 

LOS ANGELES, CAL, 

A. F. Rosenheim, 

Architect and 

Owner. 



THE BRIC KBUILDE R. 

VOL. 18, NO. 5. PLATE 62. 




■BAS£-ME:yVTPL7i7^- \ ' ^^J^' S T FLOOR 'PL:A7>r' j - THIRD FLOOR- PL AT/' SECOT^D FLOOR PlATV 



u ° 
Q 

°^ 

-J - 

< 

z 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 5. PLATE 63. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 64. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 65. 




FIRST PRESBYTERIAN 

CHURCH, 
CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 



McKiM, Mead d. white, 

AND 

Bearden &. Foreman, 

Associated, architects. 



J 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 5. PLATE 66. 




HOTEL SECOR, TOLEDO, OHIO. 
George S. Mills. Architect. 



i 



i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 67. 



r — un: 






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SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



TRUrJK STORACjf. 



TOILET B POOM q !! pL 



roiLETB POOM ri ^ 

n,l..Tfe-o^;| ' 




£>AEB£R OMOP 

c v 9 9 ^/ "^'^"^ 




BAKCEY 



NINTH FLOOR PLAN. 

ALSO TYPICAL. EXCEPT THAT SPACE OCCUPIED BY BALL ROOM SUITE 

CORRESPONDS WITH RIGHT WING. 



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BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



FLOOR PLANS. HOTEL SECOR. TOLEDO, OHIO. 

George S. Mills. Architect. 



I 



THE BRl CKBl' 1 I. DER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 5. PLATE 68. 




THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 69. 




I 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 5. PLATE 70. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



99 



In the central loading- columns of high-grade building 
brick laid with rich Portland cement mortar carried from 
3,220 to 4,110 pounds per square inch, and the results 
ranged down to 1,360 pounds per square inch for columns 
laid in lime mortar and 1,030 pounds per square inch for 
columns of soft brick laid in rich mortar. The terra 
cotta block columns carried from 2,700 to 3,790 pounds 
per square inch. The columns were found to fail at 
much lower loads after repeated loading than when a 
single application of the load was used. The tests under 
eccentric load show that the columns resist eccentric load- 
ing well, following closely the laws of mechanics of 
materials. 

The fact is brought out clearly that the stronger the 
individual brick or block the stronger the masonry, and 
that the strength of the mortar used affects largely the 
resisting strength of the structure. It is also evident 
that the better the individual piece the more import- 
ant it is to have a mortar of high resisting strength. 
Clay workers and builders will be interested in seeing 
how much gain in strength of structure is obtained with 
the higher grade of brick and also in the great advantage 
found in the use of a rich, strong mortar. The effect of 
the attempt to represent hurried or careless workman- 
ship in laying up work was a loss in strength of say, fif- 
teen per cent to twenty-five per cent, a smaller decrease 
in strength than was expected. The results of these tests 
go to show that wherever good material and workman- 
ship are insured a higher load may be applied on masonry 
of this kind than is usually permitted. 

The following is a summary of the conclusions arrived 
at as a result of these tests: 

"Both brick columns and terra cotta block columns 
gave high strengths in all cases where strong mortar and 
care in building were used. For central loading the 
strength of the brick columns ranged from 3,220 to 4,110 
pounds per square inch, and the strength of the terra 
cotta block columns from 2,700 to 3,790 pounds per 
square inch, the columns having the highest resistance 
not failing at the full capacity of the machine. The effect 
of the strength of the mortar is apparent in the carrying 
capacity developed in the columns; lower loads were 
found in columns built with one fifth Portland cement 
mortar than in those with one third Portland cement 
mortar, still lower loads in those with one third natural 
cement mortar, and still lower loads in those having one 
half lime mortar. The effect of the quality of the brick 
is shown in the columns made with inferior brick, which 
carried only thirty-one per cent as much as columns 
built with the better grade of brick. 

In the case of the terra cotta columns, the blocks 
which were culled out as somewhat inferior gave a 
column strength perhaps thirty per cent less than the 
columns built with superior blocks. The effect of the 
attempt to represent hurried or careless workmanship in 
two brick columns and in three terra cotta block columns 
was a loss in strength of about fifteen per cent and 
twenty-five per cent, respectively. 

"The ratio of the strength of the columns to the com- 
pressive strength of the individual brick and block is of 
interest. In the well built brick columns loaded cen- 
trally, the ratio of strength of column to compressive 
strength of individual brick ranged from 0.31 to 0.37, 



and in the imderburned clay brick column the ratio was 
0.27. In the terra cotta block columns with central load- 
ing the ratio of strength of column to that of individual 
block was 0.74 for the incompleted test and 0.83, 0.8.S, 
and 0.89 for the others. 

If, as seems to be the case, the strength of the brick 
or block to resist cross-breaking is an element in determ- 
ining the strength of the built-up column, a deeper or 
thicker brick would give higher column strength. It is 
possible that this partially accounts for the fact that the 
ratio is found to be higher for terra cotta block columns 
than for brick columns. The tests suggest that the 
ability of individual pieces to resist transver.se strength 
is an important element in the strength of the completed 
column. This suggestion may have an important bear- 
ing on the advantageous size of the jcomponent blocks 
which may be u.sed in a compression piece where high 
strength is desired. 

' ' The strength of the column is greater than the strength 
of the mortar cubes in both brick and terra cotta block 
columns, excepting only the soft brick columns which 
had brick of low compressive strength. It is evident 
that the strength of individual brick or blocks and the 
.strength of the mortar both enter into the resistance of 
the column. The relative effect of the two depends upon 
the character of the material. It is evident, however, 
that the better the individual piece the more important 
it is to have a mortar of high resisting strength. 

' ' The results obtained in applying the load eccentricall)' 
were found to agree very well with those obtained from 
ordinary analysis. When the amount of eccentricity in 
the application of the load is known or may be estimated 
closely, the ability of the column to resist this action 
may be calculated quite closely. It is apparent from 
the results that the calculated resisting stress in the 
column on the side of maximum compression is higher 
than that which cau.ses failure in centrally loaded col- 
umns. The higher stress developed with eccentric load- 
ing is probably due to the influence of the restraint of 
the less stressed interior portion. The tests made by 
applying and releasing a single load a number of times 
gave failures at loads below those which produced failure 
in similar columns at a single application of the load. 
The phenomenon is common in materials of the nature 
of brick and terra cotta. 

"It is- apparent that the quality of workmanship in 
laying up such columns has an important bearing upon 
the resisting strength. The work of building columns, 
however, is not difficult and requires only ordinary care. 
Full joints and an even bearing are important, and the 
ordinary workman ought to be able to construct columns 
of high strength. In the tests made on columns intended 
to represent poor or careless workmanship, the decrease 
in strength was not as much as anticipated. However, 
it mu-st be understood that careful and trustworthy work 
is es.sential and that a few poor joints will materially 
reduce the strength of the structure. Wherever good 
material and good workmanship are insured the 
strength of ma.sonry of this kind may be utilized with 
advantage." 

Copies of the report may be obtained gratis upon appli- 
cation to the director. Engineering Experiment Station, 
Urbana, Illinois. 



lOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Housing Problem — III. 



BY GEORGE B. FORD. 



WE HAVE considered the important features which 
make for healthier living conditions, and they may 
be summarized as follows: 

The most healthful conditions are obtained when the 
blocks of tenements are only two rooms deep, divided 
into blocks of units, 
between which are 
open stairs. These 
blocks will run north 
and south, or nearly 
so, and will be sepa- 
rated by narrow 
streets. If such 
conditions are not 
obtainable, then the 
requisites are as 
follows : 

Interior enclosed 
courts must not be 
tolerated. Yards and 
open courts must be 
sufficiently wide to 
admit light and sun- ^„„ „^„„ ,.,„^^ 

*' FOUR ROOM SUITE. 




As an example, witness the vastly improved condition of 
the neighborhood of the Phipps houses on East Thirty- 
first street in New York. Here within a little over a 
year after the buildings were open for occupancy, the 
neighbors have one and all improved the appearance of 

their houses. Envir- 
onment may be bet- 
tered as follows : 

By giving more 
privacy; by making 
housekeeping and 
the care of children 
easier; by bettering 
the conditions under 
which home work 
may be carried on ; 
by bettering sleeping 
conditions ; by giving 
better opportunity 
for recreation and 
play, and by making 
the surroundings in 
every way more 
cheerful. 



ANOTHER THREE ROOM SUITE. 



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BR- 



CLO. 




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BK 



LIVING KOOn 



a 



^HT 



V 



fRlVATS HALL 



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ao 



THREK ROOM SUITE. 
Large window in living room ; private vestibule. 




i^^n^ 



V 



LlVmG ROOM 



R 



aR 



J3 



CLO 



20 



TWO ROOM SUITE. 
Shower bath and water closet. 



PHIPPS HOUSES NO. I, NEW YORK. 
Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 



light on the shortest day of the year to the ground floor 
windows. Such courts should open south, or within 
forty-five degrees of south. 

Tenements should not be over five stories in height. 

As to the interior, the air should circulate through the 
apartments, from front to back, through all the rooms, 
including the toilets. Circulation of air is necessary in 
winter as well as in summer, the heat coils being so 
arranged as to permit of the warm air being always fresh. 
Dampness should be avoided by attention to the con- 
struction of the exterior walls. 

Good surroundings, clean, well arranged living quar- 
ters must raise the standard of living of tenants, and not 
only that, but they will effect the whole neighborhood. 



Let us take up each of these subjects in turn. 

Privacy. — The important things which interfere with 
privacy from without are noise, sights, and smells. The 
continual din and racket of the streets, of the passing 
teams, of the hawkers, the elevated, street cars, children 
playing in the streets ; of the piano across the court, and 
people carousing late at night, and all the thousand and 
one noises in the air shaft or the interior court ; these are 
nerve racking at best. Again the sordidness and dirti- 
ness of the streets, walls, stairs, and corridors, the refuse 
and garbage lying in heaps; these cannot but have a 
detrimental effect on the tenants. And again, the intol- 
erable odors of the streets with the clouds of dust flying 
all day long, uncollected heaps of garbage, the courts 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



lOI 



with their accumulated stench of years ; these cannot add 
to the comfort of those who are condemned to live ir such 
places. All this may be avoided in new districts by sci- 
entific town planning- along the lines which we described 
in the second chapter. Streets, bordered with trees and 
grass plots, houses two rooms deep, long open yards be- 
tween the rears of the houses (these yards to be planted 



tion are essential. For bathing- of children a small, sepa- 
rate bath in the kitchen is desirable. Such has been 
used to good advantage in the Rothschilds tenements in 
Paris, designed by Monsieur Rey. For sleeping, a good 
circulation of air is necessary. For exercise and play 
some means must be devised to keep the children off of 
the street. This is possible either on roof gardens espec- 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 



PHIPPS HOUSES NO. 2, FOR COLORED PEOPLE, WEST 630 STREET, NEW YORK. 

Whitfield & King, Architects. 



and used as playgrounds and small parks) ; add to this 
open courts and open stairs and scrupulous cleanliness on 
the part of the landlords and very few of the evils men- 
tioned would be possible. 

Inside the apartment it is essential to secure privacy, 
especially for the women, to allow them a chance to re- 
ceive visitors without hav- 
ing to do so in the same 
room with the rest of the 
family or without passing 
through rooms occupied by 
the others. There should 
be privacy in the location 
of the bath room so that it 
can be entered without 
passing through any of the 
living or sleeping rooms. 
These points can almost 
always be arranged by a 
little ingenuity in planning. 

Care of Children. — For 

-the health and care of 

babies, clean surroundings, 

plenty of warmth, plenty of 

sunlight, and good ventila- 




JORALtMON Street 

A. T. WHITE TENEMENTS, BROOKLYN. 

The pioneer model tenements of America ; open .stairs ; all rooms 

face open air. 



ially arranged for the purpose as in the Phipps houses 
No. 1 in New York, or in a large, planted interior court 
as in the A. T. White tenements in Brooklyn, some of 
the Boston co-operative houses in Boston, or as in many 
of the most recent German tenements. For play in rainj' 
weather it is possible to reserve a large, open space in the 

basement of the tenements, 
such space to be made as 
bright and well ventilated 
as possible. In all three 
cases the nia.ximum of sun- 
light is desirable. For 
schooling, a kindergarten 
in the building is most de- 
sirable, as has been proved 
in the Phipps hou.ses No. 1 
and in many of the (lerman 
tenements. To allow chil- 
dren to go up and down 
stairs easily a lower hand 
rail at a convenient lieight 
for them should be pro- 
vided, and further the 
treads of stairs should be 
bowed so as to allow a 



I02 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



narrower tread next to the rail. This again has been 
arranged successfully in the Rothschilds tenements in 
Paris. 

Housekeeping. — It is a question whether the kitchen 
should be in the living room or whether there should be 
a small kitchen entirely apart from the living room. 
The cooking, dish-washing, laundering, etc., has to be 
done where the children may be readily watched at the 
same time. The best arrangement for securing this end 
would seem to be a kitchenette leading off of the living 
room, such to open into the latter throughout its whole 
length by folding doors. This has 
worked to good advantage in certain 
of the better modern light-house- 
keeping apartments but it has not 
yet been tried in tenements. For 
cooking, a gas stove has proved pre- 
ferable in New York model tene- 
ments. It does away with all the 
space required for coal and ashes 
with all their attendant dirt. It 
keeps the whole apartment in much 
better condition and in general is 
much easier to handle. It further 
allows the rooms to be much cooler 
in summer. It saves, too, consider- 
able space in flues. F"or the wash- 
ing of dishes a white enameled iron 
sink is desirable. The small gal- 
vanized iron .sinks put in the major- 
ity of tenements in New York are 
anything but convenient or hygienic 
or conducive to cleanliness. Wash- 
ing and ironing must be done in the 
apartment, because the mother can 
not absent herself from her children. 
There should be two tubs in the 
kitchenette. These 
tubs should be of white i 
enameled earthenware ' — =_ 

like those placed in 
many of the recent ten- 
ements in New York. 
They should be adjacent 
to and just beyond the 
sink for the conven- 
ience of using the space 
on their covers in dish- 
washing. For drying 
the clothes, steam dri- 
ers may be provided in 
the basement. The 
majority of housewives 
prefer, however, to dry 
their clothes in the open air. It is not desirable to leave 
the drying clothes on open lines on the roof, because of 
the dust and smoke and because of the danger of such 
clothes being stolen. In certain recent tenements in 
France and Germany, an open air drying-space has been 
provided on the roof, such being under cover and divided 
into locker compartments with lattice partitions, with 
louvres and dust screens about the exterior. They have 
worked well and have not proved costly. For cleanliness 



in sweeping and dusting it is desirable that all corners 
should be rounded, those of the walls and ceilings as well 
as those of the floor; that all trim and doors and win- 
dows should be as simple in their moldings as possible. 
The floors are preferably of hardwood, also the trim. 
In many foreign tenements dust chutes have been pro- 
vided, leading from the kitchen or back hallway to a 
large receptacle or incinerator in the basement. There 
should be an incinerator anyway in the basement in any 
large group of houses, to take care of the garbage. For 
convenience in table setting there should be a glass- 
doored cupboard in the same room 
as the dining table. This cupboard 
should be as convenient as possible 
to the sink. For chamber work, to 
permit of watching children while it 
is being done, there should be an 
open view across to the living room ; 
further the chambers should be con- 
venient to the toilet. Closets should 
have rounded corners and should be 
open on two opposite sides if possi- 
ble with louvres to permit of venti- 
lation of the clothes hanging within. 
For the care of food there should be 
a larder open to the oiiter air, either 
under the window sill of the kitchen 
or on a specially constructed interior 
shaft, constantly provided with puri- 
fied fresh air. This latter device is 
successfully provided for in the 
Rothschilds tenem.ents. 

These are a few of the features 
which conduce to the ease and com- 
fort of housekeeping. In practice 
they will readily suggest others. 
They embody little extra expense, 
but will make a very 




TYPICAL UNIT. 



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A-h- 



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TJTTT 



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E 



r 



--1' 



T I T 



HI.OCK PLAN. 

MODEL TENEMENTS FOR THE CITY ANU SUIiURliAN HOMES COMPANY, 

NEW YORK. 
Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



material difference in 
the pleasantness of 
family life. 

Ho.ME Work. — Many 
tenement dwellers must 
work at home on 
clothes, dresses, flower- 
making, etc. The 
mothers must earn 
something. They can- 
not be separated from 
their children. To 
make such home work 
as agreeable as possi- 
ble, good sanitary condi- 
tions, good ventilation, 
good light, large living room, convenient to the place 
where cooking is going on, good light at night, with gas 
fixtures in the center of the room; all these features 
are essential. 

Sleeping Arranciements. — For healthfulness and com- 
fort in sleeping a means for adequate ventilation must be. 
provided. The windows should extend from the floor to 
the ceiling, with a means of opening them at top and 
bottom. If possible there should be sunlight in the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



103 



room during the day. The walls 
should be painted, corners rounded, 
and everything should be done 
which would make the room more 
sanitary. The room should be large 
enough to provide as an absolute 
minimum four hundred cubic feet 
of air space to each individual 
sleeping therein. The sleeping 
rooms should be near the toilet. 

In order to keep the younger 
members of the family at home 
evenings, it is advantageous to have 
there features which will attract 
them. In certain recent German 
and French tenements in a park- 
like yard behind the houses, there 
have been provided cafes, restaur- 
ants, club rooms, billiard rooms, 
libraries, and in the open air, seats, 
fountains, a place for a band to 
play, a place for small entertain- 
ments to be given, and about it all 
a charming landscape setting. This, 
for a comparatively small cost, has 
added immensely to the attractive- 
ness of the houses. 

Further, the city parks and 
squares and playgrounds should all 
be as accessible as possible. People 
must have a place for relaxation after the day's work. 
If they cannot have it at home, they will go elsewhere 
to find it. Hence the desirability from the family stand- 
point, of making the home surroundings attractive. 

Cheerfulness is the one thing which the majority of 
city tenements lack. They are in most cases unutterably 
dingy and gloomy. This is bound to have a material 
effect on the physical and moral nature of the tenement 
dwellers. How can it be 
avoided ? 

Openness. — There should be 
no interior courts. Exterior 
courts to be as wide as possible. 
Windows should be large and 
airy, opening on to balconies as 
in certain recent French and 
German tenements. The rooms 
should not be too long in pro- 
portion to their width. Rows of 
houses two rooms deep on the 
north and south plan, above de- 
scribed, will give a maximum 
openness. 

Color. — The colors both of 
the exterior and the interior of 
the tenement should be light 
and warm in tone. Dinginess 
should be avoided in every pos- 
sible way. The people them- 
selves demand light colors, in 
their rooms. Abroad, it is the 
custom to repaint the plaster of 
the exterior walls every year or 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. MODEL TENEMENTS 

FOR CITY AND SUKURBAN HOMES 

COMPANY, EAST 68TH AND GiyVH 

STREETS, NEW YORK. 

Seven suites and 21 rooms ; lot 5(1' 0" by 100' 0". 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 




TT-' 



PLAN OF TYPICAL UPPER I LOOR OK C. F. BISHOT 

TENK.MENTS, HESTER STREET, NEW YORK. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect, 



so, varying the color from year to 
year and from house to house. 
This gives a great deal of variety 
and charm to the street. 

Architectural Lines. — The 
barrack type of tenement so com- 
mon in America and formerly in 
Germany, and the institutional 
type of tenement should be 
avoided. The sky line should be 
broken and the street line should 
not be continuous for more than 
one hundred feet without a break. 
Attention to this feature means 
little additional cost but means a 
great deal in the possible charm 
of the tenement. 

Natural Surroundings. — Grow- 
ing things, especially trees, are 
purifiers of the atmosphere. They 
add immensely to the pleasantness 
of surroundings. Their cost is the 
minimum. In every way possible, 
use should be made of trees, 
shrubs, lawns, llowers, vines, win- 
dow boxes, plants, anything which 
will bring nature into the decora- 
tive scheme of the dwellings. 

Orientation. — Each room 
should be considered in itself as to 
what is its most desirable exposure. Practically none 
of the rooms should face north exclusively. Sunlight 
is essential for cheerfulness. This avoidance of a north- 
ern exposure may be obtained by the north and south 
plan which we have already described. 

In case this street plan is impossible, all courts should 
be made to open out and as nearly south as possible, 
thereby bringing sunlight into the maximum number of 
rooms. 

These features will add greatly 
to the general happiness and 
well-being of the tenant, and 
like the matters previou.sly de- 
scribed, will make a happy 
family life much more possible. 
The conditions and arrange- 
ments which make for ideal ten- 
ements from the standpoint of 
comfort and the bettering of 
family life are similar to those 
which seem to work the best 
from the standpoint of safety 
and health. This shows the 
necessity of scientific city plan- 
ning, how, if we are going to 
give the working people those 
living conditions which are their 
right, we must lay out a com- 
prehensive plan for the whole 
future of the tenement districts. 
This has not yet been done in 
America. The agitation for it 
is strong, and within a com para- 



X 



104 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




BLOCK. PLAN. 




TYPICAL FLOOR OF UNITS. 

HOUSES OF THE BOSTON COOPERA- 
TIVE BUILDING COMPANY, HAR- 
RISON AVENUE, P.OSTON. 



tively short time there is going to 
be a demand for such comprehen- 
sive city plans. For such we must 
be prepared with a reasonable and 
adequate solution. I believe that 
with certain modifications depend- 
ing on the peculiarities of each in- 
dividual problem, the typical north 
and south plan as worked out by 
Monsieur Rey, of Paris, will solve 
this problem. I believe that it will 
make homes out of what have pre- 
viously been mere shelters from the 
elements. It will attract rather 
than repel the working members of 
the families. The fathers, sons, and 
daughters who have been away dur- 
ing the day will feel more inclined 
to stay at home evenings. Family 
life will be happier and more genu- 
ine. It will breed better citizens, it 
will make more efficient workers, 
and men better suited to deal with 
the problems of government and of 
life. It will create not Beings, but 
Men. 



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L fa I I ch 



I. ■' fr ^ t;=f i, ,1 ,1 tj 11 I, .I f; rf [ 



3 10 ZO so 



BLOCK BUILDING OF THE COOPERA- 
TIVE BUILDING ASSOCIATION 
OF DRESDEN, GERMANY. 

.Ml living and sleeping rooms are on the out- 
side. Large windows are a feature. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



105 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 






I 



* »■— » ■ ! 




mmmnm&t^ 






iiiFfiuiii; 



N THIS issue we begin the publication of a series of 
articles, treating of warming and ventilating, pre- 
pared by Mr. D. D. Kimball, a member of the Ameri- 
can Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers, and 
of the Richard D. Kimball Company, Consulting En- 
gineers of New York and Boston. 

While written with special reference to the needs of 
hospital buildings, these 
articles cover briefly the 
history and literature of 
ventilating wrork, the diflfi- 
culties and forces involved 
in this field of engineering, 
and, particularly, the value 
and importance of ventila- 
tion, especially in hospital 
buildings. 

Warming and ventilating 
are differentiated, and their 
close association is ex- 
plained; the composition of 
the air and its part in ven- 
tilating work is made plain ; 
and the volume of air re- 
quired to maintain definite 
standards of ventilation is 
given; proper standards of 
warming and ventilation 
are set forth, and the vari- 
ous systems commonly 
used are described, the fit- 
ness of each for different 
classes of buildings being 
discussed. A series of 
formulas is given covering 
that part of the work by 
means of which the size of 
radiators, boilers, chimneys, 
pipes, flues, ducts, and 
other details may be de- 
termined. 

In a series of articles of 
this nature, it is not possible to cover the entire field of 
ventilating engineering, or to discuss the theory of the 
work, but sufficient details are given to enable one gen- 
erally familiar with the practices of the trade, to design 



an ordinary sys- 
tem, or, what is 
quite as impor- 
tant, to cor- 
rectly check or 
judge of any 
plans for warm- 
ing and venti- 
lating work that 
may be p r e - 
sented to the architect, 
articles, we recognize the 




■Jiltill 



DETAI i 




■ATZSuSSSS 



DETAIL OF CAkNEGlK LIBRARY, BROWNSVILLE BRANCH, 

BROOKLYN. 

The bricks range in shade from soft gray through several shades of 

yellow to a real brown. The joints are three-tiuarter incli, tooled 

smooth. Special size brick used in cornice and coping. Blue 

and green tiles are used for decoration. Brick furnished 

by Fi.ske & Co., Inc. 

Lord & Hewlitt, Architects! 



1 , NI.W YORK ARCIll rKt.TUKAI. 
IKKKA COTTA CO.Ml'ANV. 

In presenting this series of 
fact that the architect is the 
l)rofessional adviser of his 
client, and as such should 
be able to convince the 
client of the value of venti- 
lation, and give substantial 
proof therefor, as well as to 
be able to decide on the best 
system to be used for the 
work in hand. 

But relatively few archi- 
tects appreciate the fact 
that thorough ventilation 
will increase the capacity 
of a hospital building from 
twenty-five per cent to forty 
per cent, by reducing to that 
extent the average number 
of days required for a cure. 
It is hoped that this and 
similar statements made 
and proved in these papers 
will lead the architect to 
insist that this vital feature 
of a building shall be con- 
sidered by his clients quite 
as important as the build- 
ing's arrangement or its 
ornamentation. 

The architect's position 
as professional adviser to 
his client assumes a certain 
familiarity with anything 
which so vitally affects the 
success of the enterprise, 
and if these articles assist 

him in this important matter, their purpose will have 

been achieved. 





POWER TO LIMIT BUILDINGS. 




T' 



DETAILS FOR SCHOOLHOISE, PIIILADELIMII A. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

J. Horace Cook, Architect. 



*IIE decision of the United States Su- 
preme Court in the case of I'^rancis 
C. Welch, trustee, against the building 
commissioner of Boston, has an application 
to every city in the country where sky- 
.scrapers are erected or contemplated. In 
supporting the commissioners in their re- 
fusal to grant a permit to Mr. Welch to 
erect a building 124 feet high, it upholds 
absolutely the right of a state, under its 
police powers, to limit the height of build- 
ings in an arbitrarily determined section 



io6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of a city without offering 
compensation to property 
owners. 

An act of the Massachu- 
setts legislature, passed in 
1904, divided the city of 
Boston into two sections, 
business and residential, 
and limited the height of 
buildings in the former to 
125 feet and in the latter to 
80 feet. The land on which 
Mr. Welch desired to erect 
his building was in the resi- 
dential section, and the 
application was refused by 
the building commissioner. 
Appeal was then made from 
the commissioner to the 
Board of Appeal on the 
ground that the acts of 
the former were unconsti- 
tutional. The board sup- 
ported the commissioner, and the case was taken to the 
courts. The decision supports that of all the previous 
tribunals. 

The case was the first that has come before the Su- 
preme Court on the question of building restriction, and 
its decision is of wide import. 

The contention of Welch was that the law was uncon- 
stitutional, being unelastic, 
and hence unreasonable and 
not a proper exercise of the 
state police power. The 
Supreme Court, however, 
held that the law was 
reasonable and properly in 
the interest of the public 
health and safety. 




SMALL STORE BUILDl.Nu, CHICAGO. 

rnint of terra cotta made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Marshall & Fo.x, Architects. 



the value of the lease in 
1902, $18,000 for the loss 
of decorations and other 
improvements unfit for use 
elsewhere, and the balance 
for interest losses. If the 
judgment holds, there will 
no doubt be a change in the 
wording of future leases in 
Xew York, for the covenant 
has customarily been to 
permit the tenant "to 
peacefully and quietly enjoy 
the property," etc. 

The decision also affects 
innumerable other proper- 
ties, the improvement of 
which includes vault ac- 
commodation obtained by 
the payment of a small 
fee. If the privilege is re- 
vokable, there must hence- 
forth be economy in sub- 



terranean eciuipment and furnishing. 



DAMAGES were 
awarded a tenant for 
the loss of vault privileges 
under the pavement by the 
United States Circuit Court 
in New York a few weeks 
ago, but the case is to be 
taken to the United States 

Court of Appeals. The Pabst Brewing Company, having 
leased from Charles Thorley a building that stood at the 
southerly end of the triangle now occupied by the Times 
Building, made a considerable outlay in fitting up the 
sub-surface space as a rath- 
skeller. In 1904 the city 
revoked the vault privilege 
as the space was needed for 
the subway. 

The Pabst Company va- 
cated the property and 
brought suit. The judg- 
ment just awarded 
amounted to §88,830 and 
v.-as based on $45,000 for 




WITH considerable spirit Baltimore rejects the pro- 
posal <if the Pennsylvania Railroad to build a new 
station in the city which will cost only half a million. 
Pointing to Washington's magnificent new structure, it 
demands a grand union station commensurate with the 

importance of Baltimore 
and its future needs. Until 
this be assured there is talk 
of withholding concessions 
descried by the railroads. 
The art commission, whose 
opinion of the plans will 
have influence, includes 
among prominent citizens, 
architects Douglas H. 
Thomas, Jr., Josias Pen- 
nington, and Joseph Evans 
Sperry. 



SCHOOLHOUSE, KOSELLK I'ARK, N. J. 
Walls of terra cotta hollow tiles made by National Fire-Proofing 
Company. Cost of buildinj; complete, 565,000. Fire- 
proof throughout e.xcept roof timbers. 
■ Pierce & IJickford, Architects. 



THE Twelfth Compe- 
tition of the _fohn 




DLlAll. l;\ 1.A.MI..-5 



Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



Stewardson Memorial 
Scholarship in Architecture 
has been awarded by the managing committee to (irant 
Miles Simon, an undergraduate of the school of architec- 
ture at the University of Pennsylvania. Five mentions 
were awarded, all to members of the University school of 

architecture or its atelier, 
as follows: First, Lucius 
Read White; second, Roy 
Childs Jones; third, Charles 
L. Bolton; fourth, Ceorge 
S. Koyl; fifth. Earl F. 
liankes. The jury con- 
sisted of Messrs. Edward 
L. Tilton, Robert D. Kohn, 
John Mead Howells, and 
John V. Van Pelt, all of 



"i Ol No, AK^ll. I 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



ic; 



New York. The 
Stevvardson Schol- 
arship grants $1,000 
for a year's travel 
and study in Eu- 
rope. It is open for 
competition to any 
person under thirty 
years of age who 
has studied or prac- 
tised architecture in 
the state of Penn- 
sylvania for at least 
one year preceding 
the date of the final 
examination. In 
this year's competi- 
tion thirty-one (31) 
designs were en- 
tered from four 
ateliers (Pittsburg, 
Wilkes-Barre, T 
Square Club, and 
the Universit y 
Atelier in Philadel- 
phia) and from the 
school of architec- 
ture, University of 
Pennsylvania. 




PeiWIBBBE 



liifiE E 



Si IBS SBiilliSil 



lis MBM HSB BSi'llill' 

lij III ill ill lu 





OLIVER liUII.DING, PITlSliURC, I'A. 

Exterior of dull cream enameled terra cotta, made by Atlanta Terra Cotta Company. 

MacCIiire & Spahr, Architects. 



ON APRIL 
28th unusual 
honors were paid 
to the memory of 
Major Pierre 
Charles L'Enfant, the French engineer who, under the 
authority of George Washington, laid out the city of 
Washington. Having been disinterred from its resting- 
place on Digges Farm, in Maryland, the body was taken 
to the Capitol at Washington under military escort, and 
there, in the rotunda which forms the center of his plan 
for the city, it lay 
in state while \'ice- 
president Sherman 
and Ambassador 
Jusserand paid 
tribute to his mem- 
ory. In the after- 
noon the body was 
taken under mili- 
tary escort to the 
Arlington National 
Cemetery, where 
religious services 
accompanied its in- 
terment. 



IIOTKLSECOR— 
TOLEDO. 

(JEORliE S. MII.I.S, 
ARCHITKCT. 

(See illustrations in 
plate forms.) 

THE building is 
120 feet by 169 
feet, ten stories and 
basement. Thecost 
was 24 1/^ cents per 
cubic foot, meas- 
ured from average 
footing level to 
highest part of roof, 
leaving out court. 
The building is 
ecjuipped with three 
250 horse power 
water-tube boilers ; 
three generators; 
ice making and re- 
frigeration plant; 
four plunger eleva- 
tors; complete ven- 
tilating plant; artesian well; pumping plant, etc. 

There is a ball room and convention hall on the ninth 
floor, and servant's quarters and laundry on the tenth 
floor. 

Every room has in connection either a complete 
bath room or toilet room with lavatory and water- 
closet. 



ers' Exchange, 
April 17th to May 
3d. The club cata- 
logue was made un- 
usually interesting 
by a number of 
colored prints. 



THEfirstannual 
exhibition of 
the Minneapolis 
Architectural Club 
was held in the gal- 
leries of the Build- 




Built of "Rradford Red 



HOI SK AT IN(;RAM, I'A. 
Brick, made by Bradford I'res.sed Brie k Comjiany, Bradford, 
F. J. Osterling, Architect. 



IN (iENERAL. 

John Scott & Co., 
architects, an- 
nounce the removal 
of their offices from 
the MolTat Building 
to the Ford Build- 
ing, Detroit. 

Arthur S. Meloy, 
formerly of Meloy 
& Beckwith, arch- 
itects, Bridgeport, 
Conn., has opened 
an oflice in the Post 
( )fficeArcadeof that 
city. Manufactur- 
ers' catalogues 
desired. 



io8 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



The partnership 
of Mills & Pruitt, 
architects, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, has been 
dissolved. Wilbur 
T. Mills will con- 
tinue at the present 
address, 49 North 
High street, while 
Edwin E. Pruitt has 
opened offices in the 
Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association 
Building. 

Arthur Dillon, 
Hugh McLellan, 
and Henry L. 
Beadel have associ- 
ated under the firm 
name of Dillon, 
McLellan & Beadel, 
for the practice of architecture. 
New York. 




HOUSE AT sr. PALM,, MINN. 

Built of " Autumn Leaf " brick, made by Twin City Brick Company. 

Clarence H. Johnston, Architect. 



Offices 1123 Broadway, 



McLaughlin e^ Siebert, architects, have 
opened an office in the Wright Building, 
Pittsfield, Mass. Manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples desired. 

At the annual meeting of the Detroit 
Architectural Club, held April 5th, the fol- 
lowing officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: Dalton R. Wells, president; Oscar 
Gottesleben, vice-president; D. J. V. Snyder, 
secretary; J. H. (nistav Steffens, treasurer. 

The annual exhibition of the Washington 
Architectural Club was held in the Corcoran 
Gallery of Art from May 4th to 11th. Com- 
bined with this exhibition was another of 
etchings and .colored woodblock prints by 
Baroness Hedwig Lekow. 

The Belle vue- Stratford Hotel in Philadel- 
phia is to be enlarged by the erection of a 
sixteen-story addition containing three hun- 
dred and sixty bedrooms. 

At the first annual meeting of the Seattle 
Architectural Club the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year : 
D. J. Myers, presi- 
dent; J. C. Stanley, 
vice-president; H. 
O. Mouldenhour, 
secretary; E. E. 
Ziegler, treasurer. 



The old Hotel 
Metropole in New 
York, owned by the 
Coe estate, is to be 
torn down and a 
six-story fireproof 
business building 




DETAIL BY LONd, I.AM- 

OREAUX & LONd, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Ameriean Terra Cotta & Ce- 
ramic Company, Makers. 



1 


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erected on the site. 
The foundation 
walls of the new 
structure are to be 
made strong enough 
to support the 
weight of twenty- 
four additional stor- 
ies if later needed. 
Henry Ives Cobb is 
the architect. 

The New York 
Produce Exchange 
is considering sell- 
ing its property, 
which contains 
about 70,800 square 
feet and is valued 
at §6,000,000. Only 
a small proportion 
of thisareaisneeded 
by the Exchange for its own use ; and with the money 
received from a sale, therefore, it is proposed 
to build, for about $1,000,000, a new ex- 
change building fronting Broad street. The 
remaining $.S, 000,000 will be held or dis- 
bursed among the members. 

Another well-known hotel in New York 
that is to give way to the march of improve- 
ments is the Belvedere, a German hostelry 
on Fourth avenue. A sky-scraper is to take 
its place, as was the case with its neighbor, 
the Florence House, on the opposite side of 
Fourth avenue. 

The New York State Commission in 
Lunacy and the Board of Managers of the 
Long Island State Hospital have bought 548 
acres of ground at Gi-eenvale, Long Island 
for $412,000. This property will be u.sed 
for the establishment of the newly planned 
Long Island vState Hospital and is intended 
for patients committed from Brooklyn. 

M. J. G. Crosset Montague, a well-to-do 

French architect, was the passenger in the 
automobile taxicab which was run down by 
James Hazen Hyde's automobile at the intersection of 

the rue Rocher and 
the rue Vienne in 
Paris, on October 
2yth, and as a result 
of which Mr. Hyde 
has just been sen- 
tenced to prison for 
one month. 

The Shuberts are 
to build new 
theaters in Minne- 
apolis and St. Paul. 



.Mc(;REGOR MK.MUKIAl. ll'i U., >. 1.1,\ EL_\Mi, i.ililn. 

Roofed with Imperial Spanish Tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Badgley & Nicklas, Architects. 



Tracy, Swart wont 
& Litchfield, of New 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



109 




York, won the competi- 
tion for the new Post Office 
and Federal Building at 
I )enver. There were six- 
teen competitors. The 
official cost of the build- 
ing is put at $1,500,000. 

The architectural terra 
cotta used in the Hotel 
Secor, Toledo, (ieorge S. 
Mills, architect, illustrated 
in the plate forms of this 
issue, was furnished by 
the Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company. The terra cotta 
for the church at Chatta- 
nooga, ^IcKim, Mead & 
White, architects, is being 
furnished by the Atlanta 
Terra Cotta Company. 

S. B. Dobbs, of Phila- 
delphia, will supply the 
light gray imperviousbrick 
which is to be used for 
the interior of the im- 
mense building which is 
being erected in Philadel- 
phia for the Curtis Publishing Company, Edgar V. vSeeler, 
architect. These bricks will take the place of the usual 



DETAIL V,\ 111 I, Ml 1; A HU- 

liERTV, ARCHITECTS. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 




plastered 
walls. This is 
one of the larg- 
est contracts 
ever let for a 
high grade 
face brick. 

" Ironclay " 
bricks, made 
by the Iron- 
clay Brick 
Company, of 
Columbus, 
Ohio, and fur- 
nished by O. 
W. Ketcham, 
Philadelphia, 
were u.sed in 

the Eagles' Building, Camden, N. J., Thomas, Church- 
man & Molitor, architects, illustrated in the plate forms 
of this issue. 

Hydraulic-press brick — impervious gray — will be used 
in the new Hermitage Hotel, Chattanooga, Tenn. Car- 
penter, Blair & Oould, of New York, architects. 

Dark red wire-cut bricks, made by the Western Brick 
Company, of Danville, 111., were used in the house at Mil- 
waukee, Kirchhoff & Rose, architects, illustrated in the 
plate forms of this issue. 



DEIAII. liV SCHWARTZ & (IROSS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



Wanted — Experienced architectural engineer, thor- 
oughly COMPETENT, IX GENERAL SPECIFICATION WORK. 

Albert Kahn, Architect, Detroit, Mich. 

Architects — Do vou need help? Have (jood men on 
MY list. 

Wanted: Draftsmen and Designers for good positions 
IN all parts of the country. If now e.mployed will 
assist you to better yourself, only with written con- 
sent of your present employer. 

Am only Registrar who places hkih (jrade tech- 
nical MEN exclusively. No ADVANCE, FEES REASOXAP.I.E. 

Leo a. Pereira, 6 East Madison St., Chicago. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE offers full professional 
traininj^ in a four year coursk leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option is allowed in aikiiitectural 
engineerinc;. The GR.VDUATii: vj:,\r grants a Master's degree, 
allowing specialization in advanced work. Adnanced 
st.vndixg is granted to college graduates. (Jnalificd dk ai-ts- 
MEN, desiring advanced technical training, are admitted with- 
out examination to the two \k.\r special coiksic leading to a 
Certificate of Proficiency, and technical .studies only maj' be 
taken by other persons of approved fitness. Illustrated 
.\Nxr.\L sent on a])plication. For itll ini'orm.vtion address 

Dr. J. H. Penniman, Dean, College Department, 

University of Penn.sylvania, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



FOR SALE 

Large Brick Plant and Clay Beds at Clayville, 
New Jersey. Plant equipped with Engines, 
Boilers, Brick Machine, Pulp Mill, Repress 
Machines, etc., etc. Is located on the main 
line West Jersey & Seashore R. R. on a 12 
acre plot. There are I 1 acres of good buff 
clay, white sand and gravel situated about a 
mile from the R. R. main line connected with 
a switch from main line. Any further par- 
ticulars may be had by addressing The Clay- 
ville Mining & Brick Co., 1611 Filbert St.. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



" STUDIO YEAR BOOK 1909 " 

Contains many illustrations showing the recent 
development in the decorative and the applied arts. 
Especially of interest to the interior decoration of 
the house. Showing suggestions for 



INTERIORS 

MANTELS 

RUGS 



STAINED GLASS 
FIXTURES 
FABRICS, ETC. 



Size, 1 I yi X S'X, bound in green Buckram. Sent 
prepaid on receipt of $3.25. 

Imporlrr. Dfolcr Ilif 1 \/IMCrkM ^OS Ctilon Bulldint 

Booki on Archileclurr ITl. /\. VIllOWll Clrvrl>nd. Ohio 



no 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE. 

Cost not to Exceed $10,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

SECOND PRIZE, $250. FOURTH PRIZE, $100. 

MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 

THE iiroblem is a house with walls built of brick, l^orches, verandas, or piazzas may be in part or wholly 
of brick or wood. 

The cost of the house (exclusive of the land) inchiding- heating — equipment complete; plumbinjj — 
including- all fixtures ; j^as pipin.tv and electric wiring — with lixturcs, is not to exceed $10,000. 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the amount named 
to execute will not be considered. 

The plan should jirovide accommodations for a family of five — three adults and two children — and at 
least one servant. There are no restrictions as to si/.e, shape, or style of house — except the cost — nor the 
size, shape, or location of lot. 

The particular object of this Competition is to obtain designs for a BRICK HOUSE of moderate cost. It 
is especially desired that the treatment of the exterior shall show the possibilities in obtaining charming but 
restrained effects by the u.sc of bond and jointing and pattern. The BRICK HOUSE is rich in precedent, and 
the material, whether considered from the esthetic or the practical standpoint, meets in the fullest measure 
the demands put upon it. To summarize; — the Competition calls for A CIIARMlNCr BRR'K HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The methods usually employed in the construction of brick walls may be followed, except that the walls 
arc to be wholly of brick and of sufficient thickness to safely carry the load. The program does not call for a 
fireproof house, although that fonn of construction is not objected to. The choice of brick is left to the 
designer. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a .scale of four feet to the inch. 
Also plans of fir.st and second floors at a scale of eight feet to the inch. In connection with the plan of the 
first floor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will 
permit. 

On another sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a .scale of eight feet to the inch, — and below 
the elevation, a sufficient number of details to properly .show the brickwork and the special features of the 
design, — drawn at half inch .scale in black ink without wash or color. Sections shown are to be cross-hatched 
in such manner as to clearly indicate the material, and floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by 18 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on 
both sheets one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 22 inches by 16 inches. The sheets are 
not to be mounted. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nom tie plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a .sealed 
envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (jjackaged so as to i)revent creasing or crushing), at the 
office of Till'; Bkickiuh.dek, S5 Water vStreet, Boston, Mass., on or before Sept. 15, 1909. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's ri.sk from time they are sent until returned, 
although rea.sonabIe care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or live well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the 
material employed ; the adaptaliility of the design as shown by details to the practical constructive re(|uire- 
ments, and the excellence of the plan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of Tin: Bkickiuii.dick, and the right is reserved to pub- 
lish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the architect will be given in connection 
with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have 
them b.\- enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everyone. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in Tin-: BRicKisrii.DHK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII 



JUNE 1909 



Number 6 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, wng, by ROGERS A MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single numbers ............. 



$5.00 per year 
SO cents 
Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ..........,.,,,, $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

„ Terra Cotta 

Brick 



PAGE PACE 

II Brick Enameled HI and IV 

II Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

II and III Fireproofing . . . . ■ . . . . . IV 

III Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

MAGINNIS, WALSH & SULLIVAN; NEWHALL & BLEVINS; WILLIAM STEELE 

& SONS COMPANY; PRIZE AND MENTION DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN 

THE COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF 

TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES. 

LETTERPRESS 

THE VAULTED DRAIN OF THE ROMAN FORUM 



FAfiB 

Frontispiece 



WARMING AND VENTIL.\TIN() WITH .SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HO.SPITAL BUILDINGS — II. 

/). D. Kimball 111 

GYMNASIUMS — THEIR PLAN AND EQUIPMENT — V M. R. Reach 114 

COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES— REPORT OF THE 

JURY OF AWARD 120 

COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLCJW TILES — ESTIMATED COSTS 

FOR DESIGNS PUBLISHED IN THIS ISSUE 121 

COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES — SELECTION OF 

DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN THE COMPETITION 123,124,125,126 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 127 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 18 NO (i I>EVOTEDTOTHEINTERE3TJ"'OF-AR.CHITECTVRE-INMATERlALyoraAY- ^^.^^ 




e K««<<«<««</««<<<<<<<<«< <«<<««<«<«< «»»»»»» »»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»: 



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Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to 

Hospital Buildings — II. 



Ii\ 1). O. KIMIiAl.L. 



THE ideal condition as it relates to ventilation, is 
the maintenance of the quality of the air within as 
near as possible to that of the outdoor air. It is custom- 
ary to determine the quality of the air by the measure- 
ment of the number of parts CO^ (carbonic acid, sometimes 
called carbonic acid gas, or carbon dioxide). The quan- 
tit}' of this varies in different localities, as in cities and 
towns, and under different weather conditions, and is vari- 
ously stated by authorities to be from less than three to 
more than six with an average of approximately four 
parts CO._, in ten thousand parts of air. 

It is an easy matter to determine the cubic feet of air 
required per hour per person to maintain a given stand- 
ard of purity by the use of the following formula: 



V = 10, ()()() — = . 

S - P ,111 which 

V = cubic feet fresh air per hour per person 

G = ,11. COa given off per hour per person 

(usually 0.6) 
S = the standard of purity to be maintained in 

parts of CO2 in 10,000 (should not be 

over eight) 
P = standard of purity of fresh air (usually four) 



There should also be provided 1,440 cubic feet of air 
per hour for each cubic foot of gas burned. 

It is important if one desires to provide for definite 
conditions that this standard of quality of the air should 
be thoroughly understood, as is too often not the case 
even among tnen claiming to be engineers. An instance 
occurred recently in which a school board questioned a 
supposed engineer as to the number of parts CO.^ in 
10,000 parts of air permissible and received the surprising 
answer that " it might be four hundred to five hundred." 

The air within occupied buildings is to be considered 
entirely satisfactory if it contains six parts CO., in ten 
thousand parts of air, but eight parts is perhaps more 
often accepted as the maximum in a properly ventilated 
room. Inconvenience is usually felt, if conditions long 
exist, particularly by those nervously disposed, at ten 
parts, while ill effects are felt when this reaches twelve 
parts, and fifteen to twenty parts may be considered 
serious. The lo.ss of the sense of smell is not uncommon 
when the air contains over twelve parts in ten thousand 



so that the conditions may not be so apparent to the 
occupant of the room. 

The last report of the New York State Factory Inspec- 
tion Department makes the surprising statement that 
thirty to forty parts was not uncommonly found in fac- 
tory lofts, and that one place was found where fifty parts 
CO., were present, but these conditions can be called 
nothing less than shocking. 

It may be well to explain that CO., in itself is not a 
poison. Its presence in the air may be taken, however, 
as a direct indication of the condition of the air. 

A surplus of this gas can only be prevented by positive 
methods of removing the vitiated air. associated with a 
method of replacing it with a sufficient amount of fresh 
air which must be warmed during cold weather. The 
exact amount of fresh air required may depend somewhat 
upon local conditions or the cubic feet of space per occu- 
pant, and with reasonable exactness, may be mathemat- 
ically determined. Certain definite standards as regularly 
accepted by engineers are given below. 

Cubic feet of air to be supplied per minute per occupant: 

School rooms 30 

Theaters l.S to 30 

Churches 15 to 30 

Hospitals, ordinary wards 40 to 60 

surgical wards 60 to 100 

,, contagious wards 100 to 150 

epidemic conditions 100 to 150 

operating room 100 

These figures may be more or less modified by local 
conditions or b)' limitation of the amount of air that 
may be introduced without drafts. This latter condition, 
and sometimes financial considerations, have commonly 
limited the air supplied to theaters and churches to the 
minimum amount named above. The amount of air 
required to be introduced into hospital wards heated by 
an indirect system is often determined by the heating 
reciuirements. and as a rule should not be less than an 
amount per hour ecpial to four and sometimes six times 
per hour the culjic feet of space in the rooms, in other 
words, four to six changes of air per hour. 

It is not best to introduce fresh air into the toilet and 
l)ath rooms, kitchens, serving rooms, service rooms, laun- 



112 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



dries, etc., in hospitals, but there should be removed 
therefrom an amount of air equal to not less than four 
changes per hour, and this may be increased to six or 
eight changes per hour in the case of large kitchens, 
will be replaced by air drawn from the corridors, etc., 
and the danger of odors passing to the patients' rooms 
will be reduced to a minimum because of the direction of 
the movement of the air. 

While the above may be accepted as a general rule, it 
must be borne in mind that these figures as to air sup- 
ply are to be modified in some cases by a proper con- 
sideration of the occupant of the room, his condition, the 
cubic feet of space per occupant, the extent of wall sur- 
faces, quality of the air, its temperature, humidity, etc. 

It is a safe rule that pure air should be supplied in the 
maximum rather than in the minimum quantity tolera- 
ble, the natural limits being the matter of drafts, cost of 
installation, and the cost of operation, all of which must 
be given careful consideration. Drafts are quite as 
serious as ordinarily vitiated air. By special means of 
diffusion of the entering air, it has been found possible 
to make as many as twelve changes of air per hour in an 
occupied room without causing drafts, which is more than 
is ordinarily required. The use of such diffusers is not 
always permissible. 

In determining the method to be used in the warming 
and ventilating of a hospital building one of the first 
questions to be determined is whether a steam or hot 
water system shall be used. 

The objections sometimes raised against steam heating 
systems are largely removed by the use of an automatic 
temperature controlling system, or by the use of the 
newer systems of graduated hand control of the radi- 
ators, such as the Thermograde or Webster Modulation 
systems, by means of which a small or large amount of 
steam is admitted to the radiator, and thus a small or 
a greater amount of heat is obtained therefrom. The 
use of these systems increases the economy of the steam 
system, making it without doubt more economical in 
operation than the hot water .system. 

The steam system is particularly suitable for hospital 
warming and ventilating because of its quicker response 
to changes in temperature and sudden demands for heat, 
and the avoidance of such objections as may be raised to 
a hot water system, which would include difficulty of 
controlling in accordance with sudden changes in tem- 
perature, the larger radiators and pipes required, danger 
of serious results in case of a leak, the greater danger of 
serious breakdowns, and of serious results therefrom, 
and the extra cost of installation. 

The discussion of possible methods of hospital warm- 
ing and ventilation will therefore be largely confined to 
the details of a steam system. 

The best system for this work will be that which makes 
use of direct radiation in certain portions of the building 
and indirect heating in other portions. A system using 
direct radiation only is not excusable from any stand- 
point as it entif-ely eliminates ventilation. A system 
using direct radiation with flues which are intended to 
withdraw the vitiated air is no more satisfactory, as it 
much resembles an attempt to withdraw air from a bottle 
and results in little or no ventilation but plenty of very 
objectionable drafts. 



A system which makes use of direct radiation in the 
corridors, toilet rooms, bath rooms, service rooms, duty 
The heating of such rooms should be provided for by 
direct radiation. The air withdrawn from such rooms 
rooms, kitchens, etc., with indirect heating in the pri- 
vate rooms, wards, operating rooms, and other rooms 
used for medicinal or surgical work will be found the 
most satisfactory. 

There are many serious objections to the use of direct 
radiators in the wards, based on the fact that the radi- 
ators, with their pipe connections and valves, are diffi- 
cult to keep clean and when otherwise than clean they 
are unsanitary. Wherever used in the hospital they 
should be supported without legs from the wall and be 
of such pattern as to give the most space possible be- 
tween the sections. The Astro pattern or the Pressed 
Steel radiation is recommended for use in hospital work. 

The direct-indirect, or semi-direct, radiator is not suit- 
able for hospital ventilation. Where used it is customary 
to determine the proper amount thereof by adding twenty- 
five per cent to thirty-three and one third per cent to the 
amount of direct radiation that would be used in the 
same place, there being no better rule for determining 
the amount required because of the varying amount of 
service secured from this type of radiator. It is even 
more unsanitary than the regular direct radiator because, 
of its flue construction and its air connections. Abso- 
lutely no dependence may be placed upon the amount of 
air obtained from this type of radiator. Under the best 
conditions an average size radiator will furnish not more 
than enough air for one patient while quite as often no 
air is introduced by this type of radiator, and it is not 
uncommon to find the air going out through this radiator, 
being drawn out by force of the wind current without 
driving from the side of the building on which the radi- 
ator is placed. For the greater part of the time but very 
little air is introduced by this type of radiator and only 
at times and under the best conditions is a definite 
amount of air supplied by direct-indirect radiation. Its 
use can only be excused on the ground of its low cost of 
installation. 

A system consisting entirely of indirect heating might 
be considered ideal aside from the cost of installation and 
the cost of operation, if ample means were provided to 
insure against breakdowns. Ventilation would be in- 
sured, and unsanitary and unsightly radiators would be 
eliminated. 

The best system would seem to be, as suggested above, 
one in which some direct radiation and more indirect 
radiation is used. 

Many systems of ventilation may be designed for the 
same building, and extensive experience is required to 
determine which is best. Enough has already been said 
to condemn the use of a direct radiation system or one 
which depends on the windows for so-called natural 
ventilation. 

For a small hospital or even a large one consisting of 
a group of small buildings, a gravity ventilating system 
will be found to give very satisfactory results. In this 
system there should be provided for each room a separate 
indirect radiator with its casing, which may take the form 
of a sheet metal stack casing or a brick heating chamber, 
the latter possibly containing a group of indirect radia- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



1 13 



tors. A direct connection to the warm air tUie the full 
size thereof, and a cold air connection with an area of 
seventy per cent to eighty per cent of the area of the warm 
air connection, are required. The warm air connection 
should contain at the base of the flue a mixing damper 
by means of which the temperature of the air may be 
controlled, this damper being operated automatically, if 
possible, or by hand, from the room above. The cold air 
connection should contain a tight fitting damper closing 
against felted stops at an angle of 45° to prevent leakage 
and noise. Over the inlet to the cold air pipe should be 
placed a one fourth inch mesh galvanized iron wire 
screen, painted black, and a number ten iron wire guard 
may be used in addition, if desired. Both of these air 
connections should be as short as possible, particularly 
the hot air connection. 

The position of the indirect radiator in its relation to 
the warm air riser or flue should be such that the cold air, 
when admitted to the flues by the operation of the mix- 
ing damper, will enter the room at the back or top of the 
warm air current so that it will not fall to the breathing 
level and be felt as a draft. 

The position of the warm air riser or inlet to the room, 
as well as the method of determining the amount of the 
indirect radiation, will be referred to below. 

The size of the warm air riser is determined by the 
velocity of the air therein, which will depend upon its 
temperature and the height of the flue. In the indirect 
gravity system the temperature of the air admitted is 
usually limited to about 30° to 40° above the temperature 
at which the room is to be maintained, it being better 
to introduce more air, if necessary to secure additional 
heat, rather than greatly increase the temperature 
of the entering air. Under these conditions approxi- 
mately the following velocities may be counted upon in 
the warm air riser in a gravity system, the outside tem- 
perature being zero and the air entering the room at 
100° to 110°. 

Register placed at floor (first) 120 ft. per minute 

8 ft. to 10 ft. above radiator . 240,, ,, 

,, 16 ,, ,, 18 ,, ,, ,, . 300 

,, 26 ,, ,, 28 ,, ,, ,, . 380 

Therefore, the amount of air to be supplied per minute 
in cubic feet, divided by the proper velocity in feet per 
minute, as above, will give the area of the flue in square 
feet. It is desirable that the flues should be made as 
nearly square as possible. If in a large room this in- 
volves a very large flue or register it is better to provide 
two or more smaller flues with a corresponding number 
of indirect radiators. This division of flues will lessen 
the liability of drafts due to the movement of a large 
amount of air at one point. 

The removal of the vitiated air in a gravity system is 
accomplished by a series of ventilating flues of sufBcient 
size to remove approximately as much vitiated air as 
there is fresh air admitted through the warm air flues 
and registers. With the outside temperature below 40° 
above zero a sufficient velocity of the air in properly 
sized and constructed flues is usually secured without 
the use of accelerating or aspirating coils, but with the 
outside temperature above this it is necessary to make 



use of accelerating coils placed either in the flue just 
above the register opening or in collecting chambers in 
the attic, preferably in the former position because the 
velocity of the air in the flue depends on the height of 
the column of the hot air, this being measured from the 
position of the coil to the top of the flue. The velocities 
thus secured in the vent flue will depend on the extent 
to which the temperature of the air passing through the 
flue exceeds the temperature of the outside air. Thus 
when the temperature of the outside air is high, ap- 
proaching the temperature of the air in the room, it is 
necessary to use these accelerating coils to increase the 
temperature of the air in the flue. Ordinarily an amount 
of radiating surface in these coils which will raise the 
temperature of the air passing through the flue 20° is 
sufficient, in which case velocities approximately as given 
in the table below will be assured when the inside and 
outside temperatures are nearly alike, with an increasing 
velocity as the outside temperature lowers. 

The velocity of the air in a vent flue, with the air 
therein warmed 20° above the temperature of the outside 
air, is as follows : 

Height of flue above coil 10 ft 153 ft. per minute 

, 20 , 216 ,, ,, 

30 264 ,, ,, 

,, ,, ,, ,, 40 306 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,,50 342 

,, ,, ,, ,, 60 ,, 378 ,, ,, 

To determine the amount of accelerating surface re- 
quired, multiply the number of cubic feet of air to be 
exhausted per hour, by the number of degrees which its 
temperature must be raised (usually 20°), divide the re- 
sult by 55 and then divide this quotient by the number 
of heat units obtainable from one square foot of surface 
in the accelerating coils, which is approximately as 
follows : 

Height of flue above coil 10 ft 290 heat units 

,, ,, ,, ,, 20 ,, 305 ,, 

,, 30 334 ,, 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 40 ,, and above .... 400 ,, ,, 

Ordinarily when the height of the fresh air and vent 
flues measured from inlet to outlet is equal the same size 
is made use of in both flues. 

The only objection that is ordinarily raised against the 
gravity system in small or medium size buildings is its 
dependence upon weather conditions, but this objection 
may be overcome by skilful designing, in which a careful 
determination of the size of the flues, amount of indirect 
radiation, and the amount of surface in accelerating coils 
plays an important part. 

(Juite as important is the proper construction of the 
fresh air and vent flues and ri.sers, the inside of which 
must be made smooth, whether of metal or brick. The 
turns or bends therein must be gradually made and 
such bends or turns should be as few as possible. In the 
case of brick flues the joints should be carefully made 
and the surface of the flue should be either smoothly 
plastered or given a good brush coat of thin cement 
mortar. The top of the flue as it turns into the room 
should be rounded, and the brickwork at the bottom of 
the opening should be chamfered ofi' on the inside. 



114 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Gymnasiums — Their Plan and Equipment — V. 



BY M. K. RKACIl. 



IT SEEMS to the writer that of all forms and types of A summary of features incorporated in various munic- 
buildings designed for gymnasium and recreative ipal gymnasiums and baths shows a wide variety of 
purposes the modern municipal building is worthy of departments of utility and pleasure. We find pools, 



greatest study and most careful execution. Calling, as it 
does, for all the qualities of other buildings and institu- 
tions where such features are incorporated, it presents 
many additional problems that the others lack, and its 
scope of work is so infinitely broad that the jiroblems of 
construction and selection confronting the architect must 
call for the best there is in him. While my articles 
supposedly are confined to the subject of gymnasiums 
and their epuipment, there are so many companion 
features in a 
public institu- 
tion of this kind, 
and the relation- 
ship of work is 
so close and in 
a way interde- 
pendent, I find 
myself called 
upon to con- 
sider them in 
their broad re- 
lation and to 
some extent 
treat of the 
building as a 
perfect whole. 
Albeit my 
treatment of 
foreign subjects 
must be cursory 
and superficial 
in the extreme. 

As intimated 
in my preceding 
article.the fund- 
amental reason of an institution of this character is a 
relief to conditions of life in our congested districts, and 
life is made up of men and women, boys and girls, and 
for purposes of dilTerentiation, babies. Each .element of 
that group should be provided for in some way or another 
every day, sufficient in period to make practical results 
possible, interest permanent, and the investment pay. 

I am speaking now of tlie municipal gymnasium build- 
ing set down in the heart of a congested city district. 
This class of people all have a well developed capacity for 
fun and recreation, and to provide features for one and 
not the other is not only unfair but must siciii so to those 
left out. I think, of course, that primarily the building 
should be designed largely for the younger set, but pro- 
visions for older people included also. I further believe 
that there is immense value in the principle of " keep- 
ing things moving." If for instance certain prescribed have been freely commented upon as being very good, 
hours prevent girls or boys from using the gymnasium. The construction comprises brick carrying walls and 
provide a counter attraction. Have some place for them reinforced interior with white enameled brick upon the 
to go in the building at any time during childhood's front elevation, 
natural hours. The interior arrangement provides on the top floor 




i;SMNASlUM, tOI.LEOK OF i ii K. i ir\ Ol 
Showing running track. 



showers, lockers and dressing rooms, club rooms, 
library, gymnasiums, play rooms, sewing, nursery, as- 
sembly hall, playground, indoor games, roof garden, 
laundry — truly a goodly assortment of attractions. In 
the specifications of one bath house referring to the 
laundry we find that . . . "The largest part of the 
laundry is for public use, and will accommodate three 
women at one time, each being provided with two 
earthenware wash trays, hot and cold water, steam 

wringer and 
steam dry room 
space. The 
steam dry room 
is constructed 
entirely of 
metal and con- 
tains twenty 
racks. One 
corner is set 
aside for the 
1 a u nd r y m a- 
c h i n e r y for 
washing towels. 
This consists of 
a 46 inch rotary 
washer and a 
centrifugal ex- 
tractor." It 
being asserted 
that many 
homes among 
the poor were 
inadequate to 
permit of a 
large family 
washing without the greatest inconvenience, cleanliness 
and health were sacrificed to the conditions of environ- 
ment. The boy who finds it troublesome to wash his 
face usually has a dirty face. The inference is plain. 

Undoubtedly the gymnasium, pool and showers form 
the nucleus around which the rest of the building is con- 
structed. The details of the latter form a separate study 
beyond my ken and I will, therefore, avoid any extended 
reference to the many problems of heating, ventilating, 
etc. The live steam system of heating pools is adopted 
in many I know of as being quick, economical, and 
efficient. In Cleveland the showers of a bath house 
visited are heated by automatic gas heaters and said to 
be very satisfactory. It sounds like a good summertime 
proposition. The free public bath of St Louis (H. W. 
Powers, architect), plans of which accompany this issue, 



NKW VOKK. 



THE BRICK BU I L I)K R. 



115 



eighty marble 
showers (hot 
and cold com- 
bined) arrang-ed 
for men and 
women separ- 
ate; the second 
or mezzanine 
floor (hung from 
the top floor) 
provides for the 
necessary dress- 
ing rooms and 
a running- 
shower as an 
equipment to 
the pool. 

The basement 
floor provides a 
boiler, coal, and 
storage tanks 
for heating the 
shower water as 

well as the swimming pool, the water of which is healed 
by one large cast-iron .Vmerican Radiator Boiler, which 
circulates the water through boiler and pool until the 
desired temperature of 80" is reached. 

The walls of the pool were made of reinforced cor. 
Crete 7 inches thick and provided with skim and 
gangway drains. The entire inside was plastered with the segregation of the work for opposite sexes. The type 
medusa white cement and troweled smooth. Thus far of building used in the Lincoln Park System of Chicago, 
no leaks have been apparent. or .South Park, Chicago, seems to be that usually adopted 

It is, of course, desirable to have a separate set of by various park departments and architects as appropri- 
showers for the pool, preferably placed so that access to ate. Separate club rooms for boys and girls, assembly 
the pool be made through the showers. As a supple- hall, library as a branch of the City Public Library, 
ment to a skim drain a gargoyle might be placed at one showers, lockers, and gymnasiums, in connection with a 
end, spraying the surface of the pool and keeping the top well equipped athletic field and playground all .serve to 
water working toward the drains. 1 recall seeing a very beguile youth from the streets and start a better man or 




.NMNv^^iUM, ^. M. ( . A., l■.u()()kl^^, 
Showing running track. 



ers and hooked 
into place efl'ect- 
ively screened 
the occupant of 
the booth. 
There were 
sixty dressing 
rooms and a 
corresponding 
number of 
showers, the 
bathing being 
done in classes 
like regular 
g y m n a s i u m 
work. I believe 
that the best 
shower is that 
which hits the 
body oblicjuely 
and not from 
directly over- 
head. 
In a large municipal building of the class described it 
possibly would be found expeditious to have one large 
sized gymnasium rather than two small ones, ])ar- 
ticularly so if suitable play rooms and other features 
were provided. In smaller buildings, such as are 
usually found in connection with playgrounds, I favor 



unique shower 
bath arrange- 
ment used by 
Mr. Ernst Her- 
mann, in the 
gymnasium op- 
erated by the 
T. G. Plant 
Company of 
Boston for their 
employees. 
The dressing 
rooms for 
women had a 
detachable cur- 
tain which also 
fitted the en- 
trance to the 
individual 
showers. This 
curtain wrapped 
around the body 
served as a robe 
in passing .to 
and from show- 




(IV.MNASIU.M, (JKOKOKTOWN IJ M V K.RSII V, W ASH I.\(; I ON, 
Sliowing running track. 



D. C. 



woman for the 
community. 

Fig. 24 shows 
a suggested 
equipment and 
floor plan for a 
municijial gym- 
nasium in Bos- 
ton, Ncwhall &: 
Blevins, archi- 
tects. The list 
of apparatus is 
as follows : 

Twenty sec- 
tions bar stalls, 
twenty bar stall 
benches, twelve 
chest machines, 
two No. 79 hori- 
z o n t a 1 and 
vaulting bars, 
two No. vault- 
ing horses, two 
No. 0-B vault- 
ing l)ucks, two 



ii6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



No. 78 parallel 
bars, two pair 
No. 119 jump- 
ing standards, 
two No. 58 
spring boards, 
four No. 2 5 
jump boards, 
one No. 28 in- 
cline board, one 
hydraulic row- 
ing machine, 
six traveling 
rings. No. 126, 
2pairNo 125-A 
flying rings, two 
suspended hori- 
zontal ladders, 
twelve No. 98 
climbing ropes, 
six No. 212 rope 
ladders, six 

climbing or sliding poles, one striking bag disc, two 
giant strides, six 5 feet by 10 feet by 1 inch mats, two 
3 feet by 10 feet by 2 inch mats, six 5 feet by 6 feet by 
2 inch mats, fifty pair three quarter pound dumb bells, 
fifty pair one pound dumb bells, fifty pair three quarter 
pound Indian clubs, fifty pair one pound Indian clubs, 
four steel locking cabinets, four dozen nickeled steel 
wands, four dozen wood wands, three locking wand racks, 
four dozen bean bags, one bean bag cabinet, four dozen 
short skipping ropes, one half dozen long skipping ropes, 
two medicine balls, 
No. 1, two medicine 
balls. No. 2, two 
medicine balls. No. 
3, one steel cabinet 
for storing game 
apparatus. 




GYMNASIUM, SEWAKI) PARK, CHICAGO. 



CT^-I] 



In Pi.av Room. 

One pair basket 
ball backstops and 
goals, two official 
basket balls, one 
children's slide, 
four see-saws, in- 
fant hammock, and 
box chair swings. 

The gymnasium 
is of excellent size 
and offers good op- 
portunity for a nice 
running track. The 
bar stalls are placed 
along the edge of 
running track, serv- 
ing as a cage to pro- 
tect wall apparatus 
behind when games 
of various kinds are 
in progress, and also 
forming a partition 






behind which 
the various 
pieces of tloor 
apparatus may 
be moved when 
it is desired to 
clear the floor. 

The hand ball 
court in this 
particular in- 
stance is a 
strong feature 
of attraction 
and seemingly 
worthy of the 
space given. I 
think, however, 
this is a local 
condition, and 
in many cases 
space could be 
saved for other 
purposes by curtailing the regulation size of the court. 
The provision of the play room on the side is a good one, 
and if this can be also utilized for mothers to bring their 
sewing to while their infant is at rest and happy in a 
hammock swing particularly designed for his use, a 
worthy and desirable feature is added. 

So far as apparatus is effected, great ceiling height in 
a play room as shown is unnecessary. Children's swings 
if attached to a frame out of doors would range from 
8 to 10 feet high. A room of this description will 

ofttimes be 
crowded, however, 
and means suitable 
to provide a health- 
ful amount of oxy- 
gen should be 
provided. Pre- 
sumably from my 
standpoint a ceiling 
of 14 to 15 feet high 
would seem a happy 
medium. There is 
not certainly the 
same hard and fast 
rule that obtains in 



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■ K^ ' .rjJ W JCT-^^^ J 



^ 




' — ■^-- — ---^ 







FIG. 23. PLAN KOR PUBLIC PLAYGROUND. 



gymnasium equip- 
ments. 

If a separate 
room is proposed 
for basket ball, 
volley ball, etc., I 
would recommend 
a ceiling height of 
16 feet as a mini- 
mum standard. 

The floor plan of 
the gymnasium at 
.Seward Park, 
Chicago, — Perkins 
& Hamilton, archi- 
tects — illustrated 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



1 1 



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rir,. 24. PLAN FOR MUMCIPAI. GYMNASIUM. 



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GIRLS PLytYaROUJVO 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



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FIC. 26. TVl'ICAI. I.AVOUT FOR PI.AVGROrND. 





FIG. 27. PLAN FOR RUNNING TRACK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



119 




in preceding article, 
is to my mind repre- 
sentative of the 
type of building ap- 
propriate to the 
playground work. 
The separate equip- 
ments in gymnasi- 
ums for girls and 
boys would approx- 
imate the equip- 
ment shown and 
described under 
school gymnasi- 
ums. 

Figs. 23 and 25 
may be accepted as 
properly belonging 
to this article typi- 
fying playground layouts; there being a never ending 
variety of frames in their varioiis combinations of ap- 
paratus. I will not attempt to cover this field, but 
merely show one of a popular combination. Fig. 26. 
The framework is made of 3-inch pipe 16 feet above 
ground, usually grouted to a depth of 3 feet, although in 
loose soil this had better extend to 4 feet, (iirls' frames 
are 14 feet above ground grouted to the same depth 
under. Playground apparatus and e([uipment may be 
selected with the thought in mind that the child using it 
is a reincarnated monkey, bird, or fish, and that selection 
will be popular. Apparatus that affords climbing, as 
ladders in various combinations, or swift motion as in 
swings, sliding, etc., or wading pools, all charm the child 
and hold its interest 
day in and day out. 

Running Track. 

(Fig. 27.) The 
best shape and fast- 
est indoor running 
track is that having 
the oval ends. Ob- 
viously, however, 
this form of track 
can only be used 
successfully in the 
gymnasium of 
ample accommoda- 
tions as it cuts so 
into the space of the 
room. If (and thi;; 
conjunction is as 
usual important) 
the gymnasium 
room is of sufficient 
size for its purpose, 
I would recommend 
a track at least 6 
feet wide. In the 
case where the work 
in the gymnasium 
is curtailed the 
lesser feature (i.e., 



FIG. 28. SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF RUNNING TRACK. 





track) must be sacri- 
ficed. Thecpiestion 
of banking can but 
be treated in indi- 
vidual cases. My 
company and any 
other standard com- 
pany of merit pre- 
pare such plans for 
architects without 
charge. In design- 
ing a four-cornered 
track care should be 
taken to avoid get- 
ting the corners too 
sharp. I think a 15 
foot radius as small 
as it is desirable to 
use. 
Most tracks nowadays are suspended from overhead at 
their outside edge. This seems to be the generally ac- 
cepted form of construction. The suspension rods should 
be outside the gallery rail, which may, if desired, incline 
outwardly although 1 do not hold this necessary or even 
desirable if the track is made sufficiently wide in the 
first place. 

As it is xiot recommended to lay a track cover on a 
cement surface, owing to depreciation in the life and 
resiliency of the track and its counteracting effect on 
the runner, buildings of cement construction should 
provide in their plans timbers embedded in cement as 
shown in Fig. 28, to which the concaved superstruc- 
ture may be anchored. Imported cork carpet at least 
•YiK inch thick serves as the best sort of track cover- 
ing. This should be thoroughly stretched before putting 

down and held in 
such way as to 
permit some come 
and go to prevent 
track bulging when 
used a while. It is 
always well to pro- 
vide a sliding i^ole, 
l^referably brass 
tubing 2;'-4 inches in 
diameter, yk inch 
walls, as a quick 
means of descent 
from the track — 
the sliding jiole 
" well " to be pfo- 
tected with railing. 
In the case of high 
ceilings the top of 
])ole may be braced 
as shown in plan, 6 
or S feet above 
track. 



BAS£M£r;vr Plan 



"' I ' S lil 

.1 .15, 

j*ffZZAX/A/: /^/.nop. Plan- 




•Sjeconp Floor, Platv- 



JCA/.C ta»-— _ 



JH-ANS or I'UHMC liATHS AT ST. I.OUIS. 



.\()Ti;. This instal- 
ment concludes the 
series of articles by 
Mr Reach treatiiijr of 
" The ( i y ni nasi u 111." 
Arctiitects in need of 
information of a sjiccial 
nature re^ardinji kV"'- 
nasiuni efiuipment may 
obtain it bv addressing 
M. H. Reach, care 
.\. (".. S|)aldinn &• Bros., 
Chi CO pee, Mass, — 
Pditor, 



I20 



T HE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



Competition for a House to be Built of Terra Cotta 

Hollow Tiles. 



REPORT (»F Till-: JURY OF AWARD. 



THE competition was fbr a house to be built of Terra 
Cotta Hollow Tiles, to be covered upon the exterior 
by either stucco or brick. The problem was a thor- 
oughly practical and modern one with simple direct 
recjuirements, clearly stated and of such a nature as to 
be easily met. It was such a problem as to-day engages 
the attention of many architects and owners. ( )ut of 
many sets of drawings submitted to the jury nearly 
every one had exceptionally good (lualities, and designs 
were well stated and invariably well drawn. 

Terra cotta block architecture demands absolute sim- 
plicity of treatment and does not lend itself readily to 
vagaries in design, either as to mass or detail. The 
material limits expression to a greater extent than almost 
any other material in use to-day, with the possible excep- 
tion of concrete. The designs submitted retlected clearly 
the growing grasp of architects and designers upon terra 
cotta as a building material, which we are rediscovering 
and adapting to everyday uses. 

First Prize. A charming design, beautifully planned 
and proportioned in its parts and finely expressed as to 
its elevation. The author had a clear conception of the 
mass of his house as a whole, and of the material he was 
to use in constructing it. Simple, direct, and clean cut, 
the design answered perfectly the basis of criticism 
established by the program as to its fitness, adaptability, 
and relative beauty. In the elements of the plan the 
rooms were finely arranged; the chimneys as an impor- 
tant part of the design were most effectively placed, 
both as to plan and elevation; the roof, while simple, 
was sufficiently cut up to give gables on the exterior, 
where they are of great aid to a design. In short, it was 
almost an ideal development of the prol)lem, and one 
of which the designer may be proud. 

Second Prize. This design was remarkably like the 
first as to plan and was as successful in many of the ele- 
ments considered by the jury. The type of design, as a 
whole, was less interesting because of the absolute rigid 
simplicity of the exterior treatment. The plans of the 
first and second prizes are so similar in elements that 
they might well have been produced in the same office. 
It was in the expression of the plan, in the exterior, that 
the marked difference comes. The "A" Roof, in 
builder's language, is usually stiff and difficult to treat, 
and this design would have profited had the .author 
loosened the strings of his imagination a trifle. The 
charming group formed by the entrance door, porch, 
trellis, and stair window shows a settled sen.se of pro- 
portion very finely expressed and the whole shows a fine 
grasp of the principles involved in using this building 
material. 

Tliird Prize. This design is marked by its adherence 
to precedence in working up the elevations of a very fine 
plan. There is a nice distribution of parts well balanced, 
and the house as built would have a certain class, so 
called, that would be most effective in certain settings. 
The design is most .adaptable to the material to be used, 
and with all, is quiet, well balanced, and a bit trim. But 
for a house of this size and character it was thought that 
the first and second prize plans expressed, perhaps, a 
little more freely the ordinary conception of what an 
American house should be if the designer were not too 
much influenced by precedent and historic examples. 

First Mention. This design was far more pretentious 
than those preceding, but still well within the province 



of the terra cotta block building. There were some 
elements of this design that were of such a peculiar nature 
that they could have been dispensed with without much 
damage to the result. The cornice which is applied to 
the main body of the house and does not extend to the 
upper line of the house, seems rather to befog judg- 
ment of what otherwise would have been a very straight- 
forward and honest expression of the material used. 
With all, the design was a good straightforward effort, 
with a fair plan and well proportioned exterior, with the 
single exception of the cornice, which really detracted 
from a design which was almost too well jiresented as 
to draftsmanship. 

Seeond Meiititin. Here was a design based upon a plan 
that was frankly and simply expressed, with a very 
economical arrangement. 'I'he elevation was almost too 
tense and straightforward, but (piite beautifully bal- 
anced. Here again one wishes that the author could 
have loosened his hand a little and allowed his imagina- 
tion to play such a part with the design that would 
seemingly leave less of the $1(),()0() appropriated unex- 
l)ended. Fitting as to the material to be used, adaptable 
also, the design was a trille stiff and labored. 

Third Mention. Here the author has erred to the 
other extreme; here the imagination has been allowed to 
rule to a charming extent. Planned beautifully, well 
considered, distinctly possible, well expressed except in 
the elevation where scale has been run away with. The 
whole beautifully treated, with an abundance of detail 
which would tax the ingenuity of any architect to get it 
built for the money appropriated. 

Fourth .Mention. This design, based upon another 
line ]>lan, well expressed, well balanced, and one such as 
would make a beautiful house, has been worked up with 
almo.st too much modesty and Uuakerish expression and 
suggestion. Such extreme balancing of parts and pro- 
jjortion it would perhaps be well to avoid in a house of 
this size and type. 

Fifth Mention. A rather elaborate but extremely in- 
teresting plan and elevation, but it has unfortunately over- 
stepped the problem and has become almost a mansion 
instead of a house. The purpose seems to be best 
suited to an Italian climate, and the whole design savors 
of Italy and is not so outspoken of terra cotta block 
construction as some of the others. An unevenness in 
the elevation is cau.sed by the excessive height above 
the second story windows, which of course lends to the 
general design, but detracts from the house on j^ractical 
conditions. It does not seem to come quite so well 
within the limits of house construction as did the others. 

Si.rth Mention. A distinct return to the house type, 
but suggestive of brick architecture rather than terra 
cotta block. The plan and elevation are quiet and digni- 
fied, beautifully treated in detail, and windows and doors 
well proportioned, the entrance doorway and windows 
above being especially effective. This design failed, 
however, in that direct expression of the material u.sed, 
so well shown in some of the others. 

Thom.as Fo.x, 
Louis C. Newhai.i., 

AdIHSON B. LeBoI'I KI.I.IKK, 

Jamks Pukuon, 
William E. Putnam, Jk. 

Jury of Aicard. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 6. PLATE 71. 




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Submitted by a. h. Hepburn. 




DETAIL SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 
Submitted by William G. Holford. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 6. PLATE 74. 




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VOL. 18, NO. 6. PLATE 75. 





NEW PAVILION FOR THE AMERICAN LEAGUE BASE BALL CLUB. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

William Steele & Sons Company, Architects and Builders. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 18, NO. 6. PLATE 76. 





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ST. CATHERINES CHURCH, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 
Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 



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VOL. 18, NO. 6. PLATE 79. 





ST. CATHERINES CHURCH, SOMERVILLE. MASS. 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 6. PLATE 80. 




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William Steele & Sons Company, Architects and Builders. 



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THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 6. PLATE 81. 




MUNICIPAL GYMNASIUM AND PUBLIC BATHS, 

EAST BOSTON, MASS. 

Newhall & Blevins, Architects. 



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VOL. 18. NO. 6. PLATE 82. 



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Submitted by Frederick G. Frost. New York City. 





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SECOND MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by a. C Howard, Wallingforo, Pa. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILES. 



THE BRICKBL'ILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 6. PLATE 83. 



RSCK BUILDER- COMPETITION - FOR-A-TERR,^ -COTTA- HOLLOW- TILE • HOUSE -BY- C0M:rER5 




THIRD MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted bv Homer Kiessling, Boston, Mass. 




FaOMT E.LE.VATION 



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FOURTH MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by E C Gutzwiller and h. w. Brunno, Hamilton, Ohio. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA GOTTA HOLLOW TILES. 



li 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 6. PLATE ^4. 




T H E B R I C K B IT I L D E R 



T Z I 



Competition for a House to be Built of Terra Cotta Hollow Tiles. 

ESTIMATES OF COSTS FOR THOSE DESIGNS Wlliril ARIC I IJ.USTR A'l'lCl ) IN THIS ISSL'E. 



FIRST I'KI/.K DESIC.N. 
Submitted by A. H. IIki'iurn. 

Eslimale of Cos/. 

Excavating S120.00 

Concrete footings ; terra cotta block waiis and partitions ; floors 
of terra cotta block and concrete beams ; outside walls 

stuccoed ; labor, etc ,^,300. (HI 

Terraces, garden walls, etc •I.SO.Od 

Concrete cellar floor lis (mi 

Chimneys rSd.Oi) 

Roof (frame— shingled) . . 7(xS.0n 

Inside plastering 39,S.(il) 

Inside and outside finish 1, -40(1. 00 

Doors, \vi ndows, and blinds 1 ,200.00 

Finished floors 275 00 

Painting 400.00 

Heating 250.00 

Plumbing 700.00 

Electric wiring l.SO (lO 

Cutting and jobbing 120.00 

Total $10,000 00 

IJesiriplioii . 

Footings Concrete 

Basement walls 12 in. by 12 in. by }iO in Vitreous conduits 

Outside walls 8 in. by 12 in. by 12 in Terra cotta block 

Inside partitions 4 in. by 12 in. by 12 in Terra cotta block 

Floors terra cotta block and concrete beams; finished wood floor laid 
on felt ; concrete basement floor ; outside stuccoed ; inside plastered ; 
white trim. 

SECOND PRIZE DESIC.N. 
SuftMiTTEO By William G. Holkord. 

Size of house, ,31 ft. ins. by 47 ft. ins. Height, measured from base- 
ment floor to half way up the pitch of the roof, 31 ft. 6 ins.; cubical con- 
tents 45,895 cu. ft., which at a total cost of S10,000 gives a working allowance 
of 215^ cents per cubic foot, which experience proves is suflicient to cover 
the cost of a house of this type. 

Estimate oj Cost. 

Excavating, brick, and concrete work $1,0110.00 

Finished fireplaces, cement floors on porches 2.sii no 

Terra cotta blocks, floors, and walls 2,4Su (10 

Lumber and shingles 71111.110 

Inside and outside finish and stairs 65ii,iiii 

Tin work, gutters, and conductors 2iMi.OO 

Windows, doors, frames, blinds, etc 300.00 

Rough and finished hardware, flashing, building, paper, etc 145.00 

Electric wiring, heating, and plumbing 1,500.00 

Inside and outside plastering 705.00 

Staging for outside plastering 5n.00 

Carpenter labor, mason l.o.so.Oii 

Inside and outside painting 420.00 

Floors 500.00 

Miscellaneous, teaming, etc 80.00 

Total . 810,000.00 

THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 
Submitted By Fredkrick Joshua Meseke and Alfred G. Wiikli.kk. 

The cost of the hollow tile in this building is based on information given 
on a piece of work in New Jersey, 17 miles trom New York. 

Area first floor 1,470 sq.ft. 

Area second floor }-?^ •''1 • '^'■ 

Total floor area 2,760 sqTTt^ 

Cubical contents from one third cellar height to middle of roof 37,428 cu. ft. 

Mean perimeter of hou.se 184 ft. 

Cost per cubic foot 24.45 cents 

Heii;lil 0/ .Stories in Clear. 

Cellar 6 ft. 9 ins. 

First floor 9 ft. 3 ins. 

Second floor 8 ft. 6 ins. 

Area of terrace (not included in house) 286 sq. ft. 

Number of windows 39 

Number of doors 27 

Estimate 0/ Cost. 

Excavating. 

Hollow tile construction and i'loors, including erei ting, hauling, etc. 

Concrete work (floors, etc.) stone steps . . 

Roof tile 

Carpentry— inside and outside finish and stairs 

Windows, doors, and blinds 

Rough lumber 

Painting and glazing 

Hardware, bells, iron work, tin work, best quality 

Heating, two pipe system 

Kitchen heater, boiler, etc 

Wiring 



Gas piping, fixtures, etc 

Brick work in mantels, hearths, and flue lining . . 

Plastering (interior and exterior) 

Plumbing and sewerage 

Scaffolding and sundries 

Wood flooring 

Waterproofing foundations, cellar, and first floor . 

Total 

Contractor's profit ten per cent 

Total cost of house . , 



SI 25. 00 
1,61500 
3S5.00 
630 00 
lOs 00 
91M1 00 
JlO.OO 
.^25. 00 
260 00 
.550.00 
110 00 
175.00 
3.SO.0O 
120.00 

.H50 >S 

675 (pO 
75 00 

375.00 

394.00 

$8,322.25 

832.23 

$9,154.48 



FIRST Mi;xrioN DICSIGN. 

SUBMITTKD HV FREDERICK G. FRO.ST. 

Eslini,jt,- <>/' O'sl. 

E.xcavation 

Ma.sonry 

Concrete and stucco work 

Plumbing 

Carpentry 

Trim 

Painting, etc 

llai'dware . . 

Roofing and metal work , 

Wiring 



Total . 



$180.00 

4,.%0.00 

,550.00 

. 1,000.00 

. 1,025.00 

1,800.00 

. 325.00 

250.00 

200.00 

275.00 

59,965.00 



SECOND MENTION DESIGN. 

.SuilMITTED BY A. C. HOWARD. 

/estimate of Cost. 

l';xcavati<)ns " S1.V'<.00 

Basement walls, stone 632.00 

Basement floor, cement 170.00 

First, sec(uul, and third floors, concrete and terra cotta at 40c 1,5%. 00 

Outside walls, 10 in. hollow tile at 23c 615.00 

Plastering outside walls 450.00 

Hollow tile partitions. 6 in. at 17c., 3 in. at 12c 425. CK) 

1 nside plastering 6.35.00 

Tile floors, porches, terrace, bath ,300.00 

Fireplaces 125 OO 

Flooring and sleepers 2,50 00 

Roof framing, .sheathing, and shingles 600.00 

Flashings, gutters, tin work, conductors . : 150.00 

Carpenter work 1,200.00 

Hardware 175.00 

MilUvork ,500 00 

Mantels 125.00 

Painting and Glazing 300.00 

I'himbing 700.00 

Heating 750.00 

Electric wiring 125.00 

Miscellaneous 39.00 

Total floTinfroo 

THIRD JIENTION DESIGN. 

Submitted by Homer Kie.s-sling. 

Estimate of Cost. 



Excavation 

Basement floor 

First, second, and third floors. 

Outside walls 

Inside walls 

Terraces (tiling) 

Plastering outside 

Plastering inside 

Mill work and wood finish .... 

Painting and glazing 

Plumbin,g 

I lard ware 

I"i.\tures. 



ICIectric wiring 

Heating (liot water) 

Plastic slate and roofing tiles 

Roof framing. 

Extras, odd jobbing 

Total ■. . 



$195.00 
175.00 
983.00 
1,666.50 
622.. 50 
150.(i0 
480.00 
438.00 

. 2,040.00 
475.00 
900.00 
150.00 
1.30.00 
145.00 
6,50.00 
4,50.00 
2.50.00 
100.00 

'$10,000.00 



FOURTH MENTION DESIGN. 

Suii.MllTKD liY E. C. GUTZWILLER AND H. W HkUNXO 

/estimate 0/ Cost. 

Excavating. '. 

Concrete footings and cement work 

Terra cotta tile llo rs 

Outside terra cotta walls 

Inside terra cutta walls 
Interior plastering. . 

ICxterior stucco 

Carpenter work 

Painting and glazing 

Plumbing and gas fitting 

Hardware 

i;iectric wiring 

.Steam heating 

Rnoling and metal work . 

Total 

FIFTH MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by J. Martin Brown. 

/estimate of Cost 

Excavating and grading, at 33c. per cu. yd. 

Cost of tile at factory 

Shipping, at HOc. per ton 

Cement, reinforcing, and mason work. 



$124.00 

2.32.00 

1,. 306.00 

1.153.00 

810.fMI 

549.00 

.338.1.0 

2,650.00 

278.00 

850.00 

10O.(K1 

250.00 

660.00 

516. 00 

$9,916.00 



$000.00 

1,247.20 

1.50.40 

917.00 



.Mill work, including all wood work except floors 1,(KK).,50 

Tile roof, at $35.00 per S(|uare ,5.SO.0O 

Exterior stucco, at 1.5c. perstj, ft 720.00 

Floors, at 20c. per sq. ft 5.50.00 

Painting ,»50.00 

I'lumbing 1,700.00 

Heating (hot air) 4.50.00 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Lighting (electric) 

Hardware 

Sundries 

Plastering, at 35c. per sq. yd. 



$260.00 

350.00 

150.00 

. 315.00 

Total $9,510.10 

SIXTH MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by R. E. Monson and C. R. Nicwkirk. 

The co.st to build this design in the vicinity of New York City it is esti- 
mated would come within the proposed limit of $10,000 and is based on 
information and data derived from recent work of this character where 
the cost has been from IS to 20 cents per cubic foot. 
Estimate of Cost. 

Excavating $150.00 

Concrete footing and cellar floor 19(1.00 

Structural terra ci^tta 4, 2.',^. mi 

Architectural terra cotta 4,S(i.0O 

Rough cast (outside walls) and plastering 720. ()(i 

Tile floors (bath rooms) l.SO.lio 

Metal work 60.00 

Wood framing, sheathing, and shingles 650.00 

Finish carpentry 1,360.00 

Plumbing 900.00 

Heating , 775.00 

Hardware, painting, and glazing 360.00 

^otal $9,995.00 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY CLAUDE W. BEELMAN. 



Glazing $150.00 

Carpenter's labor 1 300.00 



Bond 

Insurance . 
Permit . . . 



Jistimate of Cost. 



Excavation 

Concrete and cement work 

Tile walls and floor construction 3 

Brickwork 1, 

Carpenter and mill work 2, 

Tile floors and wainscoting 

Plastering 

Steel lintels 

Terra cotta coping 

Furnace 

Finish hard>vare 

Rough liard ware 

Paint and glass 

Tin and galvanized iron 

Plumbing 

Wi ■ 



$.50,011 

25.00 

15.00 

175.85 

216.15 

,000.00 

350.00 

265.75 

335.00 

451 .00 

20.55 

105.00 

,«ll.00 

l.SO.OO 

50.0(1 

417.0(1 

126.:iS 

575 00 

150.00 

65.00 

51 .M) 

_ 45.00 

$9,989.35 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY RUSSELL EASON HART. 
This estimate is based on the current prices of the materials and labor, 
and the author believes that they are very nearly correct. ICstimating by 
cubage the size of the liouse would allow about 20 cents per cubic foot. Base- 
ment under part of house sufiicient to accommodate heating and coal 
storage. 

/estimate <>/ Cost. 

Excavating ' $100.00 

Cement floor in basement 75.00 

Terra cotta blocks for walls, partitions, and floors laid up 3,600.00 

Stucco for second story walls 1,50.00 

Roof, including shingle tiles, framing, etc .... 6.S0.0(( 

Porches and pergola 8,S0.()(i 

Interior finish carpentry, plastering, etc 2,150.00 

Plumbing 600.0(1 

Hardware, painting, and glazing 2,50.00 

Heating 4,SO.O(| 

Wiring and fixtures ^. 200.(10 

Metal work for flashing leaders, etc 75.0(1 

Architectural terra cotta 450.00 

Incidentals 3.S0.0O 



inng 

Grading. . . . . . 

Cement walks. 

Range 

Total 



Total $9,950.00 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY FRED B. O'CONNOR. 

/■'.stimatf of Cost. 
Excavation, concrete footings, terra cotta blocks, cellar floor, 
basement windows, coal bin, all cellar walls, and piazza piers 

( )utside walls, stucco, plastered, and fireplaces 

Floor construction 

Roof construction — sldngle tile on blocks and tees 

All carpenter work above foundation 

Painting and hardware , , 

Heating 

Plumbing 

Lighting and fixtures 



Deduction for wood framing instead of steel for roof. 
Total 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY WILLIAM V. THoMP.SON. 
Estimate of Cost. 

Excavating 

Foundation walls and footings 

Chimneys and fireplaces 

Cementing of cellar 

Plastering, interior 

Terra cotta walls 

Plastering, exterior 

Rough lumber 

Mill work and stairs 

Rough and finished hardware 



$510.00 

3,700.00 

520.00 

1,900.00 

1,650.00 

,300.00 

5,50.0(1 

670.00 

200.00 

^$167600700 

200 Oo 

$9>00.00 



$175.00 

.300.00 

350.00 

75.00 

450.00 

1,500.00 
•WO. (JO 

1,100.00 

1,500.00 
350.00 



Painting. 

Plumbing 

Heating 

Electric wiring and fixtures. 
Metal leaders and gutters . . . 



375.00 
800.00 
600.00 
500.00 

175.00 

Total $10,000.00 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY ARTHUR II. BEHR AND ROBERT C. 

WINTER. 

Estimate of Cost. 

Excavation $80. 

Foundations, brick work 250 

Hollow tile wall construction 2, .330, 

Johnson floor construction 1,240, 

ISouk-tile partition work 750 

( )rnamental terra cotta 660. 

Cement 210 

Cellar paving 110 

I ron work 215 

Lumber and carpentry 455 

Mill work 285 

Flooring 140 



Plastering and stucco work 390. 

Cut-stone, front steps 60. 

Roofing tile 725, 

Flue lining 35, 

Copper work " 170, 

Stair work 115 

Plumbing 455, 

Gas piping 35 

Electric wiring 40 

Hot air heating 380 

Painting 1,50 

Glazing 40, 

Fireplaces 320 

60. 

75 

145 

80 



Faience tiling 

Bath and porch floor tile. 

Lighting fixtures 

Hardware 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
,00 
,00 
,00 
,00 
00 
00 
,00 
,00 
,00 
.00 
,00 
,00 
,00 
,00 

.00 

,00 
.00 
,00 
.00 
.00 
00 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY ROBERT H. WAMBOLT. 

Foundation of vitrified conduits. Concrete footings and basement floor. 
Porch and piazza paved with brick. First, second, and third floors of terra 
cotta tile and reinforced concrete. Koof framing of wood. Red tile roof. 
Walls, both exterior and interior, of terra cotta tile plastered. ICxterior 
stuccoed — color, pink. All exterior wood work painted while. Iron work 
painted black. 

Estimate of Cost. 

Excavating ; $100.00 

Concrete floor and footings 200.00 

Brick work 450.00 

Tile work, fireplaces, etc 200.00 

Terra cotta and labor 3,200.00 

Exterior plastering 400.00 

Interior plastering 450.00 

Tile roof 400.00 

Framing 700.00 

Inside and outside finish 1,150.00 



Doors, windows, etc. 

Finish floors 

Cutting and jobbing. 

Heating 

Plumbing 

IClcctric wiring 

Painting. , 

( Irnaniental iron 



900,00 
250.00 
100.00 
200.00 
700.00 
150.00 
250.00 

20a00 

Total : $10,000.00 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY FERNEKES & CRAMER. 
Estimate of Cost. 

Excavating $150.00 

Tile masonry, cement, and concrete work 4,600.00 

Outside and inside plaster 500.00 

Carpenter work 2,020.00 



600.00 
,'-0.00 
600.00 
200.00 
263 00 
600.00 
JH7.00 
Total '$10,(X)0.00 



Painting and glazing. 

Tin work 

Heating 

Electric work 

Tile floors 

Plumbing 

Incidentals 



DESIGN SUB.MITTED BY FRANK LE BARON AURELIO 
CHARLES FRANK GIFFORD. 
Estimate of Cost. 

Excavation 

Masonry 5, 

Plastering (interior) 

Carpenter work 1, 

Tile, roof 

, , floors and wainscot 

, , Moravian 

Painting and glazing 

Plumbing and heating 

Electric work 

Hardware. . . 

.Sheet metal work 

Incidentals 

Total $9, 

Cubic contents, 40,950 cu. ft. 

Estimate from similar executed work — 24 cents per cubic foot. . . $9, 



AND 



$75.00 
,,8,50.00 
285.00 
,525.00 
486.00 
125.00 

65.00 
375.00 
8.35.00 

65.00 
110.00 

85.00 
100.00 



981.00 



828.00 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



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THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITIOX I'OR A HOUSE TO P.E lUILT OF TERRA COTTA 

HOLLOW TILES. 



124 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



125 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 




VESTELEUATlOn 



BRICKBUILDER COMPETITIOn 

Terracotta Tile REsiDEhCE 



SUKMITTKD P.V FERNEKES A- CRAMER, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 




I ■ I_1,EVA.T10N- 



SUHMITTED liV l-KANK LE BARON AURELIO AND CHARLES FRANK GIFFORD, HARTFORD, CONN. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA 

HOLLOW TILES. 



THE RRIC K BIM LDER. 



127 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 






PAVILION FOR THE PHILADELPHIA 
AMERICAN BASE BALL CLUB. 

THE park contains about 250,000 square feet, or 
approximately 6 acres. The distance from the 
home plate to the flag pole in deep 
center field is 515 feet. vSpectators 
leave the grounds through three 12, 
three 16, and two 18 foot gates, in 
the addition to six large exits \indcr 
the grand stand. The seating capa- 
city of the grounds is 23,000. Of 
this number 10,000 may be accom- 
modated in the grand stand, and 
13,000 in the field bleachers. There 
are no columns or posts to obstruct 
a view of the entire field — in fact 
all the seats in the pavilion and 
bleachers are so arranged that a 
clear view may be had of the entire 
field. The outer edges of the field 
have been banked so that specta- 
tors standing in rows one above 
the other have a clear view of the 
field. A garage has been built 
under the right field bleachers 
which will accommodate 200 cars, 
and another under the left field 
bleachers which will accommodate 
as many more. Steel folding chairs 
are used in the pavilion. The play- 
ers' quarters contain reception and 
lounging rooms, locker room, and 
shower baths, in addition to toilet 
rooms. 



as a safeguard against disease and crime which would 
later require a yet greater outlay to eradicate. It dwelt 
less with the esthetic aspect of city planning than with 
the practical and everyday needs of the life of the masses; 
or as Secretary Mac\'eag]i expressed it: "City planning 
in general sliould be directed less along tlie lines of 
providing automobile driveways and bridle-paths in the 
outskirts and more to the cleaning up of the congested 
centers of population, where disease and vice and crime 
breed. " 




T 



HE city planning conference 
at Washington, which enlisted 



FOUNTAIN ox GROUNDS OF W . (;OUI,I) 

liROKAW, GREAT NECK, L. I. 

Jlodeled by K. Ilinton Perry. E.xecutcd in 

cream white glaze terra cotta, by Atlantic 

Terra Cotta Cotnpany. 




DETAIL KV NEI.SON A VAN WAfJENEN, 

ARCHITEC'I'S. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



the names of, and 
was honored by 
the presence of 
some of the most 
eminent men in 
the country, had 
for its chief ends 
the housing of 
city populations, 
the wiping out of 
slums, the mak- 
ing of city life 
wholesome and 
fairly livable to 
the poor man. It 
declared for the 
provision of air, 
light, and space 
at whatever cost 
to the community 



o r i a 1 a m ]) h i - 
theater to be 
erected in the 
National Ceme- 
tery at Arlington, 
\'a., has made its 
report. A firm of 
New York archi- 
tects has prepared 
a design for a 
roofless structure 
covering 34,000 
square feet, .seat- 
ing about 5,000 
people, and af- 
fording standing 
room in a sur- 
rounding colon- 
nade for many 
more. A feature 



A 



T THE annual meeting of the 
National Board of Fire Un- 
derwriters held in New York last 
month the president of the associa- 
tion, Mr. J. Montgomery Hare, said 
he could see no indication of any 
permanent reduction of fire losses 
in this country. Since 1880 popu- 
lation has increased seventy-three 
per cent while the annual fire loss 
has increased one hundred and 
forty-three per cent. After stating 
that we lead in the world in the 
destruction of property by fire he 
remarked : " (Questions of construc- 
tion explain a part of the difi:erence, 
and climatic conditions may play 
their part, but when everything is 
considered I believe that the con- 
clusion will follow that the main 
reason is recklessness here, as 
against the care, forethought, and 
wise supervision in Europe." 



THE commission authorized by 
the last session of Congress to 
obtain plans for a proposed mem- 




DKIAII in ANDHFW SANDEC;REN, 

ARCHITECT. 

Northwe.stern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



121 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



of the plan is a crypt for 
the burial of distinguished 
men, and provision is also 
made for memorial busts 
or portrait statues. The 
ultimate cost is placed at 
$695,000. The commission 
is composed of President 
Taft (while Secretary of 
War), Secretary Cortelyou, 
Eliot Woods, I. G. Kimball, 
and Ex-(iovernor Curtis 
Guild. 




The only structures exceed- 
ing it in height are the two 
life insurance towers in New 
York and the Eiffel Tower 
in Paris. 



PANEL BY EDWARD L. TILTON, ARCHITECT. 
Made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



ALLAN ROBINSON, president of the Allied Real In- 
terests of New York has criticized the proposed new 
building code as increasing the cost of future construc- 
tion by the following requirements: Limiting the spac- 
ing of beams and employing additional tie rods, increasing 
the floor loads which may be placed in certain kinds of 
buildings, restricting the use of properly constructed 
cast-iron columns, requiring automatic sprinklers in all 
fireproof loft buildings, requiring standpipes of a kind 
owned by one interest, providing that all buildings six 
stories and higher must be 
equipped with auxiliary fire 
pumps, providing for one 
specific kind of paint for 
structural steel, the formula 
of which paint is owned by 
one interest, and the requir- 
ing of heavier wood joist 
and girders in houses of 
ordinary non-fireproof con- 
struction. 



foundation 



THE Harveyized nickel 
steel vault installed in 
the new down-town build- 
ing of the Knickerbocker 
Trust Company is said to 
be the first of its type ever 
constructed. It is 31 feet 
long and 23 feet deep and 
independent of that of the 



rests on 
building. 

It is built of 3)4 inch steel within a 2 foot wall of 
concrete. Two combination and one four-movement 
time locks control twenty-three 4 inch steel bolts which 
secure the 17 ton outside door. The 10 ton inner door 
is ecjually securely held. Hanging in front of the pay- 
ing tellers at 60 Broadway and at 34th street and Fifth 
avenue are slates on which written messages are elec- 
trically transmitted and reproduced. 




DETAIL BY MOOkK 



UPON May 8th ground 
was broken at Mount 
Nilson, near Pasadena, Cal., 
for the Carnegie Solar ( )bservatory Company's telescope 
tower. There are to be two towers, in fact, one inside 
the other, with three inches clear space between them 
and being connected only at the base. The object of 
this is to prevent vibration. The dome will be 175 feet 
above the ground, and the cost of the tower will be 
$50,000. 



New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers 



IN GENERAL. 

President Taft has dis- 
solved the National Fine 
Arts Council instituted by 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

The real estate specula- 
tors in Philadelphia, who 
attempted to " hold up " 
Mr. Henry Phipps, have at 
last given title to the one 
parcel of land needed for 
the site of the proposed 
tuberculosis hospital in a 
congested portion of that city. The building, for which 
Mr. Grosvenor Atterbury is the architect, will now go 
forward without delay. 

On May 28th the Governor's Room of the New York 
City Hall was reopened to the public after something like a 
year's labor had been spent on restoring it to conform 
to the style of the early days of the last century. The 



ANDSIKDEL, ARCHITECTS. 



'T^HE Washington monument is soon to be eclipsed architect's drawings of the original building and docu 



X at the national capital. The navy department is 
planning to build in Rock Creek Park a 600 foot tower to 
serve as the keystone of 
what will probably be the 
greatest wireless telegraphy 
station in the world, as it 
will enable the navy depart- 
ment to converse with navy 
yards on the two American 
coasts, with ships anywhere 
in the North Atlantic and 
at Gibraltar. The tower 
will be 50 feet in diameter 
at the base and 8 feet in 
diameter at the summit. 




DETAIL BV KNIGHT A COLLINS, ARCHITECTS. 
Brick Terra Cotta and Tile Company, Makers. 



ments in the possession of the McComb family were 
drawn upon, and the cost of the work, about $25,000, 

was defrayed by Mrs. Rus- 
sell Sage. 

The pleasant college town 
of Amherst, Mass., is soon 
to have its " Amherst Inn." 
One hundred thousand dol- 
lars is already in hand for 
it and Messrs. McKim, 
Mead & White have pre- 
pared the design. 

Ludlow & Valentine have 
been appointed official 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



129 




architects for Stev- 
ens Institute of 
Technology, Hobo- 
ken, N. J., which 
has in contempla- 
tion extensive de- 
velopments in the 
building line. 

Mellen C.Greeley 
has opened an office 
for the practice of 
architecture in 
"The Baldwin," 
Jacksonville. Fla. 

The Atelier con- 
ducted by Eli Ben- 
edict, architect, at 
1947 Broadway, 
New York, will be 
open day and even- 
ing during the 
summer. 

At the annual 
meeting of the 
Washington Archi- 
tectural Club, held 
in June, the follow- 
ing officers were 
elected for the com- 
ing year: Percy C. 
Adams, president; 
Richard L. Wat- 
mough, first vice- 
president ; B. C. 
Flournoy, second vice-president; Charles S. Salin, secre- 
tary; Daniel J. E. Lix, treasurer. 



President Frost, of Berea College, has announced that 
the great industrial school for negroes will be established 
near Shelbyville, Ky. The erection of buildings will 



Iff 









'flm 

Mm 



If 

I! 



begin in a short 
time, there being a 
fund of S.^S(),000 
now available. 

The American 
Embassy Associa- 
tion has been 
formed in New 
York for the pur- 
pose of aiding the 
provision of suit- 
able residences for 
our ambassadors 
abroad. Twenty 
very prominent 
men comprise the 
executive com- 
mittee. 

F. H. Chapiu has 
been made third 
vice-president of 
the Hydraulic Press 
Brick Company of 
St. Louis, and will 
succeed William H. 
Hunt as resident 
manager of the Hy- 
draulic Company at 
Cleveland. 



BUILUING FOR PACIFIC MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCK COMPANY, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Exterior of .Architectural Terra Cotta, made by Conkling-Arinstrong Terra Cotta 

Company. 
Parkinson & Bergstrom, Architects. 



The bricks u.sed 
in St. Catherine's 
Church, Somerville, 
Maginnis, Walsh & 
Sullivan, archi- 
tects, illustrated in this number, were furnished by 
Fiske & Co., and the architectural terra cotta by the 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

The Jewettville Pressed X: Paving Brick Co. has pur- 
chased the plant of the Buffalo Clay Manufacturing Com- 




IMON RAIIUAN SrAIK)N, AIi,lSI\, i.\. 

Built of Light Buff Brick, made by Columbus Brick Terra Cotta Company. 

Frank P. Milburn, Archtiect. 



130 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



pany, which is situated near their own plant at Jewettville, 
N.Y. The newly acquired plant is modern in its entire 
equipment, and of large capacity. This addition will 
enable the Jewettville Company to handle successfully 
large operations, which require their high grade red 
front impervious brick. 



O. W. Ketchani supplied the 
the American League Base Ball 





brick for the pavilion for 
Club, Philadelphia, illus- 
trated in this month's 
issue. 

The New Jersey 
Terra Cotta Company 
will supply the archi- 
tectural terra cotta for 
the following new 
buildings: Columbia 
Theater and Office 
Building, New York 
City, W. H. McElfat- 
rick, architect; Bank 
Building, Myrtle St., 
Brooklyn, L. Berger 
& Co., architects; two 
apartment buildings 
for Cathedral Realty 
Company, New York ; 
apartment, Broadway 
and 64th St. , New 
York, Buchanan & 
Fox, architects; hotel, 
Pittsburg, Pa., M. H. 
Dickinson, architect. 

The terra cotta used 
in the Oliver Build- 
ing, Pittsburg, illus- 
trated in The Brick- 
KiiiDKR for May was 
supplied by the Atlan- 
tic Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, and not the 
Atlanta Terra Cotta 
Company, as stated. 



BORLAND BLOCK, CHICACO. 

Built of brick, made by Ohio Mining 

it Manufacturing Company, 

Thomas Moulding Company, 

Chicago -Vgents. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architecls. 



NEW BOOKS. 



The Orgapization, 
Construction and 
Management of Hos- 
pitals, with numerous 
plans and details, by Albert J. Ochsner, M.D., and 
Meyer J. Sturm, architect. Second edition revised and 
enlarged. Chicago, Cleveland Press. 

Medieval Architecture: Its Origin and Development, 
with lists of monuments and bibliographies, by Arthur 
Kingsley Porter. This important work is now ready and 
is offered to subscribers. The first two volumes deal 
with the history of the origins of the Gothic architecture 
and its development in Normandy and the He de France, 
and are sold as a set. Price §15.00. There will also be 
a third volume which will be sold separately, and will 
treat of the Saxon, Norman, Early English, Geometric, 




SCHOOLIIOISE, DANVILLE, ILL. 

Faced with wire out dark brown brick, made by Western Urick 

Company. 

Jenney, Mundie & Jensen, Architects. 

Flowing, and Perpendicular styles of English architec- 
ture. This volume is in active preparation, and its pub- 
lication will be announced later. Especial pains have 
been taken with the illustrations, which have been much 
depended upon to tell 
the story of changes 
and developments as 
well as to make clear 
technical words and 
constructions. De- 
scriptions in words 
have always been 
eliminated where it 
was possible to sub- 
stitute a visual image. 
The 201 reproductions 
in the first two vol- 
umes are half-tones or 
line cuts, with very 
few exceptions full 
page in size, and in- 
clude many original 
photographs and 
drawings made ex- 
pressly for this work. 
New York, The Baker 
& Taylor Co. 




DETAIL BY G. AJELLO, ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 



The Building Me- 
chanics' Ready Refer- 
ence — Plumbers', 

vSteam fitters', and Tinners' Edition, by H. G. Richey, 
Superintendent of Construction United States Public 
Buildings. 16mo, vi + 529 pages, 201 figures. Morocco, 
S1..S0 net. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 




CAR BARN, BALTI.MORE. 

Terra Cotta made by O. W. Ketcham. 

Simonson & Pietsch, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



131 



Notice to Bridge Engineers, Archi- 
tects, and Builders 

The Board of Park Commissioners of the City of Minneapo- 
lis, Minnesota, beins about to connect by waterways the hikes 
of its Park System, is desirous of securini; designs, detail 
plans, specifications, and estimates for several brid,i;es which 
shall be of such design as will suit the surroundings. For the 
purpose of obtaining- such designs and plans from expert bridv;c 
engineers and architects, the Board offers SI, 500.0(1 in three 
prizes, as follows : 

First Prize $800.00 

Second Prize 500.00 

Third Prize 200.00 

The lakes to be connected by canals or waterways are three in 
number and are in a choice residential section of the city. They are 
encircled by parkways, tlie banks are beantifullv wooded, and in their 
building it is desired to construct the highest possible type of Park 
Bridges, such as will be beautiful and in harmony with the surround- 
ings. It is hoped that the opportunity afforded f<)r monumental work 
will, eyen more than the prizes offered, induce the best bridge archi- 
tects and engineers of the country to enter into this coni])etition. 

Prospectiye competitors can secure full information by addressing 
the Board. Designs and plans will be received by the'Board until 
September 1, 1909, at 5.00 p. m. The bridges are to be of concrete, 
stone, or a combination of both. Address 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



W^ANTED — An architectural draftsman, capable of taking 
full charge of office, A No. 1 on plan, design, and perspective. 
All classes of w^ork. State salary, experience. Crosby CEi, 
Henkel, 705-706 Morris Building, New Orleans, La. 

WANTED AT ONCE — A reliable experienced architec- 
tural draftsman, one who has had a general office training. 
A good opportunity to the right party. Send samples of work, 
state experience and salary required. Address, Alfred H. 
Wheeler, Architect, 416 Globe Building, St. Paul, Minn. 

W^ANTED — Position with established architect by draftsman 
of experience, college trained. Thoroughly competent to man- 
age office, detail, design and superintend. Principal experience 
has been with good class of school, church, and domestic 
work. Western N. Y., Penn., or Ohio preferred. Address, 
B. S., care The Brickbuilder. 

A Minneapolis architect needs immediately a draftsman of 
first class experience on working, scale and full sized detail 
drawings. The office requires carefully studied work and only 
applications with references assuring this will be considered. 
Experience in church vrork desirable. Write fully as to ex- 
perience, salary, and present location. Address, " Minne- 
apolis,'' care The Brickbuilder. 



'^American Competitions'' 

Published by 

THE T-SQUARE CLUB 

lC(Iitc<l In 

ADIN BENEDICT LACEY, Architect 

A most compact and useful record of Important Con- 
temporary American Architkctire. Shows 50 sets 
of competitive drawinj^s. The book contains 132 plans, 
36 sections, S8 elevations, and 11 perspectives, makin)^ a 
total of 267 plates, 24 of which are double-size i>lates. 

The Competitions contained are: 

Municipal Office Building for the City of New York 

Young Women'R Christian Asitociation BuildinK. Pittsburg. Pa. 

Western University of Pennsylvanin, Pittsburg, Pa. 

United States Post Office Building. New York 

Capitol of Porto Rico, San Juan, Porto Rico - 

Prison Plant, near lona Island, New York 

Springfield Municipal, Springfield. Mass. 

Parliament Buildings, Regina. Saskatchewan, Canada 

VOLUME TWO 

The edition only 700 copies, 200 of whicli have aheady been sold 

Half Morocco Bound, $16.50 Buckram Bound, $15.00 

A few orders fcjr VOI-l'MK ONK can lie filled at 513.50 for 
Buckram Bound, and $11.00 for Portfolio 

Exprestagt^ prepaid if remittance is made with order 
MAKE MONEY-ORDER OR CHECK PAYABLE TO 

"AMERICAN COMPETITIONS," Dept. B 



1012 Walnut Street 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE otTer.s lull professional 
training in a roru vk.vr coritsii: leading to the decree of B. S. 
in Architecttire. An option is allowed in .\ucniTi':cTrR.\L 
icxc.ixicKKiNc;. The gradi'.xti; yijau grants a Ma.ster's degree, 
allowing specialization in advanced work. Advanced 
STANDixc; is granted to college graduates, niialitied dk.m'ts- 
MiJN, desiring advanced technical training, are adntitted with- 
otit examination to the two \i;ak simxiai, coi'r.sic leading to a 
Certificate of Proficiency, and technical studies only may be 
taken by other persons of approved fitness. Ilmstk.vteo 
.\NNf.\L sent on application. For la'LL iNroRM.VTioN address 

Dr. J. H. Penniman, Dean, College Department, 

Uni\-ersity of Pennsvlvania, 

Philadelphia. Pa. 



FOR SALE 

Large Brick Plant and Clay Beds at Clayville, 
New Jersey. Plant equipped with Engines, 
Boilers, Brick Machine, Pulp Mill, Repress 
Machines, etc., etc. is located on the main 
line West Jersey & Seashore R. R. on a 1 2 
acre plot. There are 110 adJes of good buff 
clay, white sand and gravel situated about a 
mile from the R. R. main line connected with 
a switch from main line. Any further par- 
ticulars may be had by addressing The Clay- 
ville Mining & Brick Co., 1611 Filbert St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

"STUDIO YEAR BOOK 1909^^ 

Contains many illustrations showing the recent 
development in the decorative and the applied arts. 
Especially of interest to the interior decoration of 
the house. Showing suggestions for 

INTERIORS RUGS STAINED GLASS 

MANTELS FIXTURES FABRICS. ETC. 

Size, \ \ -^i X S'X, bound in green Buckram. Sent 
prepaid on receipt of $3.25. 



COMPLETE YOUR .SET 

"Year Book 1906 •' 
"Year Book 1907" 
"Year Book 1908" 



THEY ARE BECOMING SCARCE 
$5.00 
6.50 
5.00 



Imporlpr, Deilrr 
Roolii on Archiltclurr 



All uniform in si/r 



M. A. VINSON 



20S Tailon Ruildinc 
CIrvrland. Ohio 



1^2 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE. 

Cost not to Exceed $10,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

SECOND PRIZE, $250. FOURTH PRIZE, $100. 

MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 



Porches, verandas, or piazzas may be in part or wholly 

plunibinj,'- — 



' I MIE problem is a house with walls built of brick 
J[_ of brick or wood. 

The cost of the house (exclusive of the land) including heating — equipment complete 
including all fixtures ; gas piping and electric wiring — with fixtures, is not to exceed $10,000. 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the amount named 
to execute will not be considered. 

The plan should jirovide accommodations for a family of five — three adults and two children — and at 
least one servant. There are no restrictions as to .size, shape, or style of house — except tire cost — nor the 
size, .shape, or location of lot. 

The particular object of this Competition is to obtain designs for a HRICK HOUSE of moderate cost. It 
is especially desired that the treatment of the exterior shall show the po.ssibilities in obtaining charming but 
restrained effects by the use of bond and jointing and pattern. The BRICK HOUSE is rich in precedent, and 
the material, whether considered from the esthetic or the practical standpoint, meets in the fullest mea.sure 
the demands put upon it. To summarize; — the Competition calls for A CHARMING BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The methods usually employed in the construction of brick walls may be followed, except that the walls 
are to be wholly of brick and of sufficient thickness to safely carry the load. The program does not call for a 
fireproof house, although that form of construction is not objected to. The choice of brick is left to the 
desigjier. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wa.sh or color, drawn at a scale of four feet to the inch. 
Also plans of first and second floors at a scale of eight feet to the inch. In connection with the plan of the 
first floor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the hou.se as space will 
permit. 

On another sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a .scale of eight feet to the inch, — and below 
the elevation, a sufficient number of details to properly- show the brickwork and the special features of the 
design, — drawn at half inch .scale in black ink without wash or color. Sections shown are to be cross-hatched 
in such manner as to clearly indicate the material, and floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by IS inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on 
both sheets one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 22 inches by 16 inches. The sheets are 
not to be mounted. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a Jiom dc plume or device, and accompanying .same is to be a sealed 
envelope with the nom di plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the 
office of Tnii: Bkickiuii,I)i:r, S.S Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before Sept. 15, 1909. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from time thej' are sent until returned, 
although reasonable care will be exercLsed in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the 
material employed ; the adaptability of the design as .shown by details to the practical constructive require- 
ments, and the excellence of the ])lan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of Tni; Bkickiuii.dicr, and the right is reserved to pub- 
lish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the architect will be given in connection 
with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have 
them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everyone. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in Thi; Brickhiildkr. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII 



JULY 1909 



Number 7 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1802. 



Copyright, Vi'i'i, by ROGERS & MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single numbers ............. 



$5.00 per year 
......... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ..,..,..,.... $5.50 per year 

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IV 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



ALBERT B. GROVES; LORD & HEWLETT AND PELL &- CORBETT, ASSOCIATED; 
NEWHALL c\: P>LEVINS; OLDS & laTCKEY; WOOD, DONN & DEMINCi. 



LETTERPRESS 

rA(;H 
TMK .SO-CALI.KD 'TKMI'IO DEI,LA TO.SSK," NKAR TIVOLI Frontispiece 

TiIATCUKI) ROOF FFFICCTS WITH .SHINGLES Havric T. I.iiidibc,!; l.V? 

WARMING AND VKNTILA'IING WITH SPICCIAL REFERENCE TO IloslMTAL liTILDINGS — III. 

/'. 1). Kimball HI 

THE HOUSING PRr)BI,EM — IV Gcotgr /I . Ford 144 

MASONIC TEMPLE, HROOKEVN.N, V C. /fouai <l llalkt r 14,H 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 149 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 18 



DEVOTEDTO •THEINTEREJTJ-OP-AR.CHITECTVRE-IN MATERlAiy-Or-CLAY- 



JULY 1!I00 



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Thatched Roof Effects with Shingles. 



r.V HARRIE T. I.INDEBERG. 




HOUSE AT POCANTICO HILLS, N. Y. 



YEAR by year the public shows an increasing 
interest in the artistic qualities of domestic archi- 
tecture, and while we have many worthy examples of 
large and formal residences, our humbler domestic work, 
in charm, repose, and distinction is wofully lacking. 

The increased interest however, following the in- 
creased desire for 
country life, and 
outdoor living, has 
given rise to a de- 
mand for modest 
homes designed 
with the same high 
standard of work 
and care in detail 
that the architect 
gives to his larger 
problems. Many 
capable architects 
are unwilling to 
give consideration 
and time from their 
more important 
commissions to 
these smaller prob- 
lems, which is un- 




WAGON SHED, WESTCHESTER COUNTV, N. V, 



doubtedly the cause of the lamentable work scattered 
through our countrysides and suburbs. 

The architects who have ability and are willing to put 
conscientious study in a small house, have long realized 
the fact that this type of work involves as much atten- 
tion to detail as the larger houses, and greater ingenuity 

to bring forth suc- 
cessful results. 

In this coiintry, 
the old farm build- 
ings of New Eng- 
land and the South, 
built by men who 
had no other end 
than utility in view, 
are still the best ex- 
amples of our do- 
mestic architecture. 
In these we seldom 
see roof lines 
broken into useless 
gables, or unmean- 
ing ornament and 
.showy paint — all of 
which are a source 
of wasteful expense 



T 

[ 



134 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



and depressing- things to live with. In our climate a 
house in the country should be low or give the efTect of 



The preeminent beauty of the English countryside is 
in no small measure due to its cottages and farm build- 



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(i.-vrE I.OUUE, WESTCHESTER COl'NTV, N. V. 



being low. Two stories should be sufficient, and there 
is a peculiar charm in rambling single story wings. 

There is also a charm in passing through casement 
windows of the living room or dining room, down but a 
single step to 
the lawn or out 
upon the brick 
terrace. A 
house high up 
is never quite 
so friendly to 
its garden or 
lawn. 

In a country 
house the great- 
est beauty is 
that of fitness 
of purpose and 
suitability of 
situation. Our 
homes should 
pretend to be 
nothing but 
what they are ; 
neither fan- 
tastic in outline 
nor frivolous in 
detail, and they 
will then con- 
tain no qualities which will detract from simple dignity. 
We should use where possible the local materials at hand, 
for where we find used in any given part of the country 
the materials nature provides, there is found the most 
beautiful architecture, because it is the most appropriate. 



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FARM lil'ILIlIM;, \\ KSICIIKSTKR COl'NTV, N. V. 



ings, generally pleasing in themselves and always in 
harmony with their surroundings. Each is built for 
comfort and convenience, each suiting its position and 
each a renewed proof, if one be needed, that what is 

best adapted to 
its purpose is 
the most beau- 
tiful. The suc- 
cessful roofs in 
the English cot- 
tages owe their 
charm to the 
fact that they 
are unbroken in 
surface and 
treatment. 

Unquestiona- 
bly the roof is 
one of the prin- 
cipal features in 
country house 
designing, shel- 
tering as it does 
the whole build- 
ing and convey- 
ing at once a 
kindly feeling 
of homeliness. 
There is prob- 
ably no falser note in the builder's art than the use of 
one material in imitation of another ; while in commer- 
cial work, through conditions well understood, we often 
build falsely, it is with no intent of crudely imitating 
thatch that I have studied the problem here presented, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



135 



but rather to produce the texture which the thatch roofs 
contain and not to make the pretense that a cedar shingle 
can imitate the English thatch. 

The aim of the manufacturers of practically every 
building material, is to produce exact shape, smooth 
surfaces, and uniformity in color, and our workmen have 
been taught to lay every material, whether it be brick, 
stone, or shingles, with absolute accuracy, as the standard 
of the best work, thus producing that soulless uni- 
formity which may be the pride of the workman, but is 
the despair of the artist. 

It was some years ago, with a commission to design a 
number of farm buildings with unusually attractive set- 
tings, that the problem presented itself of finding a 



the whole roof by furring on each rafter from 4 inches to 
6 inches in height in the center of the roof and diminish- 
ing the furring to nothing at the ridge and eaves. The 
furring strips are then laid on horizontally about 4 inches 
on centers. At the gables the furring is constructed 
with the greatest care bj' 1 inch by 2 inch shingle- strips 
running with the roof rafters, which carry the general 
convex lines of the roof to meet the hanging verge board. 
At the rounding of the gables the furring is brought 
well forward on the verge board and then returned 
against it, forming in section an arc of a circle. This 
rounding at the gables is greatest at the apex and dimin- 
ishes towards the eaves. Often on a main roof it is de- 
sirable when a decided softening of the gable is wanted. 




COTTAGE AT EAST HAMPTON, I.. I., N. \ 



material for the roofs which would carry out the charm 
of other materials at hand. 

With the regulation roofing materials such as shingles, 
tile, and slate, the problem seemed a discouraging one 
until I remembered that many years ago Mr. McKim, in 
some domestic work at Lenox tried an experiment of 
laying the courses of shingles on a stable roof at varying 
exposures to the weather, with the result that the roof 
surfaces gained somewhat in texture. 

With this example in mind I came across Mr. Magoni- 
gle's admirable Irwin House at (lien Ridge, N. J., which 
showed the sky lines softened by bending the shingles 
slightly at the gables and laying them in horizontal 
courses varying in exposure from 2 inches to S inches to 
the weather. 

"^^ The accompanying illustrations merely show how this 
idea has been developed and carried out. 

In the first place a slightly convex surface is given to 



to drop the roof rafters gradually at the ridge for a dis- 
tance T)f 3 or 4 feet back from the verge board. To be 
effective the dropping at the verge boards must necessa- 
rily be sudden. 

Aside from the rounding of the gables and the soften- 
ing at the eaves and ridges, perhaps the best feature of 
this roof is its texture produced by laying all of the 
courses of shingles out of the horizontal in long irreg- 
ular waves, so that the courses vary in exposure to the 
weather 1 inch to 5 inches. 

After two courses of shingles have been started at the 
eaves with the butts together, these long sweeping curves 
should be laid out on the roof with a soft pencil by the 
architect him.self. 

To keep the laying from becoming too irregular it is 
sometimes necessary to introduce an absolutely horizon- 
tal course in every eight or ten courses of shingles. Even 
then almost constant supervision is necessary in the case 



1^6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




COTTAC.E AT WOODMEKE, I.. I., N. V. 




FARM HOUSE, WESTCHESIER COL Nl N , N. \, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



137 




of inexperienced workmen, 
in order that the waving 
may not become too affected, 
or from failing in the other 
direction by appearing stilted 
and set. 

It is only in the rounding 
of the gables or on quick 
turns in angles between the 
side walls of a dormer and 
the roof surface, that it is 
necessary to steam or wet 



HOUSE AT KiNi;sroN, N. ^. 




CHICKEN HOUSES, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N. Y. 



the shingles. When dry the 
cedar shingle is decidedly 
brittle, but steamed or wet 
it will bend most accommo- 
datingly. 

In some cases of very 
quick curves it is found 
necessary to back-saw or 
split the shingles into narrow 
strips and in all cases of quick 
curves the shingles must be 
nailed through the butts. 




bTAi;i,L, MOLN 1 KlhC(-i, N. V. 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




HOUSE, MOUNT KISCO, N. V. 



As a matter of fact the construction of the furring is 
of the first importance, for with this clumsily or cheaply 
done, no dexterity in the laying of the shingles will bring 
successful results. 

Every valley must be rounded, every ridge softened 
and absolutely no sharp angles permitted in the entire 
roof surface. 

In my early experiments I used sheet lead or xinc to 
cover the apex of 
the gables and the 
ridge of the house, 
but as the workmen 
became more ex- 
perienced I found 
that a perfectly 
tight ridge could be 
constructed with 
the shingles them- 
selves, which is 
naturally more 
effective as the in- 
creasing weathering 
of the shingles 
makes a constantly 
increasing contrast 
between their tone 
and the color of the 
lead or zinc ridge. 

I have been asked if these roofs are effective as far as 
durability and tightness are concerned. I can only say 
that as about fifty per cent more of shingles are used on 




FARM BUILDING, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N. V, 



a roof of this type than when shingles are ordinarily laid 
at 5 inches to the weather, it is a simple matter to see 
that such a roof must be more effective where the 
shingles have an average exposure of only 2|4 inches to 
the weather. 

It is of course obvious to the trained architect or stu- 
dent of design that these roofs can be used appropriately 
in but one way, and that is as an integral part of the de- 
sign. To build 
these roofs on any 
structure not meant 
to receive them 
would be an archi- 
tectural absurdity. 

Yet this is fre- 
quently the most 
difficult fact to im- 
press upon the lay- 
man. 

Perhaps a letter 
received from a 
gentle lady in some 
western state (se- 
lected from many 
curious inejuiries), 
most aptly illus- 
trates this lack of 
understanding in 
the lay-mind. The lady wrote asking my firm its "charge 
per square foot " for "designing a thatch roof" for her 
house, the superstructure of which was already erected. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 



Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to 

Hospital Buildings — III. 



BY I). D. KIMBALL. 



AS AN alternate for the gravity method of exhaust- 
ing the air from the room to be ventilated there 
may be used an exhaust fan system, in which case the 
fan may be placed in the attic, on the roof, or in the 
basement, as may be found most convenient. The fan 
is thus used instead of the accelerating coils to insure 
a draft in the ventilating flues, its merit being its posi- 
tive action and the possibility of reducing the size of the 
vent flues, if necessary, because of the increased velocity 
obtainable, although many experts make a practice of 
maintaining the same size of vent flues as in the gravity 
system of exhausting the air. The registers should, in 
any case, be as large as in the gravity system in order to 
prevent improper air velocities, resulting in drafts, in 
the room. 

The objections to the use of the fan lay in the danger 
of its being noisy, the hum or noise of a fan being partic- 
ularly trying in the case of persons suffering from 
nervous disorders, and in the possibility of the fan with- 
drawing more air than is supplied by the fresh air system, 
when not so intended, both of which objections may be 
removed by proper designing, the most important ele- 
ment in overcoming the first objection being the proper 
mounting of the fan and its motor or engine and the 
connection of the fan to the vent ducts, as will be 
explained later on. 

It may easily be shown that where a large amount of 
air is to be moved it is less expensive to make use of a 
fan than to use accelerating coils, and it is usually quite 
as simple in operation. 

A fan or blower may be made use of in supplying the 
fresh air instead of using a gravity system of air supply. 
Such a system is often called a plenum system. The air 
may still be heated by the indirect radiators at the base 
of the flues, being driven by the fan to and through 
the indirect radiators, in most cases being first partially 
heated by being passed through tempering coils at the 
fan. The indirect radiators at the flues are then called 
reheaters, and are made smaller. Such a system makes 
possible the individual control of the temperature of the 
different rooms and is an admirable system. 

Where there are objections to the placing of indirect 
radiators at the base of the flues, as, for in.stance, where 
they would disfigure finished rooms in the basement, use 
may be made of what is known as the double duct sys- 
tem, in which two ducts are carried from the fan to the 
base of each flue, the upper duct containing air heated to 
a high temperature by being passed through the temper- 
ing and reheating coils located at the fan, the lower duct 
containing tempered air of a less temperature which has 
passed through the tempering coil only, the warm air 
duct being of sufficient size to carry all of the air re- 
quired if necessary, the lower duct usually being of the 
same width and about two thirds the depth of the hot air 
duct. Branch connections are made from both ducts 
to the base of the vertical flue, with a mixing damper at 



the point of this double connection or jimction. This 
damper is controlled from the room above by an auto- 
matic temperature controlling system, if possible, or by 
hand if necessary. 

The hot blast system or single duct system without 
reheaters at the base of the flues, in which all the heating 
and regulating of the temperature of the various rooms 
of the building is done at the fan, is not to be recom- 
mended because of the total lack of proper means by 
which the temperature of the rooms may be controlled 
individually according to the different exposures or other 
requirements. 

With the plenum system the vitiated air may be ex- 
hausted by the gravity method, or the air may be both 
introduced and exhausted by means of fans. In many 
cases this is not only desirable but, as in the case of 
large hospitals, it is necessary because of the volume of 
air which is required, and the limited space available for 
flues which necessitates smaller flues and a higher 
velocity of the air therein. When the entire dependence 
for warming and ventilating is placed upon a fan system 
great care must be used to so design the system as to 
insure against a breakdown. 

In this connection it is well to note that a fan in itself 
seldom breaks down, but occasionally a motor or engine 
will give trouble, on account of which fact it is desirable 
that duplicate engines or motors be installed if possible, 
or at the least it is important that there be kept on hand 
duplicates of the important parts of the motors, etc., 
which will make possible quick repairs. It may be pos- 
sible to install duplicate outfits complete, or two fans of 
such size that they may both be used ordinarily, eacli for 
a part of the building, while in case of breakdown to one 
the other may, by means of cross connections, be made 
to provide the entire building with a sufficient amount of 
air and heat to prevent discomfort. 

In setting the fan, its bearings, and the engine or 
motors used to drive it, it is important that the founda- 
tions be kept entirely .'-•eparate from any of the building 
foundations, in doing which it is wise to have a layer of 
sand one inch or more in thickness under and about the 
foundations on all sides. The fah wheel may well be 
mounted on a shaft having its bearings entirely inde- 
pendent of the fan casing, the foundation for these bear- 
ings being entirely independent of foundations for the 
fan, motor, or building. The peripheral velocity of the 
fan wheel and the velocity of the air through the fan dis- 
charge outlet should be kept as low as possible, but the 
safe maximum varies with different types of fans and 
under different conditions. In hospital work under 
usual conditions a peripheral velocity of the wheel of 
about 4,200 feet may be considered the maximum with a 
velocity of air through the fan discharge outlet of not over 
1,S()0 feet per minute, this being regulated by the size of 
the fan discharge opening. In connecting the air ducts 
to the fan it is well to place a canvas sleeve consisting 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of two thicknesses of ten ounce canvas securely fastened 
to fan and duct, applying thereto four coats of lead and 
oil paint. This sleeve should be about 8 inches long. 
Particularly if the motor be an alternate current motor, 
it is wise to place the motor, belt, and fan pulley in a 
room having no connection with the air chamber or ducts, 
by extending the shaft through the wall, and in some 
cases it is even necessary to provide a wood box lined 
with hair felt and canvas held in place by wire to cover 
the motor, belt, and fan pulley. 

There are many hospital superintendents who object to 
the use of the fan system, while cjuite as many will be 
found who prefer the fan system, lioth have their proper 
places and both may, by proper design, be made to cover 
a large range of service. Objections raised to the fan 
system are usually by superintendents who have had 
unfortunate experiences with fan systems which have 
been so designed or installed that the operation of the 
fans has been noticeable in the wards and rooms of the 
hospital, or else drafts or other unsatisfactory results 
have been obtained therefrom. A fan system can always 
be installed which will be noiseless and satisfactory, and 
so that no difference in operation can be detected when 
compared with the gravity system. On the reverse hand 
in a great many cases a gravity system can be installed 
which will give just as positive and satisfactory results 
as the fan system, and in small buildings it is usually 
more desirable. 

Much might be said of the matter of the proper loca- 
tion of fresh air and vent flues, and the location of their 
openings into the rooms. Both warm air and vent open- 
ings and their connecting risers may, to advantage, be 
placed on the outside walls if properly insulated, or they 
tnay be placed on the crosswise partitions, the warm 
outlet being placed nearer the outside wall with the vent 
riser on or near the inside wall. It is not wise to place 
both warm air and vent openings on the inside walls, as 
the air moving from the warm air opening to the outside 
wall, dropping down there as it is cooled and then pass- 
ing back across the floor will cause drafts and cold floors 
unless direct radiators are used on the outside walls, 
which, as previously stated, are undesirable in rooms 
occupied by patients. 

The air opening from the warm air flue into the room 
may be placed about eight feet above the floor, or it 
may be placed under the window, the latter arrangement 
meeting with much favor among engineers and hospital 
superintendents. In this latter position the warm air. as 
it enters the room meets with or opposes the downward 
current of air formed by the cooling effect of the win- 
dows and walls and so prevents drafts. It is found that 
the diffusion of the air throughout the room, with the 
volume dampers in the fresh air and vent ducts properly 
adjusted, is thorough. 

The proper location of the opening for the removal of 
the vitiated air is also much discussed, the principal 
point of difference in opinions being as to whether the 
opening shall be at the floor or at the ceiling. There are 
strong advocates of both positions. The opening at the 
ceiling doubtless involves the greatest expense of opera- 
ting as it takes more heat out with the air removed, but 
either position will give satisfactory ventilation if prop- 
erly designed and managed. If the outlet is placed high 



tlie inlet must be low and enough fresh air must be sup- 
plied to maintain a slight plenum condition in the room. 
The general consensus of opinion has long favored the 
bottom opening and it may be counted upon to give 
entirely satisfactory results. Many engineers provide 
both top and bottom openings, usually with a switch 
damper so arranged that the top opening may be used in 
summer, when it is desirable to relieve the heat of the 
room as much as possible or when special occasion de- 
mands, the bottom opening being used during the cold 
weather. 

It is difficult, in the light of recent tests, to maintain 
that a majority of the CO^ settles to the floor for, because 
of the temperature at which the air is exhaled from the 
lungs and the movement of the air in the room, it will 
be found in varying amounts throughout the room. The 
aim therefore should be to secure the introduction and 
thorough diffusion of a constant amount of fresh air 
throughout the room and the constant removal of a like 
amount of the vitiated air. 

In operating rooms it is important that both top and 
bottom vent openings be provided, as in the use of ether 
and chloroform the fumes of one rise to the ceiling wKile 
the fumes of the other settle to the floor. It is custom- 
ary to provide a separate fan for the ventilation of the 
operating room, especially because it is desirable to 
provide for the rapid removal of the air immediatelj^ 
following an operation. 

In every fresh air and vent flue there should be pro- 
vided a volume or adjusting damper by means of which 
the amount of air to be supplied to or removed from 
the room may be regulated. In the case of an air open- 
ing into a room placed above the level of the head a ve- 
locity of the entering air of 300 feet per minute may be 
safely permitted, while in the case of an opening placed 
below this level a velocity of 150 feet per minute is the 
maximum permissible and 100 feet per minute is often 
desirable, as in the case of operating rooms or openings 
placed near beds. 

In hospitals and schools it is becoming common prac- 
tice to omit the registers at the air openings. The 
architect tries to eliminate all square corners and re- 
cesses for the collection of dust so that there would seem 
to exist no warrant for putting in a register or register 
face which has a multitude of small corners in which and 
back of which dust may collect. A neat sheet metal out- 
let box to which the plaster may be brought is installed 
without the register, and in the case of the fresh air inlet 
deflecting plates are usually included in the outlet box to 
diffuse or divide the current of air and so reduce the 
velocity as it enters the room. 

Hospitals designed for certain diseases require special 
treatment, as in the case of hospitals for contagious dis- 
eases, in which special care must be used in the arrange- 
ment of flues and an extra amount of air must be provided, 
or as in the case of hospitals for tuberculosis patients, in 
which it is customary to open the wards to the outdoor 
air at various times, in view of which requirement the 
system should be designed to make possible the rapid 
heating of the rooms. 

In the hospital special consideration should be given 
to the matter of the location of the boiler plant. If pos- 
sible it should be placed in an outside building because 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 7. PLATE 85. 




IREM. TEMPLE, WILKES-BARRE, PA. 
Olds & Puckey, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 7. PLATE 




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VOL. 18. NO. 7. PLATE 92. 




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DETAILS, MASONIC TEMPLE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects, Pell <t Corbett, Associated, Architect- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. :. PLATE 95. 





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FLOOR PLANS, MASONIC TEMPLE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 

Pell & Corbett, Associated, Architects. 



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THE BR IC KBU I L I) ER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 7. PLATE 96. 




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THE BRICKBl'ILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 7. PLATE f'" 




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'FIRST 'FLOOIi'PL:Pi7^' 



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?1ErZ:z:^:^/IV£r FLOOR PL?17^- 



TUSCAN TEMPLE (MASONIC), ST. LOUIS. MO. 
Albert B. Groves. Architect. 



1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. IS. NO. 7. PLATE 98. 




ODD FELLOWS HALL, MALDEN, MASS. 
Newhall & Blevins, Architects. 



1 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



143 



of the desirability of removing as far as possible from 
the building the noise, gases, and dust incident to the 
operation of the plant. If the hospital consists of a 
group of buildings a central plant is in every way desir- 
able, not only for the above reasons but because of the 
increased economy of operation and decreased cost of 
maintenance. Such a plant may, to advantage, be com- 
bined with a lighting plant, which, because of the use of 
the e.'<haust steam in the heating plant, results in secur- 
ing the necessary electric current at practically the cost 
of the interest and depreciation charge on the cost of the 
lighting plant. To such a combined plant is frequently 
added the laundry plant, vacuum cleaning plant, water 
filtration plant, etc. 

In undertaking to give some rules and formulas it is 
possible to refer here to those only that are most com- 
monly used with an aim to cover the needs of the aver- 
age steam heating and ventilating system for a small 
building. 

The warming system and the ventilating system of a 
hospital building are inseparably one. A system of venti- 
lating can be made to accomplish both warming and 
ventilating, while every ventilating system requires for 
the greater part of the year the warming of the air 
provided thereby. 

In the design of the plant there must be first deter- 
mined the total amount of heat required to overcome the 
losses through the windows, doors, walls and skylights, 
roofs and floors, and in addition there must be deter- 
mined the amount of heat carried out with the vitiated 
air removed by the ventilating system. 

The unit of measure of heat is the British Thermal 
Unit, usually abbreviated to B. T. U. or termed " heat 
unit," which is the amount of heat required to raise 
one pound of pure water 1°, or to be exact, from 62° to 63° 
Fahrenheit. This equals 778 foot pounds, or 33,305 heat 
units equal one horse-power, and one pound of ice in melt- 
ing is equal to 142 heat units. The importance of a clear 
understanding of this unit of measure is imperative as 
all heat calculations are based thereon. It should serve 
the heating and ventilating engineer as the two foot rule 
serves the carpenter. 

With the required number of heat units known the 
radiator and boiler capacity is easily determined, and 
then the size of pijjes and other details follow. 

The use of a rule-of-thumb method of determining the 
radiation required cannot be too strongly condemned, 
particularly the method of allowing a certain number of 
cubic feet of space to each square foot of radiation. It 
is not uncommon to find in the same building some 
rooms requiring 1 scjuare foot of radiation to 30 cubic feet 
of contents, while other rooms will require but 1 scjuare 
foot of radiation to 200 cubic feet of space, the difference 
being due to the difference in the sizes of the rooms, the 
ratio of cubic contents to exposed walls and glass areas, 
the points of the compass, construction, etc. 

For buildings made up of rooms of not over 12,000 to 
16,000 cubic feet of space each, heated by direct radia- 
tion. Professor Carpenter's formula for determining the 
square feet of radiation required will be found very 
satisfactory. 

This rule is as follows : Add together the area of the 
glass surface in square feet, one (juarter of the area of 



the exposed wall, cubic feet of space times .04 (use .04 for 
the first floor rooms, .02 for rooms on upper fioors, and 
.06 for halls, etc.), and multiply the sum of these three 
items by the proper factor taken from the following 
tables: 

I'OR DIRlCCr K.\I)I.\T1()N. 





Temp, of 
OuUide 


Temp, of 
Room. 


Atmos. 
Pressure. 


2 lbs. 


10 lbs. 


Hot Water. 




Air. 


212° 


219° 


240O 


160° 


18a' 




+ 10 


50 


.16 


.14 


.12 


.225 


.20 







50 


.20 


.19 


.15 


.28 


.25 




-10 


50 


.25 


.21 


.19 


.33 


.30 




+ 10 


60 


.21 


.18 


.165 


.31 


.30 







60 


.25 


.22 


.196 


.37 


.35 


1 


-10 


60 


.29 


.26 


.23 


.44 


.41 




4-10 


70 


.26 


.27 


.22 


.41 


.34 







70 


.32 


.28 


.245 


.47 


.40 




-10 


70 


.35 


.32 


.26 


.55 


.45 




+ 10 


80 


.33 


.30 


.24 


.54 


.435 







80 


.38 


.33 


.27 


.62 


.50 




-10 


80 


.42 


.38 


.31 


.70 


.56 



Ordinal ily assume two pounds pressure in steam and 160° in hot water. 
FOR INDIRECT RADIATION, 







Factor to obtain 

sq. ft. of 
Heating Surface. 


Cu. ft. air persq. ft. 

Heating 

Surface per hour. 


B. T. U. per sq. ft. 

Heating 
.Surface per hour. 




First 
Floor. 


.Second and 
Third Floor. 


First 
Floor. 


Second and 
Third Floor. 


First .Second and 
Floor. |Third Floor. 


< 

H 
U3 


Zero to 

70° 
Steam 

212° 


.73 


.49 


I 88 


294 


324 


486 


Zero to 

70- 

Steam 

228° 


.69 


.46 


1 96 


294 


338 


507 


Zero to 

60° 

Steam 

212° 


.46 


.31 


1 S8 


282 


324 486 


H 
S- 
< 

h 

K 


Zero to 

70" 

Water 

160° 


1.06 


.70 


1 28 


192 


220 


330 


Zero to 

70° 
Water 

180° 


.89 


.59 


1 50 


225 


260 


390 



212° equals atmospheric pressure ; 228" equals five pounds pressure. 

For first floor rooms with indirect radiation and having 
floor registers in the wall near the floor approximately 
fifty per cent more indirect radiation than direct radia- 
tion will usually be found to he refiuired to do the same 
work. 

TIIIC ('ampanile of St. Marks has now reached such 
a height as to make an almost startling object- 
lesson on the terribly prosaic state of hardness, tight- 
ness, smoothness, novelty, and rigid repair in which the 
ages of antiquity possessed the buildings we hold vener- 
able," says the London Chronklc. " It is a perfect fac- 
simile of the original belfry tower of which the fall gave 
a shock to all hearts," it continues, "and that beautiful 
tower, before it fell, had a surface, a sweetness, an im- 
perceptible disintegration which was the bloom of time. 
A random touch of green lodged between its bricks, 
thanks to the birds or the winds. Its .successor is an 
almost hideous disappointment, and looks like nothing 
but a part of some monstrous factory." 



144 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Housing Problem — IV. 



BY GEORGK H. lOKl). 



IN THE illustrations of the previous articles we have 
studied what is being done in housing in the larger 
cities in America. In the text we have considered what 
can be done in the way of model housing. We will now 
consider what cannot be done with regard to housing, 
that is to say, we will see what is allowed and what is 
prohibited by the tenement code or buildings laws of 
the different cities of America. 

New York City was the first to pass a tenement code, 
this some eight years ago. It was as the outcome of 
investigations, revealing an apixalling state of affairs, 
that a restricting tenement code became an absolute 

necessity. This 

was soon fol- ■ '' J ,_^ \^J 

. ,. 1 I ., 1 — I i .gq 

lowed by special 
tenement laws in 
Boston, Haiti- 
more, Philadel- 
phia, Chicago, 
Pittsburg, and 
Washington, and 
by state laws in 
New York, New 
Jer.sey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Connecti- 
cut, and Wis- 
consin. T h e 
tenement codes 
of Chicago, Haiti- 
more, Cleveland, 
and San Fran- 
cisco are consid- 
ered the best. 
The constitution- 
ality of tenement 
house legislation 
was determined 
bya final decision 
in the United 
States Supreme 
Court in 1906. 
In these tene- 
ment codes the question of safety and health are taken 
up in some detail, but the cjuestion of comfort as affect-, 
ing housing is barely touched upon. This is as should 
be expected because safety and health are far more vital 
than comfort. The question of safety is considered only 
in regard to safety from fire, and health; in relation to 
light and air, sanitary arrangements, cleanliness, and 
over-crowding. 

Definition of Tenemknt. In New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and Connecticut, and in the cities of 
Cleveland, San Francisco, Washington, Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, Denver, Rochester, Syracuse, Columbus, and Los 
Angeles, a tenement house is defined as a building which 
is occupied as a residence by three or more families liv- 
ing independently of each other and doing their own 
cooking on the premises, or by two families or more on 
one floor so living and cooking. Chicago, Milwaukee, 



FIRST PKIZE DESIGN, SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR NEW- 
TENEMENT. 
Harde & Short, Architects. 



and Toledo include all houses occupied by two or more 
families; Boston, Baltimore, Providence, and Kansas 
City fix the limit at four or more families or three or 
more families on any Hoor. 

FiRK.i'Rooi' Tenements. In New York, Rochester, 
Louisville, Denver, and New Jersey every tenement 
house over six stories in height must be fireproof. In 
Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, San Francisco, and Wash- 
ington all over five stories must be fireproof, while in 
Pennsylvania, St. Paul, and St. Louis all tenements over 
four stories must be fireproof. 

Wooden Tenements. New York, New Jersey, Boston, 

St. Louis, Mil- 
waukee, Cleve- 
land, Providence, 
Washington, 
Toledo, Kansas 
City, Syracuse, 
Cincinnati, and 
San Francisco 
limit wooden 
tenements to 
three stories in 
height, with a 
maximum of ac- 
commodation of 
three families, or 
two stories in 
height with two 
families per 
lloor. 

Fire Escapes. 
New York and 
New Jersey re- 
quire a fire es- 
cape opening 
directly from one 
room in each 
apartment in 
each story above 
the ground floor. 
These fire es- 
capes are elaborately detailed as to construction, with 
angle of stairs, etc. Chicago is nearly the same, not 
quite as stringent, while most of the other cities recjuire 
some sort of fire escape on all tenements over three 
stories in height. 

Stairways. In New York and New Jersey every 
tenement must have at least one flight of stairs from en- 
trance to roof at least 3 feet wide. This shall be fire- 
proof throughout. In Chicago and Cleveland every 
tenement must have two flights of stairs from entrance 
to roof, to which every apartment should be accessible. 
Boston, San F'rancisco, and Providence are similar to 
New York. 

Hai.l and Stair Partitions. In New York, Chicago, 
Cleveland, and .St. Louis the stair hall with its entrance 
from the street must be enclosed on all sides with fire- 
proof non-combustible walls, and the doors opening on to 




YORK MODEL 



THE B R I C K B IT I L n R R 



H5 



these must be 
fireproof and 
self-closing. In 
New Jersey and 
Boston these 
partition enclos- 
ing walls may 
be of wooden 
studs with wire 
lath. 

Shafts. In 
every city light 
and vent shafts 
and elevator 
and dumb- 
waiter shafts 
must be fire- 
proof through- 
out. 

General. In 
nearly every 
city it is re- 
quired that in 
every tenement 
house living or 
sleeping rooms 
should have at 
least one win- 
dow opening 
directly on a 
street, yard, or 
court, the top 
of which win- 
dow shall be 
within one foot 
of the ceiling. 

Height of Tenements. New York, New Jersey, 
Chicago, Baltimore, and Cleveland limit the height of 
tenements to one and one half times the width of the 
widest street on which the building faces. The same is 
true in San Francisco except for fireproof structures. 
In Boston the limit is two and one half times the width 
of the street with a maximum height of 125 feet. In 
St. Louis tenements are limited to 150 feet and those on 
streets 60 feet or less in width, to two and one half times 
the width of the street. Washington limits all tenements 
to the width of the streets between building lines with a 
maximum height of 90 feet. Providence limits all to 
90 feet unless fireproof. Rochester permits no tene- 
ment to exceed in height 
four times its horizontal 
dimension. In Liverpool, 
(ilascow, and Berlin, tene- 
ments are limited in height 
to the width of the street, 
and in Edinburgh to one 
and one quarter times the 
widthof the street. In Paris 
the height limitation aver- 
ages about one and one half 
times the width of the street. 

Percentage of Lot Oc- 
cupied. New York and 




SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 




1=0 Crr=T 



Block 3-PE./^f^or)V Ave. 

I'IMI.ICO BUILDINGS, I'EAIiODV TRIST, LONDON. 



Baltimore allow 
seventy per 
cent of an in- 
terior lot to 
be occupied. 
Connecticut, 
Cliicago, San 
Fianci.sco, and 
Washington al- 
low seventy- 
five per cent to 
be occupied. 
Cleveland al- 
lows only sixty- 
five per cent to 
be occupied. 
For corner lots 
New York, Con- 
necticut, Cleve- 
land, Baltimore, 
and Washing- 
ton all allow 
ninety per cent 
to be occupied. 
Chicago allows 
eighty-five per 
CLMit and San 
I' r a n c i s c o 
ninety-five per 
cent to be occu- 
pied. 

Yards. In 
New Y o r k at 
the rearof every 
tenenieni hou.se 
on an interior 
lot there must be a yard extending across the whole width 
of the lot at least 12 feet deep and this depth shall be 
increased 1 foot for every 12 feet of added height above 
60 feet. The same shall be deducted for every 12 feet 
below 60 feet, with a minimum depth of 10 feet. On 
corner lots the rear yard must be 10 feet in depth. In 
New Jersey the rear yards for tenements 50 feet in 
lieight must be 16 feet deep. In Pennsylvania the rear 
yard must occupy twentj' per cent of the area of the lot 
and never be less than 8 feet in depth. On corner lots 
this is reduced to ten ])er cent. The Connecticut law 
is similar to the New York law. In Chicago the rear 
yard of interior lots must occupy ten per cent of the area 

of the lot with a minimum 
depth of 10 feet. Incomer 
lots the rear yard should 
e(jual eight per cent of the 
lot. In Boston, tenements 
50 feet high or less must 
have a rear yard 12 feet 
deep, whicli increases 1 foot 
in width to each additional 
10 feet in height above 50 
feet. For corner lots the 
yard must be at least 6 feet 
wide and should increase 
correspondingly. Balti- 



SUIi.MlTTKD IN COMPETITION FOR NEW YORK MODEL 
TENEMENT. 
Israels & Harder, Architects. 



146 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



more and San Francisco are 
similar to New York. In 
Cleveland buildings up to 
40 feet high on interior lots 
must have a yard 10 feet 
wide and for each additional 
\Zy2 feet the yard must be 
increased 1 foot in depth. 
Washington requires a yard 
10 feet deep on an interior 
lot, and for each additional 
foot over 20 feet in height 
of a building the yard must 
be increased 6 inches in 
breadth. 

In London the rear yard 
must contain 150 square 
feet and be at least 10 feet 
in depth. In Manchester, 
England, the rear yard 

must contain 250 square feet, in Liverpool, 150 square 
feet and 10 feet of depth for buildings under 30 feet 
high, and 15 feet of depth for buildings over 30 feet 
high. Dundee, Scotland, requires the yard to equal in 
area one third of the lot area. Edinburg requires the 
yard to equal three quarters of the area of the lot occu- 
pied by the building, and if the building exceeds four 
stories in height the area of the yard must equal the area 
of the building. 

Courts. In New York outer courts on lot line must 
be 6 feet wide for tenements 60 feet high and increased 
or decreased 6 inches in width for each 12 feet added or 
subtracted from the above 60 feet in height. If the 
length of the court exceeds 65 feet, its width must be 
increased 1 foot for every 30 or less feet above 65. Outer 
courts between 
wings or parts of 
the same building 
are double these fig- 
ures. Inner lot line 
courts must be at 
least 12 feet wide 
and 24 feet long for 
tenements 60 feet 
in height, and in- 
creased or d e - 
creased 6 inches in 
width and 1 foot in 
length for every 12 
feet, or fraction, 
added or subtracted 
from the above 60 
feet, except that in 
tenements four 
stories or under in 
height, for only two 
families on a floor, 
courts may be 8 feet 
by 14 feet. Inner 
courts not on the 
lot line double these 
figures. Every 
inner court must be 




MODEL TENEMENT AT 14 RLE JEAN ROIIERT, PARIS. 




65 BOULE-VARD De GISE-NEXLE. 
DWELLINGS FOR THE PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY OF PARIS. 



provided at its base with an 
intake from street or yard 
at least 3 feet wide by 7 feet 
high. In New Jersey outer 
courts on lot line for tene- 
ments over three stories in 
height must be 2 feet S 
inches wide. Inner lot line 
courts for tenements ex- 
ceeding four stories in 
height must be not less than 
8 feet by 14 feet, and in- 
creased 6 inches in width 
and 1 foot in length for 
every added 12 feet above 
50 feet. Pennsylvania re- 
quires that the distance 
from every window in a 
tenement house to the party 
wall line opposite to it must 
be at least 8 feet. Courts and open spaces between tene- 
ment houses and between the wings of a tenement house 
must be 12 feet wide. Inner courts are forbidden. In 
Chicago inner courts for four story buildings must con- 
tain 160 square feet with 8 feet as least width. For six 
stories the inner court must contain 400 square feet with 
16 feet as least width. For outer courts the least width 
is half of the above, e.Kcept where the outer court is en- 
closed between wings, when the dimensions are the same 
as the above. In Boston outer lot line courts must be at 
least 6 feet wide for tenements 50 feet high or less. Be- 
tween wings this is doubled. Inner lot line courts must 
be at least 8 feet wide for tenements 50 feet high, and 
must have an area of at least 80 sc[uare feet. Inner courts 
not on a lot line are double the.se figures. In Baltimore 

a four story tene- 
ment must have 
225 SCI u are feet in 
its inner court with 
a minimum width 
of 8 feet. A six 
story tenement re- 
cjuires 350 square 
feet with 11 feet as 
minimum width. 
In Cleveland outer 
lot line courts for 
four stories must be 
6 feet wide, and for 
six stories, 9 feet 
wide. Inner lot 
line courts for four 
stories must be 6 
feet wide with a 
minimum area of 
lOH scjuare feet; six 
stories high, 9 feet 
in width, with an 
area of 243 square 
feet. Courts not 
on the lot line are 
double these fig- 
ures. In San Fran- 



THE R R I C K H U I L D E R . 



M7 



CISCO outer courts for tenements four stories high must 
be 4 feet wide, and for six stories, 8 feet wide. For inner 
courts these widths are doubled with a minimum area 
of 160 square feet for four stories, and 400 square feet 
for six stories. London requires that the width of an 
enclosed court in front of a habitable room window 
should be equal one half the heiijht measured from the 
window sill to the top of the opposite wall. CJlascow 
requires that in front of at least one half of every sleep- 
ing room window there should be an open space equal 
to three quarters the height of the wall from the lloor of 
the room to the roof. In Berlin outer courts must be 
8 feet wide, and between opposite windows 20 feet wide. 

Rear Tkne.mexts. In most cities rear tenements are 
forbidden. Where they exist, an open space of from 
25 to 30 feet between them and the front tenement is 
required. In Chicago, Haltimore, Kansas City, and 
Columbus this open space is 10, IS, 20, or 25 feet ac- 
cording to whether the lower tenement is one, two, 
three, or four or more stories in height. Washington 
requires the difference between such buildings to be 
efiual to one half the height of the tenement plus one 
half the height of the lower building. 

AiK AND Vk.nt Shafts. Every vent .shaft in New 
York 60 feet in height must have an area of at least 20 



6 inches, while in Pennsylvania, St. Louis, Providence, 
and (Irand Rapids they may be 8 feet. Most cities re- 




BECjKOCJM 



associated, single and two koom tenements, wesi- 

MINSTER BLOCK l)W Kl.LI NdS, LONDON. 

square feet. In New Jersey when 50 feet high, it must 
have 9 square feet of area. In Chicago, for a four story 
building, it must have 36 scjuare feet, for a six story 
building, 72 scpiare feet. In Boston, when 50 feet high, 
the area .should be 15 square feet. In Cleveland, for 
four stories, the area should be .32 square feet, for six 
stories, 72 scjuare feet. 

Area and Heujht or Rooms. New York, New Jer- 
sey, Connecticut, Chicago, and Baltimore all retjuire that 
every apartment shall contain one room with not less than 
120 square feet of floor area, and that all other rooms 
except toilet rooms should contain at least 70 s(|uare feet. 
In Cleveland and San Franci.sco we find it the same 
except that the 70 .square feet is increased to 80 scpiare 
feet and in Boston to 90 square feet. In most cities 
water closets shall be at least 2 feet 4 inches wide. In 
New York, New Jersey, and Baltimore rooms shall be 
9 feet in clear from floor to ceiling. In Connecticut, 
Chicago, Boston, Clevelantl, and San F"rancisco, 8 feet 






UK 



LK 



nf^T-^Eb □ i*^ , 



r 



L R 



MODEL TENEMENTS, RUK JEANNE I) ARC, I'AKIS. 1 IRST 
PRIZE, 1 901 COMPK/ni ION. 

(luire the window area of all habitable rooms to equal 
one tenth of the floor area. 

Windows in II alls. Most cities rccjuirc lliat all pub- 
lic halls in tenements should have windows opening 
directly to the open air. 

Cki.i.ar and Baskmknt Rooms. In most cities base- 
ment rooms may be occupied if 8 feet 6 inches in height 
with a celling at least 5 feet above the ground level. 

W A I Ei< Closet Accommodations. New York, New 
Jersey, Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, San Francisco, and 
Baltimore recjuire a water closet within each apartment, 
provided that where apartments consist of one or two 
rooms, there must be a water closet for every three 
rooms. 

Overcrowding. Most cities require that no living or 
sleeping room shall contain less than 400 ciibic feet of 
air space for every person over twelve years of age and 
200 cubic feet for every person under twelve. For Cleve- 
land these figures become 500 and .^00 respectively. 
In New Orleans 600 cubic feet are reijuired ])er per- 
son, while in Denver the maximum is reached with 
700 cubic feet. Four hundred and 200 cubic feet is 
the general re(iuircment in Croat Britain and on the 
Continent. 

Cleanliness or Bi ii dinus. Every city has provisions 
for the inspection of tenement houses to see that the 
rooms, passages, stairs or water closets, cellars and 
courts of the houses be kept clean. In most cities there 
is further provision that the walls of all courts excejit 
such as face upon the street shall be whitewashed by 
the owner as often as the tenement department may 
recjuire. 

All the laws have provisions with regard to the admin- 
istration and enforcing of their parts and into the details 
of which it is not necessary to go. These laws are excel- 
lent in a preventative way; they are good as far as they 
go, but tliey have an unfortunate tendency to prevent 
the development of new ideas in tenement planning, by 
throwing all sorts of obstructions in the way of any 
departure from the stock type. They do i)revent a great 
deal of poor building and imjiossible arrangement, but 
they do not make it possible or advantageous for an 
owner to erect a tenement any better than the minimum 
required by law. 

.N'oTH. — KiirtliiT details in rc),'ar(l to tlR-se laws maybe olttainetl 
from tlie cxfclicnt compariitive summary of the TciicmcMt ke>,'iila- 
tions of I'niled .States recentl\- com|)ilc(l by tlie Lej,'islative Refer- 
ence iJepartment of the Wisconsin State Library at Matlison, Wis. 



148 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Masonic Temple, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

I'.V C. HOWARD WALKER. 

ONE of the primary essentials of inonumental archi- 
tecture as taught in the schools, is that of the sense 
of the proportions of geometric solids in their relations 
to each other. The simplicity of an easily comprehended 
mass is in itself a far step towards architectural dignity, 
and when in addition to its planes and silhouette the de- 
tails of its openings and of its embellishment are finely 
placed and in just proportions, there inevitably results 
monumental architecture of the best type. This state- 
ment is almost axiomatic, and is easily demonstrated by 
the consideration of a number of the noblest buildings of 
the past. Certainly the Pyramids are geometric solids 
pure and simple, and have been considered the epitome 
of dignity. The temples of the Greeks, the Mausoleums, 
whether scjuare in plan like that of Halicarnassus, or cir- 
cular like those of Augustus and of Hadrian, are simple 
geometric solids beautifully decorated with details, as are 
also the brick Campanile of North Italy and the Baptistries 
of Tu.scany. Each of these has simple requirements of 
plan which can and rightly should be expressed by ecjually 
simple exteriors. It is the constant desire of the skilled 
architect to reduce the integral factors of his design to as 
few as possible as far as solids are concerned — to avoid 
eccentricities and unnecessary fantasy and finally to em- 
bellish adequately. When there appears a building which 
has all these attributes, which while containing a number 
of rooms of various sizes and several mezzanine stories 
has maintained great simplicity of mass associated with 
interesting detail, it is a natural conclusion that it has been 
thoroughly and well studied, and when in addition the 
scale of the detail has been carefully modulated to every 
portion of building and the areas of the different surfaces 
of tone and of color have been proportioned to each 
other, the further conclusion is that it has been intelli- 
gently and skilfully studied. vSuch a building is the 
Masonic Temple at Brooklyn, by Messrs. Lord & Hew- 
lett and Pell iJv; Corbett, associated. To have treated 
this building as a simple cube, which had monumental 
character at once from its mass, and then to have so 
proportioned an order upon its farades that the stylobate, 
order, and parapet are in admirable harmony while at the 
same time they accommodate and express the various 
mezzanine stories, is an admirable achievement. 

Especially ingenious is the way in which two stories 
are obtained over the entablature without jeopardizing 
either the proportion or the weight of the parapet. 

The windows immediately above the cyma, while en- 
tirely performing their work as light openings, are almost 
entirely concealed from below, and the setback of the 
top story and its change in tone completes the mass ad- 
mirably. The whole method of obtaining two stories of 
windows above the entablature without losing the sur- 
face of the parapet and without making it too heavy is 
very successful. The relative scale of the detail to the 
various parts of the building has been carefully studied. 
The facias of the belt courses, broad in compari-son with 
the curved moldings, give strong horizontal lines and 
shadows that define the factors of the mass. As has 
been mentioned, these factors are simple. There is a 



high stylobate containing the first floor and the first 
mezzaijine. 

The second mezzanine is contained within the plinth 
base of the order. The mistake of making the openings 
in this story too large or too high could very readily have 
occurred. As it is, they are longer than their height, 
and therefore are horizontal units, running with the 
plinth, not across it, and therefore becoming a part of it. 
It is perhaps open to question whether grills in these 
windows placed nearly upon the plane of the ashlar 
would not have still further maintained the integrity of 
the plinth, but probably the grills would have cut out 
too much light and have been impracticable. At first 
thought it seemed as if it would have been preferable to 
omit brick in this plinth course and to have made it 
wholly of light terra cotta, but perhaps this would have 
called attention to the window openings by contrast and 
have made them too important. Obviously the idea was 
to modulate the tones gradually into the brickwork, but 
it is doubtful if any such modulation is necessary be- 
tween an order and the base upon which it stands. If 
this plinth cour.se could have been all of terra cotta with 
windows with grills, it might have appeared a little more 
solid. This however is somewhat carping criticism, as 
the work is excellent as it is. 

The order embraces three stories, when stories exist. 
It is the Ionic order of the Erectheion type. The stepped 
wall base is carried between the columns and softens the 
transition between the stylobate and order. The columns 
are engaged and are in antis, there being a double pilas- 
ter flanking the colonnade on the farade, with narrow 
windows between the pilasters. The corners of the 
building show beyond the outermost pilaster. Between 
the columns, about two thirds of the height of the shaft, 
is a Doric sub-entablature of terra cotta separating the 
two lower stories of the colonnade from the upper. This 
is carried on slender pilasters engaged with the columns. 
It is in excellent scale and well placed below the Ionic 
capitals. But a continuation of the belt is carried be- 
tween the brick pilasters at either side of the colonnade as 
a panel with a roundel in the center. This panel appears 
to be the one detail which could have been improved. 
Before criticizing it, it should be acknowledged that it is 
very good as it is, but that it is open to the following 
suggestions : In the order, between base and epistyle, 
all the factors excepting the Doric belt are vertical in 
their motive. The vertical idea is echoed in the Doric 
belt by the triglyphs, but there is no such echo, nor is 
there a possibility of an echo in this isolated panel. It 
seems alone and interpolated. It is too heavy for the 
window trims above and below it, and its roundel is too 
conspicuous. All this does not appear on the elevation. 
It was the most natural thing possible to carry through 
the line of the Doric belt between the pilasters. In a 
building of one material where shadows alone count, it 
would have remained a minor detail, but with the con- 
trast of brick and light terra cotta it becomes conspic- 
uous. Perhaps its isolation is its chief fault, as no other 
portion of the building is unrelated to its adjacent parts. 

There is one other detail of which a criticism is per- 
haps entirely a matter of personal prejudice, and may be 
put in the form of a (juestion. When a building has 
delicate detail, and two grades of material, does not the 



L 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



149 



finer material and the more delicate detail rightly frame 
the openings, and is it well to put a coarse trim inside a 
fine one ? This is apropos of the plain brick trims to the 
windows between the columns and within the delicate 
pilasters. It is evident that this was done because of 
the dark tone of the brick and to maintain darkness be- 
tween the shafts, but could not this have been done with 
deeply molded terra cotta trims with detail that gave 



more shadow than high light ^ It is only fair to say that 
this criticism is one which docs not in any way imply 
lack of success in the design as it is, but is made entirely 
as suggestion, and as suggestion which undoubtedly is 
open to discussion, but which in reviewing a piece of 
work of the undoubted merit of this building, induces 
what is hoped may be interesting speculative thought 
as to certain details. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



THE MASONIC TEMPLE, BROOKLYN. 

THE Masonic Temple for the Brooklyn Masonic 
Guild is erected on the northeast corner of Lafayette 
and Clermont avenues on a plot with lOO feet frontage on 
Lafayette avenue and 195 feet on Clermont avenue. 

In a building devoted to so many interests, the exterior 
is important. The dignity of the Masonic Order de- 
mands that its Guild be housed in a structure of impos- 
ing character. The building is divided, practically, into 
three vertical heights, which might be likened to the 
proportions of an ordinary pedestal with a very high 
base ; the base of the pedestal covering the height of 
the auditorium, the die of the pedestal covering the two 
lodge room floors, and the cap of the pedestal covering 
the room devoted to the uses of the conimandery, etc. 
The auditorium and lodge rooms on the second, third, 
and fourth floors have been given their due prominence 
in the composition of the exterior. 

On a base of great height and simplicity are super- 
imposed eight Ionic columns on each of two fac^ades 
fronting on Clermont and Lafayette avenues. ( )n the 
other two sides are flat piers or pilasters against the 
wall surfaces, all of which is crowned by a cornice of 
great richness with appropriate balustrade and super- 
structure. 

To approach a good standard of exterior decoration 
and color treatment, without employing the expensive 
materials commonly used for these purposes, there has 
been employed a combination of colored terra cotta, mar- 
ble and face brick ; the marble and terra cotta being used 
in alternate courses in the base, the terra cotta and brick 
in the treatment of columns and caps, and the colored 
terra cotta in the main cornice and portions of the super- 
structure, the idea being to construct the lower portions 
of the building with great simplicity, increasing the rich- 
ness as the crowning features are approached. The 
crowning story sets inside of the building line. The 
space here will be used for a roof garden, accessible 
from the fourth mezzanine story. 

The (iuild has provided ample lodge rooms with their 
accessories ; a large auditorium for public uses, and a 
bancjuet hall for the uses both of the fraternity and of 
the public, all these functions of the building being so 
arranged as to be used at the same time without inter- 
ference with each other. Separate entrances are pro- 
vided to lodge rooms and to the auditorium and the 
auditorium lobby, or independently of them both. 

Ban(.)Uet Rooms ani> Kitciikn. The bancpiet hall will 
be capable of division into at least three parts, all served 
from a common kitchen and capable of being used by 



both the lodges and the public without interference in 
the service, or used as one large room seating about five 
hundred people — should occasion require. 

The kitchen arrangements are made to attain the 
most complete, direct, and rajiid service possible, amply 
lighted and provided with all modern conveniences for 
the handling of supplies and for either the prepara- 
tion of food or the serving of caterer's supplies. There 
is a small mezzanine over a portion of the kitchen for 
caterer's lockers and toilets. 

Attention is called to the public accommodations in 
connection with the bancjuet hall, such as a large public 
lobby comnnmicating directly with the main staircase 
and elevators and with the women's retiring room, men's 
coat room, and their respective toilets. Upon this floor 
also are the boiler room, storage for coal, and the 
necessary accommodation for elevator, machinery, and 
other equipment in connection with the general admin- 
istration of the building. 

KiKST Floor. For public entertainment and for the 
further uses of the fraternity, a large auditorium seating 
about one thousand people occupies the principal portion 
of the first floor. The auditorium has a unique arrange- 
ment of seating, it being the intention at times to use it 
for balls and receptions. For this purpose a series of 
secret doors have been provided in the stage front, and 
the seats which are made in sections run under the stage 
on trucks provided for this purpose. Uy this means the 
entire floor can be cleared in a very few moments. 

The stairway and elevator service is convenient to the 
private entrance and private lobby on Clermont avenue, 
and designed for the use of masonic bodies exclusively. 
Two entrances leading to the auditorium are provided on 
Lafayette avenue. 

All the' conditions incident to a perfectly etjuipped 
modern auditorium have been fullillcd. Ample en- 
trances and exits, stage and dressing room accommo- 
dations are provided for. The main staircase at the left 
of the private entrance extends to the second mezzanine 
floor, the principal room on this floor being the library 
and public lobby, the remaining portion of the area 
being taken up by the upper portion of the auditorium. 

The grand entrance lobby is finished in imitation 
caenstone and marble, with marble and terrazzo floors in 
ornamental design. Leading from this lobby is a spacious 
stairway of marble and ornamental iron to the floors 
above and to the banquet hall in the basement. 

The finish throughout is cjuarter cut white oak, finished 
natural, with (ieorgia i)ine, parcpiette, tile and marble 
floors. 

A first class system of heating, ventilation, lighting. 



I50 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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and plumbing has 
been installed, the 
heating being auto- 
matically controlled 
steam and forced 
draft. In most 
cases the radiators 
are concealed in 
wall pockets behind 
ornamental iron 
grills. 

Above the audi- 
torium are three 
important stories 
devoted to lodge 
rooms and their ac- 
cessories in the way 
of spacious halls, 
reception rooms, 
tiler's and preparation rooms, coat rooms, committee 
rooms, dressing and toilet 
rooms. 

Second and T ii i k d 
Floors Including Mez- 
z.\NiNE Floors. The lodge 
rooms proper begin at the 
second floor. Attention is 
called to the very ample 
size of these lodge rooms, 
which are 37 feet by 57 feet 
and 39 feet 6 inches by 57 
feet respectively. The 

various requirements of a lodge room are here shown, 
viz: commodious lobby convenient to the elevators and 
main stairways, large coat 
rooms, reception rooms, 
tiler's and preparation 
rooms, and private stair- 
ways leading to the com- 
mittee rooms, and organ 
loft in a mezzanine story. 
The private stairway to the 
organ loft is accessible only 
from the lodge room. A 
mezzanine story over the 
coat rooms gives ample 
storage space for regalia 
and documents. The third 
and fourth floors have ac- 
commodations identical 
with the second. 

The general arrangement 
of the lodge rooms, ante 
rooms, public halls, audi- 
torium, and main staircase 
has been studied with a 
view to the absolute practi- 
cal requirementsjiecessary 
in a building of this char- 
acter, and, further, to its 
future artistic embellish- 
ment as may be fitting in a 
building devoted to so im- 



portant a purpose. 
With this end in 
view, it has been 
the aim of the trus- 
tees and the archi- 
tects to arrive at the 
simplest arrange- 
ment possible and 
to give that propor- 
tion and symmetry 
to the various apart- 
ments which are so 
necessary to consist- 
ent and beautiful 
decoration. 

The cost of the 
building was 40 
cents per cubic foot, 
figured on a basis 
of a cube from the ceiling of the fourth floor mezzanine 

to the basement floor by 
the exterior dimensions. 

The plans were drawn by 
Lord & Hewlett and Pell & 
Corbett, associated, archi- 
tects, who were selected by 
competition into which four- 
teen competent architects 
had entered. 



I - ; 1 I . I I I \ KLAND, OHIO. 

Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Tile. 
F. W. .'>treibinger, Architect. 



gMWMI f 






DKTAIL r.Y WILLIAM L. KOISK, ARCHITECT. 
South Aniboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



MASONIC TEMPLE, 
WASHINGTON. 




FIREPLACE I!V CUDWORTH & WOODWORTH, ARCHITECTS. 

Lower part in faience, modeled and executed by Hartford Faience 

Company. 



THE peculiar shape of the site made it possible to 
impress on the shortest but most important fac^ade, 
facing fifty feet and eight 
inches on Thirteenth street, 
the character of the temple. 
The sides extend down 
New York avenue one 
hundred and thirty-two feet 
and six inches and H street 
one hundred and forty-four 
feet and three inches re- 
spectively, but here the 
windows are made much 
more archaic in character, 
and by their shape, size, 
and disposition lend mystic 
character to the structure. 
The building is six stories 
high, with the first story 
about thirty feet in the 
main auditorium, the total 
height being one hundred 
and ten feet above the side- 
walk, the greate-st height 
allowed by law on this site. 
It is heated by steam, and 
has a special system of 
ventilation for the auditori- 
ums, banquet hall, lodge 
and locker rooms. The 
structure is fireproof 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



'5' 



throughout, with steel- 
frame construction, — the 
exterior walls, however, are 
self-sustaining. The audi- 
toriums and lodge rooms 
are practically free from 
columns with fifty-foot 
plate girders spanning from 
wall to wall. 

The principal entrance is 
marked by a large semi-cir- 
cular opening or doorway 
to distinguish it from the 
rectangular openings on the 
sides, which merely are en- 
trances and exits to the 
auditorium. 

Basement. The main 
portion of the basement 
and vaults extending out 
under the sidewalks on 
three sides of the building, 
is devoted to an immense 



II II n 



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nil 11 1 
JiJi'niiiiii 



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I.ONCIACKE lilliDIM., 4^ii >IRKKi ANU 1. K( ) A I)\\ A V, 

NKW ^OKK. 

Executed in white mat terra cotta, having the texture <if marlile. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Charles A. Piatt, Architect. 



concerts as well as for es- 
pecially largely attended 
masonic rites. 

An especially fine floor 
has been provided in the 
auditorium for dancing, and 
when balls are given the 
hanciuet hall can be used 
as a supper room, with sep- 
arate stairways, dressing, 
coat and toilet rooms as de- 
.scribed under the " Base- 
ment." 

The auditorium is well 
j^rovided with exits directly 
to tlie sidewalk Practically 
it has an entrance at each 
of its four corners. Access 
to auditorium can also be 
had from main entrance 
lobby of temple by masons 
on occasions when audito- 
rium is used by them. 



banquet hall, seating about eight hundred people. This Tliere is a large entrance lobby, with two elevators and 

room is readily accessible from the main aiiditorium stairway, which repeat on each tloor. The lobby in 

room on the every case is m.ide ([uite architectural, it being the 

first lloor, and public part of 

by stairways each floor. 

and elevators Second and 

from any of Third Floors 

the lodge are given up 



i^^t 


tjgMlF^ JM 



DKl All r.\ HKI.hF.NSTELI.ER, HIRSCH A 

WATSON, ARCHITECTS. 

Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



rooms. 

In connec- 
tion to the 
banquet hall 
are two en- 
trance halls 
with toilet for 



to the Blue 
Lodges. There 
are four lodge 
rooms, with 
preparation 
and a n t e - 
rooms to each, 



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twi 


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DKIAII. liV ESENWEIN A JOHNSON, 

ARCHITECTS.' 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



men, and toilet together with 

and dressing committee rooms required, and offices for the use of 

room for women, and coat and hat room. The service grand of^cers. 

part consists of a large kitchen, storeroom, and service- There is a library on third floor in addition to the 



room or pantry. Supplies 
can be brought in direct to 
the kitchen from the side- 
walk. 

The power part of base- 
ment consists of boiler and 
pump room, elevator ma- 
chinery, coal vaults, and fan 
room for supplying fre.sb 
air to the banquet hall. 

First Floor. A large 
auditorium, practically at 
sidewalk level, occupies 
almost the entire floor. 
This auditorium with gal- 
lery will seat almost eight- 
een hundred people. The 
room has been designed as 
a music hall, and has a 
grand organ for u.se of 
choral society or oratorio 




DETAIL OF exterior OK DOME OK UUILDING FOR EVE- 
NINO BLLI.ETIN, IMIILADELI'HIA. 
Kxecuted by ConklinK-Arm.stronjc Terra Cotta Company. 
Ktlgar V. Seeler, Architect. 



above. 

Fourth Floor is devoted 
to Knights Templar, with 
asylum and commandcry, 
ante-room, etc. Space is 
])rovided for eight hundred 
lockers. 

I'"! ITU Floor is for the 
Scottish Rite, with lodge 
rooms, preparation room, 
ante rooms, and an audi- 
torium with gallery and 
stage. This auditorium is 
intended to be used by both 
the Scottish Rite and the 
Mystic Shrine, which occu- 
l)ies the sixth floor, and 
seats about seven hundred 
in floor and gallery. 

The stage is so arranged 
that the most elaborate 



I I 



15 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



services of the 
Scottish Rite can 
be given in their 
entirety, with the 
ninety-nine sliding 
scenes required. 

There are storage 
rooms on either 
side of the stage on 
the fifth and sixth 
floors. 

Every floor has 
its toilet room.s. 

The building 
cubes up to one 
million three htm- 
dred and sixty-eight 
thousand six hun- 
dred and ninety-six 
feet, which is figured from basement floor to average 
roof height. The complete cost of the building was 
$370,97S.S7, which is at the rate of about twenty-eight 
cents per ciibic foot. 

The architects were Wood, Donn \: Deming. 




Walter S. Gray 
has opened an 
office for the prac- 
tice of architecture 
in the McCarthy 
Building, Roanoke, 
Va. Manufactur- 
ers' samples and 
catalogues desired. 

H y d r a u 1 i c - 
Pressed brick were 
used in the Masonic 
Temple, St. Louis, 
illustrated in this 
issue. 



con(;re(;ational church, st. paul, minn. 

Built of variegated bronze brown brick, made by Twin City Brick Company 

Clarence H. John.ston, Architect. 



IREM TEMPLE, WILKES-BARRE, PA. 

THE building was erected for the Ancient Arabic 
Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. The 
entrance portal of this biylding is composed entirely of 
colored terra cotta with the excep- 
tion of the two marble columns 
supporting the arch. The re- 
mainder of the building is in 
brickwork of ten different shades, 
ranging from a dark buff to a 
deep reddish brown. The roof is 
laid with red tile. 

The total cost of the building, 
including everything except fur- 
niture, was $167,000. The build- 
ing contains 826,0fK) cubic feet, 
measured from bottom of foot- 
ings to an average of the height, 
which made the cost a trifle more 
than 20 cents per cubic foot. 

Olds & Puckey, of Wilkes- 
Barre, were the architects, and 
the brick and tile work was 
erected by (ieorge T. Dickover 
& Son. 



IN (iENERAL. 

Archie H. Hubbard has opened 
an office for the practice of archi- 
tecture in Engineering Hall, 
Urbana, HI. 

F. Gordon Pickell has opened 
an office for the practice of archi- 
tecture in the Union Trust Build- 
ing, Detroit. Manufacturers' 
samples and catalogues desired. 




The third report 
of the Board of 
Architecture for 
the state of California has just been issued. It comprises 
the law, rules of the board, and list of certified archi- 
tects. Frederick L. Roehrig, of Los Angeles, is the 
secretary of the board. 

The p.obert Fulton Monument Association of 3 Park 
Row, New York City, announces a competition among 
the architects of the United States for the purpose of 
securing designs for the memorial of Robert Fulton, 
costing $2,. SOO, 000, and to be erected in Riverside Park 
in the city of New York. Architects of experience and 
good standing are retjuested to 
apply to the association for forms 
on which to make application for 
the competition program and per- 
mission to have their names 
entered as competitors. 

Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin, of Co- 
lumbia University School of 
Architecture, has sailed for Con- 
stantinople, where he will make a 
survey of the Robert College 
property and draw plans for its 
future extension. Professor 
Hamlin was born in the Turkish 
capital, his father, Cyrus Hamlin, 
having been the founder of Robert 
College. Two of the present five 
buildings of the institution were 
designed by Professor Hamlin. 

The roofing tiles for Irem 
Temple, Wilkes- Barre, illustrated 
in this issue, were furnished by 
the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick 
Company furnished the brick for 
the Masonic Temple at Washing- 
ton, illustrated in this issue. 



RECTOR liUILDINi;, CHICACJO. 

Arcliitectural terra cotta, made by American Terra 

Cotta and Ceramic Company. 

Jarvis Hunt, Arcliitect. 



The new Curtis Building, Phil- 
adelphia, Edgar V. Seeler, archi- 
tect, will use six hundred thousand 
"Old English Colonial Red 



THE BR IC K BU I L I) RR 



^5^ 



Brick " made by Say re & 
Fisher Company. The size 
of these bricks, which are 
made to match those which 
are used in some of the 
older buildings in London, 
is 9 by 4>^ by 2% inches. 

Fiske & Company fur- 
nished their "Tapestry" 
brick for the Masonic 
Temple, Brooklyn, illus- 
trated in this issue. 

The new plant of the 
Bradford Pressed Brick 
Company, at Bradford, Pa., 
William Hanley, proprie- 
tor, was formally opened on 
June 25th. Representa- 
tives of the company's sell- 
ing agencies in the larger 




gara(;e, chica(;o. 

Architectural terra cotta, made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Robert C. Berlin, Architect. 




DETAIL I!V LEON STERN, 

ARCHITECT. 

Brick Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 

mud process, of " Bradford 
Reds," a brick which is 
well-known throughout the 
building fraternity of the 
entire country. 

The Columbus Brick & 
Terra Cotta Company, of 
Columbus, Ohio, has issued 
a new catalogue in which is 
illustrated, by drawings, 
their full line of special- 
shape bricks, and also an 
interesting series of build- 
ings by prominent archi- 
tects which have been built 
of their product. An es- 
pecially interesting feature 
of this work is the presen- 
tation of drawings which 



cities of the country 
were in attendance, 
and in addition others 
who are prominently 
identified with the 
burnt-clay industries 
of the country. A 
banquet was tendered 
the visitors on the 
evening of June 25th, 
at which the leading 
merchants, bankers, 
and professional men 
of Bradford were in 
attendance. The 
whole country about 
Bradford is noted for 
its superior clays and 
shales, and the new 
plant will be devoted 
exclusively to the 
making, by the stiff 



The Masonic 
Temple, Brook- 
lyn, is one of 
the most nota- 
ble examples of 
glazed terra 
cotta in colors 
so far under- 
taken. As it is 
the latest exam- 
p 1 e of poly- 
chrome terra 
cotta or archi- 
tectural faience 
(the two terms 
being synony- 
mous) so also 
may it be said 
to express the 
best in the art. 

The predomi- 
nant color is 
cream white and 
the material is 
made with a 
special vellum 



give by number the differ- 
ent shape bricks which are 
needed for the different 
ornamental courses. Ac- 
companying the catalogue 
there is a price list of all 
the ornamental brick made 
by the company. • 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company furnished the 
architectural terra cotta for 
three of the l)uildiugs illus- 
trated in this issue, viz: the 
Masonic Temple, Brooklyn, 
Lord & Hewlett and Pell & 
Corbett, associated, archi- 
tects; Masonic Temple; 
Washington, 1). C, Wood, 
I )onn & 1 )eming, architects, 
and the Irem Tcm])le, 
Wilkes Barre, Pa., Olds cS: 
Puckey, architects. 





svvi.MMiNc; poor., wok( ksikk a( ai)K,m\, \\ok( i s i i.k, \i,\ss. 

.Showing life rail and gutter built of patented enameled brick, made 

by American Knameled Brick & Tile Co. 



. I!V SCHWARTZ & (iROCJS, 
ARCHITECTS. 
New Jer.sey Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 

finish. The decorative 
treatment in colors is in 
yellow, green, sienna, and 
1)1 ue, and the selection of 
these colors was conceived 
in excellent ta.ste and has 
been carried out skilfully 
l"\)ur or five colors were, in 
many instances, used on 
one piece. The manufac- 
ture of so large a quantity 
of colored glazed work was 
a task of uf) small magni- 
tude and importance and it 
was absolutely necessary 
that a work .so costly as 
this should not be delayed 
and that the elaborate color 
scheme should not only be 
l)roduced successfully, but 
at the first burning, and 
this was done. 



154 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Irem Temple, the entrance to which is in terra 
cotta, is of iloorish design and is an excellent example 
of the possibilities of architectural faience. The colors 
employed are white, golden yellow, sienna, and blue, 
blue being used as a background. 

The Masonic Temple, Washington, D. C, is of classic 
design and is done in grey limestone terra cotta. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Publif Ruildinjjs. Elastic. Noiseless, 
and practically indestrnctiljle. It is in use on Battlesliii)s, 
cemented to steel decks in tlie United States, Knj^lisli and 
r.erman Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
.States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

Tlie Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturjjis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
Ihe North Dakota, tlie largest Battleshij) in tlie United .States 
Navy ; the extensions of the SulTolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit in(|uiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. Boylston Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE oflfer.s full professional 
trainini; in a fouk ye.\r coikse leading to tho.dcgree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option is allowed in .VRCiiiTiccTrRAL 
F.NcnNKKRiNc;. The GRADr.\TE YF..\R grants a Master's degree, 
allowing specialization in advanced work. Ain".\NCED 
ST.VN'DiNC, is granted to college graduates. Oiialified dr.ai'ts- 
MiCN', desiring advanced technical training, arc admitted with- 
out examination to the two vkar si'f.ci.m, coirsic leading to a 
Certificate of Proficiency, and technical studies onlv maj' be 
taken by other per.sons of appnwed fitness. Ii.i.usTRATEn 
AXNU.^L .sent on application. For full information address 
Dr. J. II. Penniman, Dean, College Department, 

I'niversity of Ponnsxlvania, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

"STUDIO YEAR BOOK 1909" 

Contains many illustrations showing the recent 
development in the decorative and the applied arts. 
Especially of interest to the interior decoration of 
the house. Show^ing suggestions for 

INTERIORS RUGS STAINED GLASS 

MANTELS FIXTURES FABRICS, ETC. 



Size, \\H x8/4. bound in green Buckram, 
prepaid on receipt of $3.25. 



Sent 



COMPLETE YOUR SET 

"Year Book 1906" 
"Year Book 1907" 
"Year Book 1908" 
All 



THEY ARE BECOMING SCARCE 
$5.00 
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unirornn in size 



Importer, Dealer 
Books on Architecture 



M. A. VINSON 



205 Caiton Building 
Cleveland, Ohio 



COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE. 



COST NOT TO EXCEED $10,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. FOURTH PRIZE, $100. MENTIONS. 

PROGRAM. 

The problem is a house with walls built of brick. Porclies, verandas, or piazzas may be in part or wholly of brick or wood. 

The cost of the house (exclusive of the land) including heating — equipment complete ; plumbing — including all fixtures ; gas piping and electric wiring— with 
fixtures, is not to exceed *io,oc(i. 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house which would cost more than the amount named to execute will not be considered. 

The plan should provide accommodations for a family of five— three adults and two children— and at least one servant. There are no restrictions as to size, 
shape, or style of hodse — except the cost — nor the size, shape, or location of lot. 

The particular object of this Competition is to obtain designs for a HK ICK H( >USK of moderate cost. It is especially desin-d that the treatment r>f the 
exterior shall show the ^)ossibilities in obtaining charming but restrained effects by the use of bond and jointing and pattern. TheBKK'K HOl'SK is rich in 
precedent, and the mMCnal, whether considered from the esthetic or the practical standpoint, meets in the fullest measure the demands put upon it. 'I'o summarize ; 
—the Competition calls for A CHARMING liKICK HOUSE OF MODKKATK COST. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The methods usually employed in the construction of brick walls may be followed, except that the walls are to be wholly of br'ck and of sufficient thickness 
to safely carry the load. The program does not call for a fireproof house, although that form of construction is not objected to. The choice of brick is left to the 
designer. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of four feet to the inch. Also plans of first and second floors at a scale of 
eight feet to the incli. In connection with the plan of the first tloor show as niiicli of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space 
will permit. 

On another shett, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a scale of eight feet to the inch,— and below the elevation, a sufficient number of details to prop- 
erly show the brickwork and the special features of the design, — drawn at half inch scale in black ink without wash or color. Sections shown are to be cross- 
hatched in such manner as to clearly indicate the material, and floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by iS inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets one irch from edges, giving a space 
inside the border lines 22 inches by 16 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

Each set of drawings is to lie signed hy a no/// de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the noni fir />lu»ne on the exterior 
and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasir.g or crushing), at the office of Tim IIrkkiu'ildbr, 85 Water Street, 
Boston. Mass., on or before Sept. 15, n/xy, ' 

Drawings submitted in this Couipetition arc at owner's risk from time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their han- 
d.ing and keejiing. 

The deMgns will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the material employed: the adaptability of the design as 
shown by details to the practical constructive requirements, and the excellence of the plan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drtwings are to become the property of Tin- Hkic kihh-dhk, and the right is reierved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full 
name and address of the architect will be given in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, 
may have ihem hy enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed firnt there will be given a prize of $500. For the design placed third a prize of $150. 

For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourch a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open t(j everyone. The prize and mention drawings will be published in Tm: IIku kiu iluek. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII 



AUGUST 1909 



Number 8 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1909, by ROGERS & MANSON 



$5.00 per year 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ...... 

Single numbers .................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries In the Postal Union ............... $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Aichitectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick 



PAGE PAGE 

II Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

II Brick Waterproofing IV 

II and III Fireproofing ......... IV 

III Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ALDEN & HARLOW; ATTERBURY AND WALKER, ASSOCIATED; CHARLES C. GRANT 

ROBERT D. KOHN; MAURAN, RUSSELL & GARDEN; POND & POND; 

WILLARD T. SEARS; WATTERSON & SCHNEIDER. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FROM AN'CIENT ROMAN BUILDINGS Frontispiece 

INTERESTING EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF BURNT CLAY IN ARCHITECTURE C/iar/es //. //uQ/ies 155 

CARVED BRICKWORK — ENGLISH EXAMPLES 161 

HOUSE AT MILTON, MASS., F. E. ZERRAHN AND STICKNEY & AUSTIN, ARCHITECTS ///iis/ra/ion 16.? 

HOUSE AT BROOKLINE, MASS., HENRY F. KEYES, ARCHITECT ///i/s/ra/io/i 164 

HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO, WATTERSON & SCHNEIDER, ARCHITECTS /Ihislnilioti 165 

GERMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY, G. W. CONABLE, ARCHITECT niiislralion 166 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS — VI 167 

WARMING AND VENTILATING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOSPITAL BUILDINGS — IV. 

D. n. Kimball 169 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 172 




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Interesting Examples of the Use of Burnt Clay in 

Architecture. 



KY CHARLES H. HUCHES. 



THE use of clay products for covering steel columns 
and girders for walls of subway stations and trolley 
car shelters on the Queensboro Bridge connecting New 
York and Long Island City, and on the Williamsburg 
Bridge connecting New York and Brooklyn, admirably 
illustrates their 
adaptability for 
practical and for 
ornamental pur- 
poses. 

The Queensboro 
Bridge is of the can- 
tilever type, with 
five spans, one of 
which is 1,182 feet 
and forms the long- 
est span on any can- 
tilever bridge in 
America. 

The illustration 
shows the colonnade 
beneath the bridge, 
on the New York 
side of the river. 
The steel columns 
supporting the floor 
of the approach to 
the bridge rest on 
large granite bases 
and are covered 
with glazed terra 
cotta blocks, from 
the top of which 
springs the vault- 
ing. 

The vaulting is 
built of two or 
more layers of burnt 

clay tiles, the inner courses being laid in Portland cement 
mortar. The finish course is of cream-white tiles with 
corrugated glazed faces, laid in lime mortar ; the joints 
are then raked out and given raised joints, the pointing 
mixture being lime gauzed with Keene's white cement. 
Before the tile construction was started, the arching of 
the approach was waterproofed on the under side with 
two good mop coats of coal tar pitch applied hot. 




SHELTER, APPROACH TO WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE, NEW YORK CITY. 
~^ Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



By referring to the illustration it will be seen that in the 
ribs between the columns the tiles have the same width 
as the faces of the glazed terra cotta blocks on the col- 
umns; also that the courses of tiles on each side break 
joints with those of the center. Note particularly how 

nicely the terra 
cotta blocks at the 
top of the columns 
fit into the vaulting 
between the ribs. 
Looking at the ribs 
transversely, it will 
be seen that they 
are made of four 
layers of tiles — the 
fourth one however 
does not extend the 
full width of the 
rib. Nearly 50,000 
square feet of tile is 
used in the colon- 
nades. 

The vaulting in 
the arch over First 
aveniie is another 
example of this con- 
struction, with a 
greater span than 
in the colonnades. 
Here the arch has 
a span of about 60 
feet. The tiles are 
the same color and 
size as in the colon- 
nades, and cover an 
area of almost 
10,000 square feet. 
By using light 
colored tiles and terra cotta blocks a bright, cheerful 
appearance is given to the soffit of the approach, which 
would otherwise be dark and dismal. In the soffit of 
the large arch are several electric lights as well as in the 
colonnade arches. 

Owing to local conditions the Long Island City approach 
is built with solid granite side walls, and the steel col- 
umns and girders are not treated as on the New York side. 



156 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The timbrel and terra cotta work in the Williamsburg 
Bridge, while similar in a general way to that in Oueens- 
boro, has however many different features. 

In the center of the approach to the bridge on the 



The vaulted surfaces are of burnt clay tile 6 inches by 
12 inches by 1 inch, with the lower course of cream-white 
glazed corrugated tile, making a finished surface similar 
to that under the New York approach of the Oueensboro 




COLONNAUK liKiNKAlU AFPKOACH TO (^UEK.NSBORO BklDllE, 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



, uKk CITY. 



Street level are trolley car shelters. Within the shelters 
will be noticed entrances and exits to the station below 
the street. The roof of the shelter is supported by cast- 
iron columns, which have collars to receive the vaulting. 



Bridge, but the most pronounced difference is in the 
arched ribs, extending from column to column and from 
the columns to the roof cornices. Referring to the illus- 
tration it will be seen that the transverse ribs are made 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



157 



up of two layers of tiles — that a tile the full width of 
the rib is always placed next to the column, and that the 
joints of the inner layer of tiles come directly over the 
center of the outer ones. The longitudinal ribs are 
also of two layers of tiles, which break joints. To secure 
a good bearing surface for the four ribs they are brought 
together about 12 inches above the top of the cast-iron 
columns. 

One of the largest and most important of the new 
buildings in the Zoological Park, Borough of The Bronx, 
New York, is the Elephant House. It is one story high 
and in the center is a large polychrome dome. The 
walls of the house are of brick, with the outer face 
covered with buff Indiana limestone, and the inner 



and at the bases are ornamental finials in yellow and 
green. On top of the dome is the lantern, about 15 feet 
high and 5 feet in diameter, of polychrome terra cotta, 
with eight blue rectangular panels and eight small green 
ones near the top. Below the base of the dome is a 
frieze of yellow, blue, and white terra cotta tile, which 
stands out prominently against the buff limestone. With 
the sun shining the color effect is very striking. 

Under the polychrome dome is another. This second 
one, forming the ceiling of the rotunda, is perforated 
by twelve ceiling lights 4 feet in diameter and one 
center light about 5 feet in diameter, through which 
light passes to the floor below. The tiles for the vault- 
ing are semi-porous terra cotta 1 inch by 6 inches by 12 




ARCH SPANNING FIRST AVENUE, QUEENSBORO BRIDliE, NEW YORK CITY. 



face, where exposed as in the animal quarters, walls 
of keeper's rooms, etc., covered with Norman-shaped, 
mottled-faced brick laid in colored mortar with -yic inch 
shove joints. 

The dome has an exterior diameter of about 40 feet, 
with the base 48 feet above the ground and the top of 
the lantern 74 feet. It is the largest polychrome dome 
in this country and is similar to those on many of the 
old Mexican churches. The dome is built of rough tiles 
sufficiently thick to carry the weight of the lantern and 
furnish a support for the colored glazed tiling. The 
border tiles adjacent to the ribs are purple, the lowest 
band is a grayish blue, the next strong blue, then cream, 
and finally green. Above the green band is the panel 
leaf ornamentation, with a yellow background and blue 
leaves. Following the leaf ornamentation are more 
bands, similar in colors to the first, with another leaf 
ornamentation, and finally more bands corresponding 
to the lower ones. The dome has eight yellow ribs, 



inches, and are laid in Portland cement mortar. A row 
of tiles follows the arches, and above them are bands 
encircling the rotunda, except where broken by the 
arches. The tiles forming the bands are of a lighter 
shade than those in the vaulting. The arches on the 
four sides of the rotunda have the bricks set radially, 
and above those over the center bay, the usual wall con- 
struction is followed to the roof. The walls of the 
rotunda are of limestone. 

On each side of the rotunda are three bays, the end one 
being semi-circular. The arches over the center bay have 
the bricks laid row-lock, and finished off on the under 
side with five thicknesses of tiles laid in the herring- 
bone pattern, the tiles breaking joints. The arches are 
built to the roof, and are continued transversely on both 
sides of the center bay as solid walls to the walls of the 
house, thus forming enclosures for the animals. The 
longitudinal arches are of five courses of radial brick, 
and above them the ordinary brick wall. In the soffits 



158 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



are five layers of tiles, laid with broken joints similar to 
those in the transfer arches. 

The ceilings over all the bays are of tiles, 1 inch by 6 
inches by 12 inches, the same as in the rotunda, and 
around the end bays are two light bands of tiles. 

The interior of the house is well lighted and venti- 
lated. Besides the rotunda lights there are windows in 



each side of the dome, and then a limestone rib forming 
a gable, which marks the end of the straight portion of 
the house. The semi-circular ends have three buff terra 
cotta ribs, between which are laid green tiles. 

Another excellent example of the use of tile vault- 
ing in connection with architectural terra cotta is found 
in the Amety Baptist Church, New York City. The 




DOME OF EI.Kl'HA.N r HOLSE, ZOOLOCICAE PARK, 
Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



NEW YORK CITY. 



the walls above the arches and ventilators in the vault- 
ing over the center bay. In the vaulting over the side 
bays are large rectangular skylights, while in each end 
bay are three windows. 

The colors in the pitched roof are a decided contrast to 
those in the polychrome dome and to the buff limestone 
walls. The roof is covered with green glazed tiles set in 
j)anels with buff colored terra cotta ribs matching the 
limestone. There are three ribs forming four panels on 



illustration shows how gracefully terra cotta and tiling 
can be joined to decorate even the most intricate struc- 
tural problems. Of considerable interest are the pene- 
trations of the soffits in the gallery arches which gener- 
ally have a tendency to detract from the harmony of the 
whole structure, but are so finely executed in this church 
as to add to the interest of the entire scheme. The 
chancel rail and pulpits are constructed of architectural 
terra cotta. 



It 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



159 




ROTUNDA AND P.AYS, ELEPHANT HOUSE, ZOOLOGICAI, PARK, NEW YORK CITY. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




INTERIOR, AMETY liAPTIST CHURCH, 312 WEST 54TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY, 

Rossiter & Wright, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i6i 



Carved Brickwork — Some 
English Examples. 

EVER since our houses were bespattered with stucco 
— surely the most baneful architectural disease 
we have yet suffered — the introduction of carved stone- 
work on all classes of houses has been general. The 
most ignorant jerry-builder, throwing up his brick boxes 
on the fields of our suburbs, has always had paramount in 
his mind the necessity for some foliated stone capitals on 
either side of the entrance doorway, and on the little bay 
window with its harsh slate roof and Gothic finial. It is 
not good carving ; it is ill-devised, proportionless, coarse, 
and it sets on the house like fungus on a tree. Perhaps 




BUSINESS PREMISES, VICTORIA STREET, LONDON. 

Showing bays with carved lirick treatment. 

the builder, in his ignorance, is the better judge of the 
taste, or want of taste, displayed by his prospective 
clients, and as he buys his carved stone trimmings from 
the mason's yard at so much per dozen, or gets them 
hewn in place into such shape as they possess, it is hope- 
less to ask for something else. But with the better 
class house, intended for people who are supposed to 
have a fitter sense of things, with at least some apprecia- 
tion of appropriate work, one is surprised to find so lit- 
tle in the way of carved brickwork, for such work has a 
peculiar charm on a brick house, and no great expense 
need be incurred in the execution of it. 

Provided that the proper grade is secured, brick is a 
pleasant material to carve, and there is a softness about 
its outline which is peculiarly distinctive. Moreover, in 
the matter of weathering, carved brick is pleasing ; for. 




CARVED BRICK PANEL, BUSINESS PREMISES, VICTORIA 
STREET, LONDON. 

when forming the enrichment of a brick building, it mel- 
lows equally as the rest of the surface, yet preserving the 
crispness of relief which is wanted. Stonework on the 
contrary — especially light stonework — weathers inde- 
pendently, and so it appears as more or less of patchwork 
on a brick building ; and not infrequently it streaks the 
brick, or is streaked by it. 

It mignt be thought that not sufficient contrast was 
gained by the use of brick carving on a brick building, 




CARVED IIRICK PANEL, VICTORIA STREET, LONDON. 

and, in a measure, with bricks of uniform color, this is 
true. Where, however, as is usual, "rubber " bricks are 
used for the carved work and ordinary red bricks for the 
general walling, the slight difference in tint at once 
secures that variety of effect which is desirable. 

Carved brickwork on a brick building seems to grow 



GBIBB 





■■■ 
■■III 

Ilia 
mil 



II 




CARVED P.RICK PANEL, I'.USINESS PREMISES, \'ICT0RIA 
STREET, LONDON. 



l62 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




out of the surface 
instead of giving 
the appearance of 
being stuck on. 

The accompany- 
ing illustrations of 
some examples in 
London serve to il- 
lustrate the possi- 
bilities of carved 
brickwork. It will 
be noticed what 
fine detail can be 
executed in the 
material. 

The building in 
Victoria street is an 
excellent example 
of its use as a beau- 
tiful enrichment to a series of large bay window 
carving here is executed with 
great care. Carried out so 
elaborately, it was, of course, 
an expensive item, but the 
excellent way in which it has 
withstood the London at- 
mosphere proves its worth. 
Still more convincing in this 
respect is the carved brick- 
work to the doorways in 
King's Bench Walk, as this 
work dates from the Wren 
period, yet still retains its 
sharpness. In the frieze to 
the De Vere Hotel at Hyde 
Park Gate a much coarser 
treatment is apparent, and 
one which is not so commend- 
able, for this frieze is close 
to the eye, being only about 
ten feet above the pavement, 



CURVED HRICK FRIEZE, DE \ ERE HOTEL, LONDON. 



s. The 




and in the endeavor 
to secure what 
passes for "breadth 
of effect " the carver 
has gone astray, and 
his fanciful little 
figures of squirrels 
and dogs that follow 
through the frieze 
arc rather lost in the 
general heavy effect. 
As a carved brick 
panel, the example 
on the block of 
shops and flats in 
Knightsbridge is a 
good one, delicate 
in outline and well 
designed in the 
manner of English renaissance detail. When we call to 

mind the average stone panel 
that is put on our buildings, 
the merit of this brick detail 
is clearly evident. The carv- 
ing on the house in Prince Con- 
sort road serves its purpose as 
illustrating the use of carved 
brick in domestic work. 

Examples might be multi- 
plied without number, but 
the foregoing suffice to illus- 
trate the beautiful effect 
which can be secured by brick 
carving — blackening, may 
be, like all other material, in 
a city atmosphere, but pre- 
serving its texture in the 
purer air of the country, and 
acquiring its most beautiful 
appearance when, after long 
exposure, lichen spreads its 
soft veil over the surface and 
gives that touch of nature 
which adds the greatest 



cwRVEi) iiRicK PANEL, Ai'ARTMENT HOUSE, LONDON. cliarm to any building. 





CARVED URICK CAPITALS, DOORWAY IN KIN(,'s DENCH 
WALK, LONDON. 



CARVED BRICK ON HOUSE, PRINCE CONSORT ROAD, 
LONDON. 



^A 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 



■Floop. Pla^ 




STABLE AND GARAGE. 




Isl 1 

5; B5S ROOM I 



HOUSE AT MILTON, [mass. 

F. E. Zerralin and Slickney & Austin, Associated, Architects. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER 








HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HIl 1., IKUi )KLINE, MASS. 
Henry F. Keyes, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 8. PLATE 99. 




HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL 
Robert D. kohn, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 8. PLATE 100. 




Robert D. Kohn, 
Architect. 



f/asT Floor /'z.^a' 



TtlE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 101. 




ByilCOT^Y 



• First • Fl oojb -Fian- 



-I I feBT 



HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Watterson & Schneider, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. S. PLATE 102. 




HOUSE, WOODLAWN AVENUE, CHICAGO. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 




■flRST ■JTORY-I'LJir/ 



• -jBCCavo -CTOBY -PZXTt ■ 



U'^ u u 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 103. 




PIR_fT r-LOaR.'- PLAN 



HOUSE FOR T. M. ARMSTRONG, ESQ., PITTSBURGH, PA. 
Alden d Harlow, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 104. 




HOUSE AT MONTCLAIR, N. J. 
Grosvenor Atterbury and Walter Leslie Walker, Associated, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 8. PLATE 105. 




DINING ROOM. 

HOUSE AT MONTCLAIR, N. J. 
Grosvenor Atterbury and Walter Leslie Walker, Associated, Architects 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 106. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 8. PLATE 107. 





THE GARDEN. 

HOUSE AT MILTON, MASS. 

w'v'iLLARD T. Sears, Architect 



r 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 3. PLATE 108. 




HOUSE AT CLARKSVILLE, MO. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 




-TS xr 




• • 



-TlEiT- rLOOC-PLAN" 



■iLCOND - FLOOR.- PLAN" 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 109. 




JLCOND-riOORPLAN- 



HOUSE, WESTMINSTER PLACE. ST LOUIS. MO. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILD;ER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 110. 





HOUSE, 

WASHINGTON TERRACE, 

ST. LOUIS, 

MO. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, 

Architects. 




•JtCOOT-TLOOE- PLAff- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE lU. 




HOUSE AT HERKIMER, N. Y. 
Charles C. Grant, Architect. 



F/H^T fWOI^ PLAJV 



10 IS iO 




P/K/iLD £./\rm/\Ncr. 



I I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 8. PLATE 112. 




lOUSE AT HERKIMER, N. Y. 
Charles C. Grant, Architect. 





1^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



165 




HOUSK AT CI.KVKI.ANI), OHIO. 
Watterson & Schneider, Arcliitects. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



material which he collected for supplementary publica- 
tion. The published price is no measure of the present 
value of this book. 

Alvan Crocker Nye, architect. A Collection of Scale 
Drawings, Details, and Sketches of what is commonly 
known as Colonial Furniture, measured and drawn from 
Antique Examples. New York, William Helburn, 1895 ; 
fol. (.425 by .315 by .025); 5 p., 55 pi. ; $14.00, unbound. 
This book supplements Lyon's fine history well. For 
illustration Mr. Nye preferred structural drawing in line, 
which is much more informing than photographs can be. 

John Kimberly Mumford. Oriental Rugs. New York, 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900; 4to (.285 by .22 by .045); 
15 + 267 p. 32 plates in colored photographs, 2 maps, 

I table; cloth, $7.50. The larger works on Oriental car- 
pets, the only carpets about which there is any literature, 
are beyond our reach. Of the smaller books Mumford 
is the best for our list. It gives the kind of informa- 
tion about rugs which one most wishes to get, the differ- 
ent types, the conditions under which they are made and 
the like. 

Ornament. 

Owen Jones (1809 1874) ; architect. The Grammar of 
Ornament, illustrated by examples from various styles 
of ornament. London, Day & Son, lithographers to the 
(Jueen, 1856, fol. (.565 by .38 by .08), various paging, 
ill., 100 pi. ; ^19, 12s. Smaller edition, London, Day & 
Son, 1865; small fol. (.35 by .23 by .05); 158 p , 112 pi. ; 
^5, 5s. It is a pity that there is no book on the history 
of architectural decoration as such, showing the depend- 
ence of the decorativ'^e forms upon the structural, and 
the part which decoration plays in the development of 
style. In our list, we must make the best of a few 
of the leading works on the historical development of 
ornament in general. The best of these is Owen Jones 
" Grammar," a masterpiece, so far as the colored lithog- 
raphy is concerned. For those who cannot afford the 
large edition the smaller one is a satisfactory book, 
practically identical with the larger edition, except in 
size. 

Alexander Speltz: architect. Der Ornamentalstil ; 
translated from the second German edition by David 
O'Connor; Styles of Ornament exhibited in Designs and 
arranged in Historical Order with Descriptive Text. A 
handbook for architects, designers, etc. Berlin and New 
York, Bruno Hessling, 1906 ; 8° (.245 by .175 by .035); 
8 + 656 + 38p., ill., 400 pi. ; cloth, $6.70. This is an ex- 
cellent history of ornament. Its field is broad, covering 
the entire series from the earliest to the latest. It lacks, 
as all these books do, a proper discussion of the develop- 
ment of types. 

Iron and Glass. 

J. Starkie Gardner. Iron Work, Part I, from the 
earliest times to the end of the medieval period; Part 

II comprising from the close of the medieval period to 
the end of the eighteenth century, excluding English 
work. Published for the Committee of Council on 
Education; London, Chapman & Hall, 1896; 12mo (.2 by 
.135 by .015); 16 + 202 p., 134 ill. ; cloth, 3s. each part. 
The works on iron are for the most part collections 
of photographs which furnish suggestions to designers 



but give little readable information. The little Starkie 
Gardner books, done by a famous English iron-master, 
are as useful for their text matter as for their 
illustrations. 

N. H. J. Westlake. A History of Design in Painted 
Glass. London, James Parker & Co., 1881; small fol. 
(.355 by .27 by .02); 4 vols., ill.; cloth, $19.32 in 1892. 
American glass at its best is as fine as any. A good 
monograph on this subject would be well worth while. 
Treating of the fine old medieval glass there are several 
good manuals, but Westlake is the best. It contains a 
vast array of illustrations; none in color however. 

Monuments. 

William Brindley & W. Samuel Weatherley, F.R.I. 
B.A. Ancient Sepulchral Monuments; containing illus- 
trations of over six hundred examples from various 
countries and from the earliest periods down to the end 
of the eighteenth century, with descriptive and general 
index, London, Vincent Brooks, Day & Son, 1887; fol. 
(.385 by .26 by .05); 50 p., 212 ill. ; $16.00 in 1893. The 
making of sepulchral monuments is so mechanical in 
these days that one forgets how much of reverence and 
artistic sympathy has gone into this work. Brindley and 
Weatherley is an excellent reminder ; a most complete 
history of monuments with delightful lithographic plates. 

Office Books, Architectural Utilities. 
T/ie Orders, etc. 

Pierre Esquie, architect of the French Government, 
former member of the French Academy of Rome. The 
Five Orders of Architecture — the casting of shadows and 
the first principles of construction, based on the system 
of Vignola. Boston, Bates & Guild Co., without date, 
4to {.32 by .25 by .025) ; 24 p., 76 pi. ; $5.00. The method 
of the Regoladelli cinque Ordini d'Architettura of Jacopo 
Barozzio da Vignola, published about 1563, has been re- 
tained in a large number of books on the orders, called 
Vignolas. Of these manuals that of Esquie is one of the 
best, and the American edition is certainly most conve- 
nient. It includes the Greek orders. 

Josef Buehlmann, Professor of Architecture in the 
Technische Hochschule, Munich. The Architecture of 
Classical Antiquity and of the Renaissance ; with descrip- 
tive text, translated from the German of the second (re- 
vised and enlarged) edition by G. A. Greene. New York, 
Bruno Hessling, without date, small fol. (.48 by .325 
by .03) ; 10 + 48p., 75 pi. ; $18.00. unbound. Buehlmann 
was intended for consultation upon the drawing table, 
giving extremely well a vast amount of imformation 
about orders, details, and fine architectural examples 
which the busy draftsman needs constantly. The plates 
are well drawn and usually give sufficient measurements. 

William R. Ware, LL.D., Professor of Architecture 
Columbia University. The American Vignola: Part I. 
The Five Orders. Boston, The American Architect and 
Building News Co., 1902. Part II. Arches and Vaults, 
Roofs and Domes, Doors and Windows, Walls and Ceil- 
ings, Steps and Staircases. Scranton International Text- 
book Co., 1906, small fol. {.32 by .24 by .015); Text, ill., 
pi. ; cloth, $4.00. Professor Ware's Vignola derives its 
chief value from a simplified method of drawing the 
orders, and other details of the classic scheme. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 



Warming and Ventilating with 
Special Reference to Hos- 
pital Buildings — IV. 

BY D. 1). KIMBALL. 

FOR large buildings and large rooms, such as church 
auditoriums, the rule last referred to is not as appli- 
cable and the exact requirements in heat units for the 
heating of the rooms should be determined. 

Within a reasonable degree of accuracy the amount of 
heat lost through different building materials is known. 
The number of square feet of each kind of surface ex- 
posed to a temperature less than the room temperature 
should be determined, which, multiplied by the loss in 
heat units per square foot, per degree difference in tem- 
perature, and this result multiplied by the difference be- 
tween the minimum outside temperature and the inside 
temperature desired (usually assumed to be 70"), will give 
the amount of heat lost through the walls, windows, etc., 
and which must be made up by heat obtained from the 
radiation. Add to this the amount of heat carried out 
with the vitiated air withdrawn by the ventilating sys- 
tem, and the total amount of heat to be supplied b)^ the 
heating system is known. 

The number of heat units lost per square foot of sur- 
face through different materials used in ordinary build- 
ing construction is given in the table in next column. 

If the room is one which is not to be ventilated the 
warming of the air within the room, and the leakage of 
air about the windows and through the walls must be 
provided for, the method of doing which varies among 
engineers, some adding a certain percentage to the 
losses determined as above, and others making pro- 
vision for the heating of a certain amount of air, usually 
equal to one change of the cubic contents of the room 
per hour. The latter method seems to meet with the 
most favor, and Professor Carpenter's rule which has been 
quoted is based on this method. It has the advantage of 
being definite and it will be found entirely safe. In this 
case when using the heat unit method last referred to 
multiply the cubic feet of space in the room by the dif- 
ference between the minimum outside and the maximum 
inside temperature desired (usually taken as 70°) and 
divide the result by 55 (approximately the number of 
cubic feet of air raised 1° by one heat unit) and the 
quotient will be the number of heat units required for 
the heating of the air in the room. Add this to the heat 
units lo-st through walls, windows, doors, etc., deter- 
mined as above, and divide the sum by the heat units 
obtained from one square foot of radiating surface and 
the quotient will be the number of feet of radiation re- 
quired for the warming of the room. 

For direct steam radiation it is customary to assume 
that 250 heat units are obtained from each square foot of 
surface, excepting that in the case of wall coils and wall 
radiators 300 heat units per square foot may be counted 
upon. Low radiators or single column radiators will give 
slightly better results, reaching as high as 300 heat units 
per square foot. Radiators which are set in recesses or 
chases are twenty per cent to forty per cent less efficient 



HEAT LOSSES THROUGH BllLDlNG MATERIALS. 
In Heat Units Per Square Foot Per Hour. 





tea . 










^°c 


For dilT. in temper- | 




.■a E 




ature of 1 


Kind of material. 


bio ** 










U'O'O 










^r 


60^ 


70 


80° 


Single thickness of glass* 


1.09 


65.5 


76. 


87. 


Double window 


.46 


27.6 

70. 

29. 

25. 

22. 

19. 

16. 

14. 

35. 

33. 

30. 

26. 

24. 

31. 


32.2 

81. 

34. 

29. 

25. 

23. 

19. 

16. 

41. 

38. 

35. 

30. 

27. 

37. 


36.8 

93. 

39. 

33. 

29. 

26. 

22. 

18. 

47. 

43. 
' 40. 
1 34. 

31. 

42. 


Single skylight 


1.16 


r)ouble skylight 


.48 


Pine doors 1 " tliick 


.41 


; ,, ,, H" ,, 


.36 


M U" ,, 


.32 


,,2" 


.27 


,,21" 


.23 


Oak ,, 1" 


.5S 


,, U" 


.54 


,, U" ,, 


.50 


,, 2" ,, 


.43 


;: ;: 2*" ;; ::::::: 


.39 


4" Brick wall, unplastered .... 


.52 


8" ,- ,, ,, . . . . 


.37 


22. 


26. 


30. 


12" ,, ,, ,, . . . . 


.29 


17. 


20. 


23. 


16" ,, ,, ,, . . . . 


.25 


15. 


18. 


20. 


20" ,, ,, ,, . . . 


.22 


13. 


16. 


18. 


24" ,, ,, 


.19 


11. 


14. 


15. 


28" ,, 


.16 


10. 


11. 


13. 


32" ,, ,, ,, . . . . 


.14 


8. 


10. 


11. 


4" ,, ,, plastered one side . . 


.49 


29. 


34. 


39. 


8" ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 


.36 


22. 


25. 


29. 


12" ,, ,, ,, „ 


.28 


17. 


20. 


22. 


16" ,, 


.24 


15. 


17. 


19. 


20" ,, ,, ,,,,,, . . . 


.21 


13. 


15. 


17. 


24" ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 


.18 


11. 


126 


14.3 


28" ,, ,, ,,,,,, . . . 


.16 


9.6 


11.2 


12.8 


32" ,, 


.14 


8. 


10. 


11. 


4" ,, ,, furred, lath., plastered 


.28 


17. 


20. 


22. 


8" 


.23 


14. 


16. 


18. 


12" ,, , ,; 


.20 


12. 


14. 


16. 


16" ,, 


.18 


11. 


12.6 


14.3 


20" ,, 


.16 


9.6 


11.2 


12.8 


24" ,, 


.14 


8.8 


9.8 


11.2 


28" ,, ;; ; 


.12 


7.2 


8.4 


9.6 


32" ,, , , 


.11 


6.6 


7.7 


8.8 


4" Sandstone, 8" Brick, plast. inside 


.31 


19. 


21. 


25. 


4" ,, 12" 


.25 


15. 


18. 


20. 


4" ,, 16" ,, 


.22 


13. 


15. 


18. 


4" ,, 20" 


.19 


11. 


14. 


15. 


4" ,, 24" ,, 


.17 


10. 


12. 


14. 


8" ,, 8" 


.29 


17. 


20. 


23. 


8" ,, 12" ,, ,, ][ 


.23 


14. 


16. 


18. 


8" ,, 16" 


.20 


12. 


15. 


16. 


8" ,, 20" ,, 


.18 


11. 


13. 


14. 


8" ,, 24" ,, 


.16 


10. 


11. 


13. 


12" ,, 8" ,, 


.26 


16. 


18. 


21. 


12" ,, 12" 


.21 


13. 


15. 


17. 


12" ,, 16" ,, 


.19 


11. 


13. 


15. 


12" ,, 20" 


.17 


10. 


12. 


14. 


12" ,, wall** 


.45 


27. 
23. 
21. 
19. 
17. 


32. 
27. 
24. 
22. 
20. 


36. 
31. 
28. 
25. 
23. 


16" 


.39 


20" 


.35 


24" 


.31 


28" ' ,, 


.28 


Ceiling, ordinary lath and plaster*** . 






25° 


35" 


45° 


.62 


15.5 


21.7 


27.9 


lath, plaster, and double floor 


.18 


4.5 


6.3 


8.1 


,, .single 


.26 


6.5 


9.1 


11.7 


Floors, single thickness, no plast.**** 


.45 


11.3 


15.7 


20. 


,, ,, ,, lath and plaster 










below 


.26 


6 5 


9.1 


11.7 


,, double thickness, lath and 




plaster below 


.18 


4.5 


6.3 


8.1 


double thickness, no plaster 


.31 


7.8 


10.9 


14. 


4" brick partition, plast. both sides . 


.43 


10.8 


15.1 


19.4 


8" ,, 


.33 


8.3 


11.6 


14.9 


12" ,, ,, 


.26 


6.5 


9.1 


11.7 


Stud partition, lath, and plast. one side 


.60 


15.0 


21.0 


27.0 


,, ,, ,, ,, both sides 


.34 


8.5 


11.9 


15.3 


Expanded metal and plaster li" to 2i" 




1 






thick 


.62 


15.5 


21.7 


27.9 


,, metal and plaster 2i" to 3i" 




thick 


.50 


12.5 


17.5 


22.5 




.10 


60" 
6. 


70" 


80° 


Roofs, flat, varies from .06 to . . . 


7. 


8. 


sloping, varies from .10 to . 


.18 


10.8 


12 6 


13.6 



*Kor perfectly tight windows. For ordintiry windows add 6 to 12%, loose windows 12 lo 
20%. ♦*Kor limestone walls increase 10%. ***Unhealed space above assumed 

to be •to . ***'Unlicaled space below assumed to be .'5". 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



than above. Direct hot water radiation is ordinarily 
figured at 150 heat units per square foot. 

If the room is one which is to be warmed and venti- 
lated by indirect radiation the amount thereof may be 
found by multiplying the number of cubic feet of air re- 
quired per hour by the difference between the inside 
temperature desired and the minimum outdoor tempera- 
ture, and dividing the result by 55 as before; this gives 
the number of heat units necessary to warm the air re- 
quired for ventilation and this should be added to the 
number of heat units lost through the walls, windows, 
doors, etc., determined as above. Then divide this 
total by the heat units obtained from one square foot of 
indirect radiation as given below, and the quotient will 
be the number of square feet of radiation required. 

The heat units obtained per square foot of radiation 
will be approximately as follows, the temperature of the 
steam being 220° (two pounds pressure), the air supplied 
to the indirect radiator being at zero, and the air enter- 
ing the room at 100° to 110°. 

Register placed at floor (first) 280 heat units per square foot. 

,, „ 8 to 10 feet above radiator 320 ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

16 ,, 18 „ „ „ 440 , 

26 ,, 28 ,, „ ,, 560 ,, ,, 

If the air is heated by means of fan heater coils the 
efficiency of the surface is greatly increased because of 
the velocit)'' at which the air passes through the coils 
which is customarily 1,000 feet per minute for warming 
and ventilating work of this character. The fan coil, 
which is ordinarily four or five sections deep, thus gives 
off from 1,500 to 1,600 heat units per square foot per 
hour. A shallow coil will give more and a deeper coil a 
less number of heat units per square foot per hour. To 
determine the size of the fan heater coil divide the total 
heat units required by the number of heat units obtained 
per square foot of surface in a fan coil. Allowance 
should be made for loss of heat in transmitting the air to 
the various rooms which is usually approximated at 5° to 
8° drop in temperature for each 100 feet through which 
the air must pass before reaching the rooms. 

Allowance must be made in determining the heat units 
lost through the walls, windows, etc., for the effect of 
the different exposures involved. If the radiation is fig- 
ured as above recommended the following will be found 
sufficient in all but exceptional cases. For east and 
west exposures add ten per cent ; for northwest, north- 
east, and north exposures add fifteen per cent; also 
add for buildings so located as to be badly exposed ten 
per cent ; for buildings poorly built add fifteen per cent ; 
for buildings heated during the daytime only and badly 
exposed add thirty per cent; for buildings intermittently 
heated add twenty per cent to fifty per cent. 

With the total heat units required for warming and 
ventilating known, and from which the radiation has 
been determined as above, the boiler capacity may now 
be exactly determined. 

The capacity of the heating boiler depends largely 
upon its grate area, and to some extent upon its heating 
surface, the value of which, however, is somewhat de- 
pendent upon its location. The grate area required 
depends upon the heating value of the fuel to be used. 
Anthracite coal contains about 14,(X)0 heat units per 
pound of combustible, but the amount of ash and non- 



combustible matter in the coal will reduce the heating 
power to about 13,000 heat units per pound of coal as 
ordinarily used. Coke has about the same heat value 
and bituminous coal has slightly less, although in large 
plants it can be burned with quite as satisfactory lesults, 
providing sufficient chimney draft is available. 

The efficiency of the boiler will depend upon its size, 
design, draft, etc. Sectional boilers vary in efficiency 
from approximately fifty per cent in small boilers to 
sixty per cent in the large boilers, while horizontal tubu- 
lar boilers, well managed, will operate at from sixty-five 
per cent to seventy-five per cent eflficiency. Under these 
conditions, therefore, approximately 7,000 to 9,500 heat 
units per pound of coal are delivered from boilers such 
as might be used in hospitals, the exact amount depend- 
ing upon the kind and size of boiler used. 

The size of the grate should be determined by divid- 
ing the total heat units reepiired as determined in figur- 
ing the radiation, as previously explained, by 7,000 to 
9,500 heat units, the exact figure depending upon the 
type of boiler selected. Not over 8,500 would be used in 
the case of a sectional boiler, and usually less. The quo- 
tient will be the pounds of coal which must be burned per 
hour to perform the heating work. This amount divided 
by the pounds of coal which may be burned per scjuare foot 
of grate area per hour will determine the area of the grate. 
The pounds of coal to be burned per square foot of grate 
per hour depend on the size of the plant or kind of 
boiler, and the frequency of attendance. In small sec- 
tional boilers with 1 to 7 square feet of grate area from 
3 to 5 pounds of coal may be burned per square foot of 
grate area per hour, and 7,000 heat units per pound of 
coal may be figured, while in sectional boilers having 
7 to 13 siiuare feet of grate area 5 to 6 pounds may be 
consumed and 8,000 heat units per pound of coal may be 
figured, and in large sectional boilers containing 13 
.scjuare feet of grate area and above 6 to 7 and even 8 
pounds of coal per stpiare foot per hour may be burned 
without difficulty and 8,500 heat units per pound of coal 
burned will be secured. 

In selecting sectional boilers make use of one which 
has not less than the above amount of grate surface and 
a manufacturer's rating not less than twenty-five per 
cent in excess of the radiation to be connected thereto. 
If part of the radiating surface is indirect radiation its 
ecjuivalent in direct radiation figured on the basis of 
heat units obtained per square foot of radiation per hour 
should be allowed for. Ordinarily in the case of indirect 
radiations connected to registers in the first or second 
floor an addition equal to seventy-five per cent of the 
number of sepiare feet of indirect radiation should be 
made, while in the case of direct-indirect radiation an 
allowance equal to one third the amount thereof should 
be made. If the boilers and mains are not covered with 
ef'ficient insulating material the square feet of surface 
therein .should be measured and added to the amount of 
radiation connected to the boiler before determining 
upon the size thereof. A boiler which is too small 
requires too frequent attention and is expensive to 
operate. 

In the case of a tubular boiler (water tube or fire tube) 
used for heating purposes the grate area is to be de- 
termined in the same manner as in the case of sectional 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



171 



boilers, except that a greater efficiency in coal consump- 
tion may be figured. From 8,500 to 9,500 heat units per 
pound of coal may be assumed, the less amount in the 
smaller sizes and the larger amount in the larger sizes. 
In the case of this type of boiler it is also necessary to de- 
termine the amount of heating surface in the shell and 
tubes of the boiler, which determines the horse power or 
capacity of the boiler. In the usual low pressure heating 
plant with tubular boilers 36 inches in diameter, up to 54 
inches in diameter, without a night engineer, figure from 5 
to 6 pounds of coal per square foot of grate surface and 
2,000 heat units per square foot of boiler heating surface; 
in boilers of larger size figure 8 to 9 pounds of coal burned 
per square foot of grate and 2,200 heat units per square 
foot of boiler heating surface, and in larger heating 
plants with constant attendance figure 10 to 12 pounds of 
coal burned per square foot of grate area and 2,600 heat 
units per square foot of boiler heating surface. In 
large central plants it is quite possible to burn 15 pounds 
of coal per square foot of grate area with natural 
draft, while obtaining 3300 heat units per sejuare foot of 
boiler heating surface. 

In the above manner is determined the amount of 
grate area and heating surface which determines the 
capacity of the boiler. The dimension of a horizontal 
tubular boiler which will contain the required amount of 
heating surface may be found in any first class tubular 
boiler manufacturer's catalogue. The catalogue of the 
D. M. Dillon Steam Boiler Works, of Fitchburg, Mass., 
will be found especially valuable in this connection. 

In hospital buildings particularly it is not wise to install 
only one boiler. If the plant is small and one boiler will 
carry the entire load a second boiler should be installed 
as a spare boiler to be available in case of a breakdown 
and to make possible the frequent cleaning of the boiler 
in use. In larger plants it will be wiser to install three 
or more boilers, one of which shall always be a spare 
boiler. 

The sectional boiler is usually set without masonry ex- 
cept that it be mounted on one or two courses of brick to 
give a deeper ash pit, which is often desirable, in which 
case these bricks should be laid in cement mortar so as 
not to affect the draft. This type of boiler should be 
thoroughly covered with a high grade of asbestos which 
may take the form of lYz inch asbestos cement felting, 
wired on and finished hard and smooth. 

The tubular boiler is always .set in brick work laid on 
concrete footings 12 inches to 24 inches in depth, depend- 
ing upon the size of the boiler and character of the soil. 
The outside walls should be double walls with 2 inches 
air space between, the outer being 8 inches and the inner 
or supporting walls being 12 inches thick at the point 
where the boiler rests on the wall. It is customary to 
taper the inside face of the wall from the grates to the 
point where the boiler is supported so there shall be 
2 inches of space between the boiler and the wall until 
the point of support is reached, at which point the wall 
is closed in on the boiler or nearly so. The grates of 
these boilers are placed 24 inches to 21 inches above the 
floor and the boilers are placed 24 inches to 27 inches 
above the grates, the less dimension being used with 
the small sizes and the greater dimension with the 
larger sizes. There should be a space between the rear 



head of the boiler and the rear wall of the .'letting of from 
20 inches to 24 inches, the rear walls being two 8-inch 
walls with 2 inches air space between, as in the case of 
the side walls. Where two or more boilers are set in bat- 
tery the dividing wall is usually 16 inches to 24 inches in 
width at the boiler level, increasing with the size of the 
boiler as above, and tapering as in the case of the inside 
side walls. In heating work it is customary to line the 
front and sides of the fire box, up to the supporting lugs 
and back to a point 12 inches back of the rear of the 
bridge wall, also the bridge wall and rear wall of the 
setting with a high grade of fire brick. In large heating 
plants in constant use the entire combustion chamber 
back to the rear wall may well be lined with fire brick. 

With the amount of radiation and the size of the boil- 
ers found as above, the size of the pipes connecting these 
two important elements of the heating system becomes 
important. Many formulas are available, the most of 
them being too elaborate for practical use in small work, 
as they give consideration to the steam pressure, length 
of pipe, number of fittings, etc. For buildings of the 
average size heated with 2 to 4 pounds steam pressure, 
in which the length of the pipes does not exceed 100 feet, 
or even 200 feet, the following table has been found to 
answer every purpose: 

PIPE SIZES FOR SUPPLY AND RETL'KX MAINS. 
Not over 100 feet long. Steam pre.s.sure 2 to 4 lbs. 



Square Feet of Radiation. 



to 50 

50 ,, 100 

100 ,, 150 

150 ,, 300 

300 ,, 550 

550 ,, 1000 

1000 ,, 1500 

1.500 ■,, 2000 

2000 ,, 2500 

2500 ,, 3600 

3600 ,, 50(0 

5000 ,, 7000 

7000 ,, 10000 



Supply. Return. 



r 


H" 


1'4" 


I" 


I'A" 


r 


9" 


1'4" 


2\^" 


^y*" 


3" 


I'A" 


i'A" 


Wi' 


4" 


2" 


4-/,' 


2" 


5' 


2" 


6" 


2Vz' 


7" 


2>i " or 3 


8" 


3^' 



RADIATOR CONNECTIONS. 
Direct Radiators (Steam). 



2 Pipe Connection. 


1 Pipe Connection. 


Sq. Ft. of Radiation. 


Sup. 


Ret. 


Sq. Ft. of Radiation. 


Supply. 


to 48 
48 ,, 96 
96- up 


1" 

IJi" 

Wz" 


1" 


to 60 

60 ,, 100 

100 up 


IK' 
2' 



Direct-Indirect Radiators. 


Indirect Radiators. 


Sq. Ft. of Radiation. 


Sup. 


Ret. 


Sq. Ft. of Radiation. 


Sup. 


Ret. 


to 36 

36 ,, 72 
72 up 


1' 
Wz" 


1' 


to 36 

36 ,, 72 

72 ,, 120 

120 up 


1" 

\%' 
VA' 
2' 


1' 



Direct Hot Water. 


Indirect Hot V^ater. 


Sq.Ft.of Rad. 


Pipe. 


Sq. Ft. of Rad. 


Pipe. 


Sq.Ft.of Rad. 


Pipe. 


to 40 
40 ,, 72 
72 up 


1' 

v/2' 


to 56 

56 ,, 80 

80 ,, 150 

150 ,, 235 


IX' 
VA' 

2' 

2'A' 


235 to 405 
405 „ 585 


3' 
3>i' 



Runouts to direct and direct-indirect radiators to be same size as radiator 
tappings, except that when they exceed 5 feet in length use next larger size 
pipe. 

Ri.ser .sizes may be determined from table prepared 
by Mr. William (1. .Snow, on next page. 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



CAPACITY IN SQUARE FEET DIRECT RADIATION. 



Pipe Sizes. 


1 Pipe Up Feed. 


2 Pipe Up Feed. 


r 


50 


70 


IX' 


90 


130 


I'A" 


130 


190 


2" 


210 


330 


2%' 


300 


570 


3' 


460 


1020 


i%" 


620 


1490- 


4' 


800 


2000 



Down feed risers will readily carry twenty-five per 
cent more radiation. 

To secure quiet results it is well that no supply riser 
should be less than 1% inch. 

Return risers may be one size smaller than supply up 
to \y2 inches, two sizes smaller up to 2% inches, and three 
sizes smaller above 2>^ inches. In general a pipe used 
as a return will serve eight times as much radiation as it 
will supply. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 




DF.TAll, HY O. C. WOLK, ARCHITKCT. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, 



CLEANING BRICK BUILDINGS. 

WRITING in T/ic Builders' Journal, London, Mr. 
A. B. Searle says that a very popular means of 
cleaning brick buildings in this country is by the use of 
hydrochloric acid, and provided the acid is not too strong 
this method may be quite satisfactory. For many pur- 
poses acetic acid is more satisfactory than hydrochloric 
acid, as it is equally effective in its 
action on the dirt without having so 
corrosive an effect on the bricks. It 
is more expensive, but owing to its 
non-corrosive action buildings on 
which it is used remain clean longer 
than when the stronger "spirits of 
salt " is employed. 

The amount of acid and water 
mixture required will vary some- 
what with the care and skill with 
which it is applied, but will average 
about 4 square yards per gallon of 

mixture with ordinary care, and cost- Makers 

ing for acid about a farthing a scjuare 

yard, with acetic acid, and half to one third of this 

amount for common hy- 
drochloric acid. 

When acid is used to 
clean the face of a build- 
ing the latter should 
first be washed over with 
clean water to remove 
all the dirt which can be 
taken off by this means. 
The surface is next 
treated with the weak 
acid — a hard brush, but 
not one of metal, being 
used — and finally the 
building is washed over 
with clean water to re- 
move any material which 
has been loosened but 
not actually removed by 
the acid. This final 
washing may, if desired, 
be carried out by means 
of a powerful jet of 
water, care being taken 
to work from the top of 
the building downwards. 



so as to prevent all accumulation of unsightly spots 
caused by the "creeping" of the dirt, which always 
occurs when the building is played on irregularly with a 
hose. 

Soft soap has been tried with much success, especially 

when it has been dissolved in thirty-six to forty times its 

weight of warm water (1 pound of soap in 4 gallons of 

water) and used whilst still warm. Apparently the most 

efficient cleaning is obtained by 

treating the building with clean 

water, then with the soap solution 

applied with a hard brush, and 

finally washing down with water just 

as was recommended above when 

acid is used. 

Soap has little or no action on 
clean brickwork or stone, and its 
effect on soot and similar matters of 
a greasy nature is far more intense 
than that of any acid, so that when 
it is used buildings of either red or 
buff bricks rapidly regain their 
original color, ^ 




'*r'*i"n">f'*f: 




w^^y 



»«»«M»»«»«» 




DETAIL BY F. )!. PYl.E, 

ARCHITECT. 

Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 



unless the cleaning process has been 
so long delayed that nothing can 
ever remove the dirt from the 
bricks. Care must be taken to wash 
off thoroughly all the soap by means 
of a thorough playing with a hose 
or by the more expensive washing 
over with clean water, or discolora- 
tion will be produced. In actual 
cost the use of soft soap in the 
manner described works out at 
practically the same as for acid. 

In buildings where the dirt is 
more of a dusty than a sooty char- 
acter, it will not usually be necessary 
to employ any special cleansing ma- 
terial, as a powerful spray of water 
— such as that from a fire-engine — 
will usually clean the building suffi- 
ciently, providing that the surface 
of the bricks is reasonably close and 
dense. 

In cleaning terra cotta work, 
special care must be taken that the 
surface is not destroyed, as much of 
the modern terra cotta has a finished 
or dense face, but an open or porous 




DETAIL EXECUTED 
HV SOUTH AM BOY 
T E R K A COTTA 
COMPANY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



173 




TOIRO S\NA(;Ol.l i;, NKW C'KI.KANS, l.A. 

Built of gray brick, made by Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, St. Louis, llo. 

Emile Weil, Architect. 



body, and if once the face is removed it will be almost 
impossible to keep the building clean. 

For buildings which are disfigured by a whitish en- 
crustation, technically known as efflorescence or "scum," 
the use of very weak hydrochloric acid is almost essen- 
tial, though even this does not always prove a complete 
remedy. The causes of "scum" are so numerous and 
complicated that it is difficult to provide any single 
means of removing this unsightly material. 

Scum is chiefly caused by soluble salts in the bricks, 
which are dissolved when the latter become wet with 
rain, and as the water dries out it carries the salts to the 
surface of the bricks and there deposits them. If the 
scum were only thicker, it would be best to remove it by 
scraping the walls gently, taking care not to scratch the 
bricks, but this is not usually practicable, and the least 
harmful method is 
to brush the defec- 
tive surface with a 
moderately hard- 
dry brush, when the 
bricks are thor- 
oughly dry. Should 
this not prove effec- 
tual after several 
times, the surface 
may be washed 
over with a little 
weak acid, and then 
with water, the dis- 
advantage of this 
latter method being normal schooi,, 

that it may cause p^j^g^, ^j^^, ^j^^ ^^^ ^5,^^,^ j.^^ i^^j^.j^ 

the formation of a Van Ryn & De o 



larger proportion of soluble salts (through the action of 
the acid on some of the constituents of the brick), and 
the remedy may thus prove to be worse than the disease. 
The same, in a lesser degree, is true of repeated scrub- 
bing of the wall with a wet brush and water. 

The greater part of the scum which disfigures so many 
buildings is really due to faulty material or to the use of 
impure water in manufacture, and only in very few in- 
stances is it due to the absorption of soluble salts from 
careless storage of the finished bricks. 



CHIMNEY "THROWING." 

MR. W. LARKINS, well known as a "Steeple Jack," 
who carried out the difficult and dangerous work of 
the repair of the Nelson Statue and Column in Trafalgar 

Square, describes 
in Tlie Builder, 
London, hisrecently 
adopted method of 
" throwing " large 
chimneys, and regu- 
lating the direction 
of their fall by 
means of a carefully 
measured cut into 
one side of the base 
of the chimney. 
Mr. Larkins says: 

" The height as- 
certained, the pitch 
Mii.wAUKKE, WIS. marked out with 

made by Western Brick Company. '"OP^S. t'le center of 

elleke, Architects. the shaft is taken 




174 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



facing the space where the fall is desired. 
The circumference is next taken; then, 
from the center, the half of the diameter 
is taken each way; this gives the exact 
half of the chimney facing the place of 
fall. Then marks are made exactly at 
each foot on each side of the center line, 
until the halfway mark is reached. Then, 
commencing at center-mark, each foot- 
mark is numbered, the number correspond- 
ing on each side of the center-mark until 
the halfway mark is reached This en- 
sures the cut being made accurately ; as 
soon as the man on one side reaches, say, 
No. 4, he calls out to the man on the other 
side, to enable both to keep together. If 
the cut was, say, 6 inches out, it would 
mean the throw to be several feet out. If 
there is a good stretch of ground for the 
shaft to fall, a deep cut will throw the 
shaft like a tree, in fact, until nearly 
reaching earth. This causes the bricks to 
'stretch' out half the length of shaft over its height; 
but if space is limited a thinner cut is made, which 
causes the opening to meet quicker, thus breaking the 
shaft up in its fall, and dropping it in half its own height. 
" When the half-way mark comes over a flue the arch 
must be propped up, or the tremendous weight of the 









t^-^ 



mWfh 








STUDIO HUILDIM;, 44 WKST 77TH street, new YORK t 1T^ . 
Entire front of building of " limestone " terra cotta, made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Harde & Short, Architects. 



l1.N11;AI. I'OWKR MATION, N'AVV YARD, CHARLESTON, S. L. 
Built of light buff brick, made by Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Company. 



shaft, coming on the arch as it commences to heel, will 
cause the arch to collapse, thus changing the line of fall 
and causing a disaster if houses or workshops are in the 
way. 

" A strict rule to follow is never to pass in front of the 
opening, and keep a sharp lookout for signs of collapse; 

the first 
sign is the 
opening of 
a joint of 
the brick- 
work op- 
posite the 
u J) p e r 
edge of 
the cut. 
A long 
disused 
shaft, or a 
rotten one, 
collapses 
when only 
one third 
is cut; a 
well-built 
or dry 
shaft often 
does not 
fall even 
when cut 
to the half- 
way mark. 
' ' This 
method 
is the 
cheapest. 
The old 
method, to 
prop with 
timber 
and burn 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 



away, takes a great deal of 
labor, apart from timber props, 
inflammable material (oil, 
several casks of paraffin, etc.); 
also risk of fire to surrounding 
property. This cutting method 
costs only a trifle; although I 
must say I am the only steeple 
jack who adopts it — it being 
considered risky ; but I accept 
all liability as to damage to 
property, etc. 

"The highest chimney I 
have ' thrown ' in this way was 
300 feet high, and weighed over 
3,000 tons; moreover, the shaft 
was ' tackled ' by several other 
steeple jacks to demolish piece- 
meal, but they left the work 
after six weeks, during which time they made little im- 
pression on the chimney, so I obtained the contract to 
' throw,' which was an entire success. 

" The two shafts which I have thrown since occupied 
three and a half hours, at a much lower tender for the 
cost of the operation than any 
other submitted." 




DETAIL BV TOLKDANO & WOGAN, ARCHITECTS 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



ON JU. 
Justic 



fUNE 12th a jury in 
istice Amend's part of 
the New York Supreme Court 
rendered a verdict of ^5,002.65 
in favor of Abner J. Haydel, 
the architect who drew the 
plans for the country house of 
Charles A. (iould, ex-commo- 
dore of the Atlantic Yacht 
Club. Gould agreed in 1904 
with the architect that the 
latter should design a " castle " 

to cost $150,000; and after accepting the plans, repu- 
diated his obligation to pay the $8,000 which the architect 
claimed the drawings cost. 




ployed in all the work illus- 
trated in connection with the 
article " Interesting Examples 
of the Use of Burnt Clay in 
Architecture " published in this 
number. The architectural 
terra cotta was supplied l)y the 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Com])any. 

The Combination Life Rail 
and .Surface Drainage Tile, 
made by the American luiam- 
eled Brick and Tile Company, 
will be used in the following 
new work: Plunge for Mount 
Hermon School for Boys, 
Northfield, Mass., Parish & 
Schroeder, architects; plunge 
in house for C. K. G. Billings, 
Esq., New York City, Guy Lowell, architect. Over one 
million of their regular enameled bricks will be used in 
the Buffalo Water Work plant, Douglas County, County 
Court House at Omaha, large bakery at Chicago, and 
two new apartment houses in New York. 

The German Lutheran 
Church, New York, G. W. 
Conable, architect, illustrated 
on page 166 of this issue, was 
built of brick manufactured by 
the Kreischer Brick Manufac- 
turing Company, 119 East 23d 
vSt., New York. The architec- 
tural terra cotta was supplied 
by the South Amboy Terra 
Cotta Company. 



DETAIL BY SCHWARTZ & GROSS, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



NEW BOOKS. 



IN GENERAL. 



F. E. Fagerquist, architect, has removed his offices to 
124 Indiana Building, Oklahoma City, Okla. Manufac- 
turers' catalogues desired. 



James H. Ritchie, archi- 
tect, has removed his offices 
from 110 State St. to 8 
Beacon St., Boston. 

Nichols & Hughes have 
opened offices for the prac- 
tice of architecture in the 
V. B. Building, Dayton, 
Ohio. Manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples 
desired. 

The Guastavino system 
of tile vaulting was em- 




iMJBLic SCHOOL, cnicA(;o. 

Built of "Shawnee" brick, made by Ohio MininK & .Manufacturing 

Company, Thomas Moulding Company, Chicago, Agents. 

Dwight H. I'erkins, Architect. 



Craftsman Homes. The two 
hundred and twenty-six pages carry over two hundred 
illustrations, showing among other interesting features: 
"A House with Outdoor Living Room;" "A vSleeping 
Porch;" "A 'Craftsman Farm ' House; " " Craftsman 
Home for Two Families;" "A Craftsman Open-Air 
Dining Room;" "A Hooded Pergola;" "A Simple 
Water-Garden," and endless suggestions for the building, 
furnishing, and fitting of houses, and the arranging of 
gardens simple and beautiful to surround them. New 

York, The Craftsman Pub- 
lishing Company. 

Building Construction 
and Superintendence. By 
F. E. Kidder, C. E. Re- 
vised and enlarged by 
Thos. Nolan, M.S., A.M., 
Fellow of the American 
Institute of Architects, 
iVssistant Professor of 
Architecture University of 
Pennsylvania. Part I., 
ninth edition, revised, 
Mason's Work. 628 illustra- 
tions; 985 pp. One 8vo 
vol. Cloth. Price, $6. 
New York, William T. 
Com stock. 



176 



TPIE BRICKBUILDER 



Asphalts, Their Sources and Utilizations. Asphalt for 
dustless roads, recent improvements in asphalt industries, 
together with addenda treating on general waterproof 
construction. By T. Hugh Boorman, Civic Engineer and 
Asphalt Expert. New York: William T. Comstock. 
One 8vo vol. Cloth, $3.00. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic. Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The cjuality of our work has pas.sed the inspection of the United 
States Ciovernment and numerous Arcliitects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the Xorth Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clougli, Architect ; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit iniiuiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTl'RE offers full professional 
training- in a foi'k vii.iu coiRSic leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option is allowed in .\kchitectir.\l 
KXtwNEicRiNG. The GR.VDi'.VTE YK.VR gxants a Master's degree, 
allowing specialization in advanced work. Adv.vnced 
.ST.VNDiNG is granted to college graduates. Qualified dr.M'TS- 
mi:n, desiring advanced technical training, are admitted with- 
out examination to the two year speci.vl course leading to a 
Certificate of Proficiency, and technical studies only may be 
taken by other per.sons of approved fitness. Illustr.^ted 
ANNU.^L sent on application. For full inform.-vtion address 
Dr. J. H. I'cnniman, Dean, College Department, 

University of Penn.sylvania, 

Philadelphia. Pa. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

"STUDIO YEAR BOOK 1909" 

Contains many illustrations showing the recent 
development in the decorative and the applied arts. 
Especially of interest to the interior decoration of 
the house. Showing suggestions for 

INTERIORS RUGS STAINED GLASS 

MANTELS FIXTURES FABRICS, ETC. 



Size, i 1 U X 8 '4, bound in green 
prepaid on receipt of $3.25. 



Buckr 



Sent 



COMPLETE YOUR SET 

"Year Book 1906 "' 
"Year Book 1907" 
"Year Book 1908" 
All 



THEY ARE BECOMING SCARCE 

$5.00 

6.50 

5.00 

iniform in size 



Importer, Dealer 
Books 00 Architecture 



M. A. VINSON ^"^'^c'.'X^rfe 



COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE. 

COST NOT TO EXCEED $10,000. 
FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE. $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. FOURTH PRIZE, $100. MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 

The problem is a house with walls built of brick. Porches, verandas, or piazzas may be in part or wholly of brick or wood. 

The cost of the house (exclusive of the landj including healing — equipment complete ; plumbing — including all fixtures ; gas piping and electric wiring— with 
fixtures, is not to exceed 5io,oc(». 

Designs which in the opinion of the jury call for a house whicli would cost more than the amount named to execute will not be considered. 

The plan should provide accommodations for a family of five— three adults and two children— and at least one servant. There are no restrictions as to size, 
shape, or style of house— except the cost— nor the size, shape, or location of lot. 

The particular object of this Competition is to obtain designs for a HKICK HOUSK of moderate cost. It is especially desired that the treatment of the 
exterior shall show the possibilities in obtaining charming but restrained effects by the use of bond and jointing and pattern. The BRICK HOUSF. is rich in 
precedent, and the material, whether considered from the esthetic or the practical standpoint, meets in the fullest measure the demands put upon it. To summarize ; 
—the Competition calls for A CHARMING HRKK HOUSE OK MODKRATE COST. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The methods usually employed in the construction of brick walls may be followed, except that the walls are to be wholly of brick and of sufficient thickness 
to safety carry the load. The program does not call for a fireproof house, although that form of construction is not objected to. The choice of brick is left to the 
designer. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of four feet to the inch. Also plans of first and second floors at a scale of 
eight feet to the inch. In connection with the plan of the first tloor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space 
wUl permit. 

On another sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a scale of eight feet to the inch,— and below the elevation, a sufficient number of details to prop- 
erly show the brickwork and the special features of the design,— drawn at half inch scale in black ink without wash or color. Sections shown are to be cross- 
liatched in such manner as to clearly indicate the material, and tloor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by i.s inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets one inch from edges, giving a space 
inside the border lines 22 inches by 16 inches. The sheets are not to he mounted. 

Each set of drawings is to he signed by a noin de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the notn de piume on the exterior 
and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered Hat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of The Urickbi'ilder, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., on or before Sept. 15, igoc^. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their han- 
dling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the material employed; the adaptability of the design as 
shown by details to the practical constructive requirements, and the excellence of the plan. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brickhiiider, and the right is reser\*ed to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full 
name and address of the architect will be given in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. For the detign placed third a prize of $150. 

For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everyone. The prize and mention drawings will be published in Tin-: Brickki ii.der. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII 



SEPTEMBER 1909 



Number 9 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 19(w, by ROGERS * MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 
Single numbers ............. 



...... $5.00 per rear 

.......... SO centf 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries In the Postal Union ................ $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and Its branches. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE FAGl 

II Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

II Brick Waterproofing IV 

II and 111 Fireproofing ......... IV 

III Roofing Tile ... IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

LOUIS BOYNTON; CARRfeRE & HASTINGS; MacLAREN & THOMAS; MARSH & PETER; 

McKIM, MEAD & WHITE; THOMAS, CHURCHMAN & MOLITOR; 

TROWBRIDGE & LIVINGSTON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

RUINS OP^ THE BATHS OF CAR ACALLA — ROME Frontispiece 

THE PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF ARCHITECTURE —THE WORK OF JULES GVERll<! . Samuel Szti/i 177 

THE HOUSING PROBLEM — V George B. Ford 185 

WARMING AND VENTILATING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOSPITAL BUILDINGS — V. 

D. D. Kimball 190 

HOUSE AT ROCHESTER, N. V., CLAUDE F. BRAGDON, ARCHITECT 192 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION 193 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 194 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 18 NO. 9 



DEVOTEDTO •THE-lNTEREJTJ-OF-ARCHITECTYReiN MATERIAiyorCLAY- 



SEPTEIIIieil 1909 




[i<^<«<^«<««<<<^<«/^/<««<<<«<<«<^<<<«^<«.»»»»»»»»v»yv»v»»»»»»»»»»»»»:]) 



-L 



T 



m 



The Pictorial Representation of Architecture — The Work 

of Jules Guerin. 



BY SAMUEL SWIKT. 



IF EVERY client were a man of imagination, Mr. Jnles 
Guerin's perspective drawings in color, made from 
architects' plans to emphasize the characteristic qualities 
of proposed buildings, might pass simply as artistic 
luxuries. But while imagination remains as rare as it is 
precious, among mankind in general, including the mem- 
bers of building committees, every substantial aid in 
bridging the gap between the architect's conception and 
the layman's appreciation may claim title as a necessity. 
The ordinary perspective view, drawn from a point arbi- 
trarily assigned, is not much more than a diagram, 
repeating only the facts set forth in the plan and eleva- 
tion, without the exercise of selective power. The client 
gets from it no generalization, no suggestion of the essen- 
tial effect to be expected when the structure is translated 
from ink and paper to stone and steel. In forming his 
opinion of what the building will look like, the layman is 
thrown back upon the mere arithmetic of the design — 
the number of stories, the height and width of the fac^ade, 
in feet; the number and distribution of windows, and 
other necessary considerations, which have their place but 
should be studied in the fuller light growing from a per- 
ception of the artistic character of the building in its 
entirety. 

When clients can be brought always to demand and 
recognize beauty and distinction in the buildings they 
order, as well as utilitarian efficiency, the architectural 
millenium will doubtless be at hand. While this desira- 
ble state of things is not imminent, most architects will 
probably agree that public appreciation of what is worth 
while is gradually growing. The time to educate the 
client is before he builds. This is precisely the function 
of Mr. Guerin's drawings, which seek to eliminate, from 
the layman's view of a design, the non-essential elements, 
and to make clear to him the oft-quoted distinction be- 
tween truths and facts. The truths of a work of art of 
any kind represent its holding in what is universal and 
enduring, the evidences of inspirational creative force 
that went toward its making. Its facts are the acci- 
dental forms or expressions assumed by its component 
parts, accidental in the sense that they bear no absolute 
relation to art principles, but only to one another, and 
for this particular picture, or .statue, or poem, or building. 

Thus, the exact number and the actual size of the 
windows on the thirtieth floor of the Singer Building are 
facts not important in themselves, except as they have 



made possible the judicious grouping of several tiers of 
windows into a vertical unit of design, so that the tower 
appears to be marked off into a series of such units, com- 
bining to give decorative quality to the whole. The 
imposing effect of this arrangement, now that the build- 
ing is finished, as it makes itself felt upon the man in 
the street (or, better, the man on the ferryboat), would 
probably not have been even guessed by the layman 
confronted with nothing more communicative than a 
strict elevation, drawn when the building itself was still 
only on paper. Nor could the average perspective draw- 
ing of such a structure have been likely to go much 
farther, in foreshadowing to an inexperienced observer 
the fine proportioning of openings and wall spaces and 
the other successful features of Mr. Flagg's design. The 
writer cites this merely as a conspicuous and well 
known building; he has no knowledge of what prelimi- 
nary drawings were made in this case, and the facts are 
immaterial. The point is that it would have required an 
artist, or the architect himself acting in the role of an 
artist, to elicit from the plan and elevation of such a 
building a fair idea of the character and potency that it 
has revealed when materialized. 

In designing a building worthy of respect, the archi- 
tect has in mind a more or less clearly defined entity of 
result, a general and unified impression for which he is 
striving. These essentials may be indicated in the archi- 
tect's original sketch, but only in a tentative way. What 
Mr. Guerin seeks to do, in his perspective drawings in 
color, is to recreate, in a larger and finished way, the 
architect's original sketch, worked out in full flower, yet 
with everything not indispensable to the general effect 
either subordinated or eliminated. His drawing is meant 
to bear the relation to the routine diagram that a sensi- 
tive and illuminating portrait, painted or drawn or 
modeled, sustains to the soulless dullness of an ordinary 
photograph, accurate as to details but not in any sense 
interpreting the subject's personality. The photograph 
shows everything and accents nothing, therefore it tells 
little. The artistic portrait isolates for attention the 
features or the proportions truly significant and char- 
acteristic. In a building, the corresponding elements 
are those bearing the stamp of the architect's creative 
thought. 

It is not a multitude of small facts but a few substantial 
truths that make up one's impression of a good building, 



178 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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For example, what layman can recollect offhand how 
many courses of windows, how many moldings, or even 
how many principal divisions are in the fac^ades of the 
Flatiron, Times, West Street, Trinity, or other large New 
York structures ? That is not what one needs to know 
about them. But if each of these edifices makes a certain 
individual imprint upon one's mind (and everyone of 
them assuredly does do this), then an artist's function, in 
making his drawings before these buildings were begun, 
would have been to single out and emphasize their prime 
qualities — the overshadowing, looming height of the 
Flatiron, the vigorous ascending lines of the West Street 
Building, the ecclesiastical richness of the Trinity fac^ade, 
and the commanding aspect of the Times tower, with its 
purity and simplicity and its remarkable avoidance of 
coldness or suUenness of color. This factor of color is 
an important one for the artist-draftsman to take heed of 
in selecting a scale of values for his painting. Some- 
times the architect himself fails to think in terms of color, 
and even finishes a design without knowing in what 
material it will be carried out. In such cases, the artist- 
draftsman can often be of positive assistance both to the 
architect and his client. 

Having in mind the general principles that should 
govern an artist when acting as the interpreter of archi- 
tects' plans, it will be interesting to observe some of the 
ingenious and effective methods '->f Mr. Guerin in making 
his drawings. Every case brings its own problems and 
Mr. Guerin has been guided through his by maintaining 
a broad spirit of fidelity to the purpose of the designs he 
has translated into pictures, rather than by slavishly 
adhering to unimportant facts. For example, in coloring 
the perspective view of a tall, rather narrow building, he 
foimd that to leave the upper part of the same shade of 
color as the lower part made it look weak at the top, so 
that it appeared to lean backward, causing the observer 
uneasiness. So he shaded it progressively heavier, from 
the bottom to the top of the central bronze window sec- 
tion, until the upper part was considerably darker than 
the lower. This gave the building, as pictured, a strength 
and rigidity equal at any point in its height to that at any 
other point, and this tautened up, so to say, the whole 
design. This solution could have been found only as 
Mr. Guerin found it, by experiment. What he did was 
to allow in his drawing for the loss of color value, or the 
equivalent gain in shadow, which nature has since con- 
ferred upon the building itself through the agency of 
aerial perspective. 

In picturing another tall building whose corner formed 
a sharp acute angle, Mr. Guerin noted that his upright 
lines representing the sides, when drawn parallel, made 
the building seem to bulge outward on each side at the 
top. He therefore chose an imaginary point of sight for 
these lines, and thus converged them enough to correct 
the false impression given by exact consonance with the 
facts. A point of sight for the vertical lines in a draw- 
ing is rarely needed, but it was just here that the artist's 
perception came in. 

Similarly, in making a front elevation in color, without 
perspective, of a large building consisting of a central 
mass and two symmetrical wings, the relative length of 
the horizontal lines on either side of the central portion 
was such that they seemed to swell at the ends instead 



of remaining parallel. To correct this optical illusion, 
^Ir. Guerin provided the impossibility of two simultaneous 
points of sight, one for either wing, and compressed the 
horizontal lines, both top and bottom, in accordance with 
these imaginary points, until the wings regained their 
proper appearance to the eye. 

It is to his practical training in painting stage scenery 
for certain celebrated actors, nearly two decades ago, 
that Mr. Guerin owes much of his unusual command of 
perspective and his sensitiveness to its violation. There 
is just one point, in any theater, whence any given stage 
setting can look exactly right to the spectator. That 
point is chosen at random and it varies with each set of 
scenery. There is no convention as to where it shall be 
placed. But the aim of the scenic artist is to arrange his 
stage pictures so that from as many other parts of the 
theater as possible it will look approximately correct. 
The tormentor bar, hung from the proscenium arch, 
governs the view of the stage obtainable from the upper 
gallery. Its height for any given scene must be suffi- 
cient to allow the topmost spectator to see the full depth 
of the stage. This is a matter of nice adjustment, in 
designing the scenery, and it accounts for what may often 
seem to the uninitiated the exaggerated height of stage 
ceilings, in settings showing modern house interiors. 

This brings up Mr. Guerin's insistence that in making 
colored perspective drawings from architects' plans the 
artist must be strongly a decorator. He must know 
how to get the most out of his available space, how to 
place the picture or design within the space, and how 
to select or create shadow shapes suited to the design. 
Some of the deep, flat, simple shadows that Mr. Guerin 
casts in his drawings have no existence in nature, but 
are invented for the occasion and introduced as effective 
factors in the composition. On the other hand, the case 
may be cited of a certain structure to be erected near a 
river front, which Mr. Guerin was to illustrate. It was 
provided with a series of arches, each with a heavy pen- 
dentive, but to have thrown dark shadows imder these, 
according to the regular formula, would, in the artist's 
opinion, have hurt and weakened the lines of the 
arches themselves, and thus distorted the design. Here 
Mr. Guerin deemed that he could best be of service to the 
architect and to the layman for whom the drawing was 
made, by toning down the strength of these shadows and 
in some cases omitting them altogether. 

Another controlling factor in rendering drawings of 
the sort under discussion effective is judicious choice of 
the atmospheric conditions to be represented in the pic- 
ture. Most buildings will look their best under some 
particular degree of light, and this is true of both old 
edifices and new ones. To Mr. Guerin, for example, the 
buildings of southern Europe and of Egypt should al- 
ways be seen in sunshine, bright, strong, and radiant. 
He would not regard a rainy day view of Venice as char- 
acteristic, if one were making an exposition of that city 
to those not already familiar with it. The Alhambra 
this artist found marvelously impressive when he saw it 
under a brilliant sky, with big, heavy shadows marking 
its walls, and a landscape background set with olive 
and other trees whose leaves shone almost black in the 
flood of noonday sun. But when Mr. Guerin saw the 
Alhambra on a rainy day, the strength of the picture 



THE R R I C K B U I L D E R 



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1 84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Finally, a word as to the practical waj- Mr. Guerin goes decoration, but almost to that of sculpture in the round, 

about producing his curiously personal and illuminating which must remain vital and communicative from all 

pictures. After a careful study of plan and elevation, sides. 

he determines the precise point of view, in angle and Decorative factors are often helpful in compassing this 

distance, from which the architect's draftsman is to end. For example, Mr. Guerin once pictured a new 




liN 1 I'.KlDK 



Jules Gueiin, Del. 



I lit MK.il' NATIONAL HANK, 
liOSTON. 



R. C. Sturgis, Architect. 



make the preliminary perspective drawing. Sometimes 
the first choice of this point of view proves unsatisfac- 
tory and the drawing must be done anew, to give the 
best results. This preliminary work finished, the artist 
himself takes the drawing and colors it, omitting all but 
the absolute essentials, and introducing, if he deems 
them effective, foreground or background elements. He 
would have it, if possible, a picture beautiful from every 
aspect, subjecting it not merely to the test of a wall 



country house with so gay an arrangement of shrubs 
and rhododendrons banked up in its garden that the 
prospective owner insisted on having this very effect 
carried out by the landscape gardener. 

Examples of Mr. (iuerin's successful work might be 
multiplied, but it all harks back, after all, to the efficacy 
of imagination and of personal and appreciative percep- 
tion of what is real and what is vital in an architect's 
design. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

The Housing Problem- 



185 



V 



LODGING HOUSES. 

BY GEORGK I!. FORD. 



HAVING discussed the housing of the married, 
there remains to be considered the question of 
how to house the unmarried. This naturally has to be 
handled from two different points of view; the lodging 
of men as well as the housing of women. The moral 
question entering in, as it does, makes it more important 
that adequate living conditions be provided for working 
women rather than for working men, as the latter are able 
to exist in the ordinary boarding house while the women 
are not, and yet in spite of this fact practically all the 
attempts that have been made toward the solution of this 
lodging problem are for men. With the exception of the 
Trowmart Inn in New York 
and the four new buildings 
in Paris (one built by the 
government and the others 
by the Societe Philanthrop- 
ique), there seems to be al- 
most nothing designed for 
lodging women. In con- 
sidering this question refer- 
ence will be made only to 
such buildings as are erected 
by persons sincerely wishing 
to alleviate the living condi- 
tions of the working jaeople. 
Lodging houses are divi- 
ded into two classes — those 
where the lodger pays and 
those where he does not. In 
the pay lodging houses or 




are the same. The first thought is accommodaticms; then 
for dining rooms and restaurants with proper care for 
the food, and finally for recreation. Attention should 
be given to the arrangements of bath rooms, laundries, 
and barber shops, while provision must be made for fire 
escapes, proper methods of heating and ventilating, and 
suitable provision for the sick. In addition to these, 
quarters ought to be planned for the superintendents, 
servants, and extra help. 

As for the sleeping accommodations there are two 
sorts — cubicles and private rooms. Single rooms cost 
too much in constructing and occupy too much space to 

permit of being used exten- 
sively in the cheaper lodging 
hotels and so the recourse to 
cubicles becomes necessary. 
These cubicles are usually 
large rooms with eight com- 
partments on either side of a 
central aisle. The wooden 
partitions which separate the 
spaces are between 7 and 8 
feet high, from the top of 
which a wire netting runs 
up to the ceiling to preclude 
all possibility of people en- 
tering while the owner is 
away or asleep. The mini- 
mum size for these compart- 
ments seems to be 6 by 8 feet, 
although in some cases they 



FlEST FUOOE FVan 




[t^^fTUr-L 



— ^ 



Ground Floor Plan 



Basement Floor Plan 



IHK ROWTON HOUSK, LONDON. 



men's hotels, such as the Mills Hotel No. 3 in New York, 
where one pays thirty or forty cents per night for room 
only and the Salvation Army Barracks in London, where 
one may have supper, bath, bed, and breakfast, all for 
four pence, the general considerations and requirements 



are 7 feet 6 inches by .S feet 6 inches. The floors are 
usually fireproof with a wood finish, while all the trim 
is kept cjuitc small with simple detail for i-anitary reasons. 
There should be a window in each com])artment as well 
as light, preferably electric. Kach cubicle should have 



i86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



a guardian located if possible at the corners of the cen- 
tral corridors. 

The private rooms are a little larger than the afore- 
said compartments and rent at a higher price. These 
are located generally on corners or in a wing by them- 
selves, with direct access to bath and toilet, as should be 
the case with all the rooms throughout the building. 

In most of the hotels the dining rooms are only for the 
lodgers, but at the Mills Hotels in New York the restau- 
rants are accessible from the street. The dining rooms 
are located in a high, well lighted basement, with cheer- 
ful decorations, while the floors are of cement or tile; 
the restaurant of the new 
Albergo Popolari in Milan 
however has wooden floors. 
Here as elsewhere the trim 
and woodwork should be of 
the simplest design. 

The general arrangement 
of the dining rooms is de- 
pendent on whether the 
meals are served table 
d'hote or a la carte. In the 
Mills Hotels in New York 
the meals are table d'hote, 
which necessitates the serv- 
ice of waiters who procure the food 
from a serving room outside the 
dining room. In the Rowton Houses 
in London, the London County Coun- 
cil Lodging Houses, and the Paris 
Lodging Houses the service is a la 
carte, and the diners procure their 
own food at a counter on one side of 
the room, which they pay for as they 
get it. Another feature of 
the London men's hotels is 
the arrangement made 
whereby the men can cook 
their own meals. There 
are alcoves leading off of 
the dining room which con- 
tain a series of ovens and 
fires, and by borrowing the 
necessary pans and kettles 
one may cook his own food, 
which is purchased by him 
at a store adjacent to the 
dining room or bought out- 
side. The kitchens of these 
hotels should be well ven- 
tilated and thoroughly sanitary in every respect, having 
a direct entrance from the street. Special accommoda- 
tions should be provided for a certain number of cooks 
and waiters in the way of a private dining room as well 
as a private passage through the basement to the street. 

For recreation there should be several rooms on the 
ground or second floor exposed to the sunlight but so 
situated as not to be too hot in summer or too cold in 
winter. The rooms are better low studded and closed in 
with comparatively few doors with walls painted or tiled 
in warm tones, having a number of fireplaces. This is 
particularly well done in the case of the Rowton Houses 




riR3T FLOOR PLAN 





THK .MILLS HOTEL, 36TH STREET AND SEVENTH AVENUE 
Copeland & Dole, Architects. 



in London. These six men's hotels built by Lord Row- 
ton accommodate in all something over six thousand 
working men at six pence per night. Here the floors are 
of wood, the walls of dark warm color tile to a height of 
four feet, with warm tinted plaster above. The rooms 
are very narrow in proportion to their length, which gives 
them a home-like character. There should be a large 
general conversation room and several smaller rooms for 
reading and for writing. It is necessary also to have a 
stand where the men can buy cigars, papers, leave or call 
for laundry, etc. The man at this stand has charge of the 
library which should be one of the rooms mentioned above. 

At the entrance to the 
building there is a turnstile 
and wicket where the super- 
intendent and surveillant 
from their rooms adjacent 
can keep track of those 
coming in and out. The 
superintendent is usually a 
married man, requiring 
from three to six rooms 
with a separate entrance 
on the street. 

Another feature which is 
provided for is a small hos- 
pital ward in a place well ventilated 
and lighted, and a morgue, preferably 
in the basement. There should be 
adequate provision for a number of 
tub, shower, and foot baths, as well as 
lavatories and wash basins. It is well 
to provide a room where the men may 
wash their own clothes, with facilities 
for drying and ironing. Special pro- 
vision has to be made too 
for the care of fresh and 
soiled linen. If a number 
of buildings are run under 
one management, it is de- 
sirable to have a central 
laundry as is done by the 
Rowton Houses in London. 
Accommodations should be 
provided in the building 
for a barber, bootblack, and 
a clothes presser. Ample 
provision is required in the 
way of fire escapes, and if 
the building is above six 
stories, as in the case of 
the Mills Hotels in New York, there .should be adequate 
elevator service. 

It might be well at this time to show what change is 
neces-sary in planning working women's hotels. The 
cubicle system is not considered desirable for them 
though used in three of the women's hotels of the 
vSocictc Philanthropi([ue. As they spend much more 
time in their sleeping rooms, it is desirable that they 
should be larger, better lighted, and more home-like in 
every way. Women are often at the hotel a large part 
of the day and for that reason the decoration on the 
rooms should be as attractive and pleasant as possible. 



OASEMtNT f LAN 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 18. NO. 9. PLATE 113. 





NEW YORK 

DISPENSARY, 

WORTH STREET, 

NEW YORK CITY. 



Trowbridge & Livingston, 
Architects. 



DININOBOan I 'IK> 



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r/fs^T rixtoiz PLAi'' 



.tc ■ ■ ^ r 'f ^-^ j|«^: 



TtlE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 9. PLATE 114. 




Marsh & Peter, 
Architects. 



fnfsa-a-c^tjVfeB 



— TT-VM. ny . in-r-Mir. wnriB— 



THE BRICKBUILDE]^. 

VOL. 18, NO. 9. PLATE 115. 



I 







1 



r 

O 




->;i- 



;-i,-,-i- 



I.. .J 






" CLAREMONT " 
A RESIDENCE 

AT 

BROADMOOR, 

COLORADO. 

MacLaren & Thomas, 

Architects. 



1 -1^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 9. PLATE 1 16. 





THE VESTIBULE. 



DETAIL OF DINING ROOM. 




THE DINING ROOM. 

CLAREMONT ■' RESIDENCE. 
MacLaren & Thomas, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 9. PLATE 117. 




THE SUN PARLOR. 




THE LIBRARY. 



CLAREMONT" RESIDENCE. 
MacLaren & Thomas, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 9. PLATE 118. 




VIEW OF WING AND COURT. 




VIEW OF COURT. 

CLAREMONT " RESIDENCE. 

MacLaren & Thomas, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 9. PLATE 119. 




J. JTi Xli U l.\. A V-' iV ±J v-* 



VOL. 18. NO. 9. 



PLATE 120. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 9. PLATE 121. 




CLCVATION TO SOUTM 



DETAILS OF RAILWAY STATION AT WATERBURY, CONN. 
McKiM, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 9. PLATE 122. 




THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 9. PLATE 123. 




RAILWAY STATION AT WATERBURY, CONN. 
McKiM. Mead & White. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 9. PLATE 124. 




STORES AND APARTMENTS, CEDARHURST, L. I. 

Louis Boynton, Architect. 




^^^— ^^ 



a aKm 

C CLOiCT 
K KJTCft£.N 

^e D£M noon 
J7JZ jy/A/wa jzoOAf 

UZ. UVlNd IZOOM 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PLATE 125. 



VOL. 18, NO. 9. 




ST MA RYS CHURCH, LAWK ENCE STKb:fc:T, NhW YORK CITY. 
Carrere & Hastings and T. E. Blake, Architects. 



THE B R ICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 9. PLATE 126. 





MEMORIAL CHURCH OF ST. PAUL, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Thomas, Churchman & Molitor, Architects., 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



187 



A special point should be made for reception rooms 
where they may entertain men callers. An attractive 
feature is a sewing room equipped with machines and 
possibilities for ironing and pressing. For women there 
should be bath rooms on each floor, with special accom- 
modations for laundering, shampooing, clothes pressing, 
and ironing. 

In the women's hotel, it is desirable that the dining 
room should be cozy and attractive, with 
small tables, and that the food should 
be served by waiters. A pleasant feature 
is the location nearby of a special tea 
room. This is worked out very prettily 
in the hotel for the women employees 
of the postoffice and telegraph service 
in Paris, a building built by the French 
government. For recreation the rooms 
are made small, with some pretense in 
having them inviting with a number of 
attractive corners about. Besides the 



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rrrrrrrrrrmr- 



ing room where he is given a substantial meal, after 
which he goes down to a large room in the basement and 
undresses, his clothes being put into a wire basket or 
hung on an iron frame and taken down to large steam 
and formaldehyde fumigators where they remain over 
night. After a bath he is given a clean nightshirt and 
taken in an elevator to one of the upper floors, of which 
there are five, each one being open from end to end, and 
filled with small iron cots as closely 
spaced as convenient. Opening off from 
these rooms are toilet and washing con- 
veniences. A special feature of these 
floors is the soiled linen chute at the 
rear. In the morning the man descends 
in the elevator to the dressing room in 
the basement where he jDUts on his 
fumigated clothes, passes up into the 
eating room where he is given break- 
fast, and then out directly to the street. 
^ All the entrances and passages are so 



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'TlllttO -TVTJICAL 





•SE-CONP rXOOR. PLAN 



.PIRJT FLOOR 



gymnasium there should be 
provided a hospital ward. 

The municipal lodging 
house in New York is quite 
difi^erent in character from 
the foregoing buildings. 
The men enter one entrance 
at the left hand side of the 
building, while the women 
pass through another at the 
right. The whole of the 
second floor is devoted to 
women, all the rest of the 
building to men. Accommo- 
dations for women ai'e the 
same as for the men only on 
a smaller scale. A man on 
entering goes into a waiting 
room first and then passes 
into a small room where he 
is examined by a physician. 
From there he enters a din- 




SALVATION ARMY BUILDING. 
Brainerd & Leeds, Architects. 



partitioned off from one an- 
other that the man going in 
cannot in any way come in 
contact with the man going 
out. Among the minor fea- 
tures are the isolation rooms 
for those found with conta- 
gious diseases. The build- 
ing is absolutely fireproof 
with the possibility of wash- 
ing out each floor with a 
hose. A vacuum cleaning 
system is installed, espe- 
cially for taking ca4-e of the 
blankets used on the beds. 
The attendants sleep on the 
top floor which is partitioned 
off into individual rooms. 
No attempt is made to avoid 
institutionalism in this build- 
ing, it being purely a factory 
in character. 



i88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Among our best lodging houses in America are the 
three Mills Hotels in New York, in two of which twenty 
cents is charged for one night's lodging, while in the 
other thirty and forty cents is asked. England pos- 
sesses excellent examples in the six large houses con- 
structed by Lord Rowton in London, and three houses 
constructed by London County Council, which are identi- 



Europe. Birmingham has a large Rowton House while 
Paris has one working men's hotel, and three working 
women's hotels constructed by the Societc Philanthro- 
pique, as well as one for government women employees. 
In Milan there is a working men's hotel similar in 
management to the Rowton Houses. London stands 
o\it by having accommodations for nearly twelve thou- 

n 




itcoND fLOOR, Plan 



Third Floor Plan 





3"roR£ ROOM 



E 



STORt ROOM 



DRYING KOOM 



S 



D O 



FAN ROOM 




FUMIGATING RM 



t_JiL 



r^ 



BASE-MtMT Plan 



TiRST Floor Plais 

MUNICIPAL LODGING HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Raymond F. Almirall, Architect. 

cal in arrangement with the Rowton Houses. Then in sand working men in model lodging houses at six pence 
addition to the above there are a number of large or less a night for a room. New York has a few special 
barracks belonging to the Salvation Army. They also accommodations for working women, but the one build- 
have large working men's hotels in New York, Paris, ing of architectural interest in this line of work is the 
Milan, Berlin, Vienna, and other cities throughout Trowmart Inn on Abington Square. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 




TENKMK.NT AT 30S EAbT 40TH STREET, 
NEW YORK CITY. 

William Kmerson, Architect. 



THE MILLS HOTEL, 36TH STREET AND SEVENTH AVENUE, 

NEW YORK (MTV. 

Copeland Hr Dole, Architects. 





MUNICIPAL LOI)GIN<; HOUSE, EAST 25TII STREET, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Raymond F. Almirall, Architect. 



THE TUSKEGEE TENEMENTS, WEST 6 1 ST STREET, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



190 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to 

Hospital Buildings — V. 



I'.V 1). D. KlMliAI.I.. 



IN DETERMINING the size of air ducts in the fan 
system of warming and ventilating a hospital building 
it is wise to limit the velocity of the air in the main ducts 
to 1,000 feet per minute, reducing the velocity in the 
branches and at the ends of the line to as low as 500 feet 
per minute, with a velocity as low as 300 feet per minute 
in upcast Hues where possible. Therefore, by dividing 
the amount of air which must go through each duct by the 
above figures the size of the duct is found with sufficient 
accuracy for the average building conditions. 

In all hospitals the heating of much water for domestic 
uses is necessary. It is customary to heat this water in 
service water heaters, which are steel tanks, usually 
made of % inch steel with one head of -'a inch steel, and 
the other head cast-iron with manhole, tliis tank contain- 
ing a brass steam coil. The tank should be tested to not 
less than fifty per cent above the working water pressure, 
while the steam coil should be tested to 125 pounds water 
pressure. This tank should have a hot water thermom- 
eter graduated from 30° to 250" and a small water relief 
safety valve, usually i^ inch. The amount of hot water 
required may vary from 20 to 40 gallons per occupant 
per day, this being used through a period of not over ten 
or twelve hours. Assuming a maximum of one hundred 
patients there would be recjuired, as a maximum, 4,000 
gallons of hot water per day, or 400 gallons per hour, to 
be heated from approximately 50° to 145° or even 185°. 

With steam at 5 pounds pressure approximately 5 
sfjuare feet of heating surface in the brass heating coil 
are recjuired for each 100 gallons of water to be heated to 
145° and 8>^ square feet for 185°. Therefore, for 400 gal- 
lons of water per hour 20 scjuare feet and 34 scjuare feet 
of heating surface in the coil would be recjuired for 145° 
and 185° respectively, or 46 and 7'J lineal feet of 1^ inch 
brass pipe respectively. If iron pipe is used, which is 
undesirable, more surface is reijuired, while slightly less 
pipe is required if copper is used. 

If a storage of water is reciuired the tank may be in- 
creased in size to hold three to four hours' supply, but in 
large plants ([uite as satisfactory results are obtained 
without this storage capacity by increasing the amount of 
coil surface so that it will heat the water cjuite as rapidly 
as it is used, in which case the steam coil should not be 
less than four times the amount determined as above. 

For heating this water in summer, a summer heater 
must be provided, which may be a house heating boiler 
or a regular tank heater. The size of this may be de- 
termined as follows: 

Multiply the gallons of water recjuired jjerhour by 8j4 
(approximate weight per gallon in pounds), and this by 
the number of degrees through which the water must be 
heated, and divide the result by the number of heat units 
utilized per pound of coal (about 8,000), and then divide 
this by the pounds of coal which are to be burned joer 
square foot of grate surface per hour, which will be two 
in very small heaters, and four to five in large heaters, 
and the result will be the grate area required. 



In cases where such a heater must be used in the sum- 
mer, the storage tank or service heater should be capable 
of holding the water recjuired for a period of three or 
four hours to obviate the necessity of using a summer 
heater capable of heating the maximum amount of water 
recjuired in any one hour. The summer heater may 
thus store up its heat during periods of a less demand, 
and the size of thesummer heater may be reduced twenty- 
five per cent to thirty-three and one third per cent. 

The chimney required for such a heater will be the 
same as that recjuired for a sectional house heating 
boiler having the same grate area. 

Assuming that the heater must run eight hours with- 
out firing additional coal, the American Radiator Com- 
pany suggest this rule for heaters larger than their 
regular tank heaters. 

Multiply the number of gallons j^er hour by the follow- 
ing factors: 

For water at 100° 4.17 

120° 5.65 

" 140" 6.58 

' 170° 8.00 

and select that size of hou.se heating hot water boiler 
having an equivalent rating for direct hot water radia- 
tion. If ample storage capacity is provided in the tank 
or coil service heater this rule will be found safe. 

Small sizes of tank heaters may be determined by the 
manufacturers' capacity tables, although such lists gen- 
erally over-rate the capacity of the heaters, and they 
should be checked by a comparison with the rule first 
given above. For heating water in baptistries or swim- 
ming pools a period of several hours may be allowed. 

The size and height of the chimney have much to do 
with the success of a heating plant. The height of the 
chimney should be such that the top will reach above 
the highest surrounding structure, or the highest part 
thereof, and the Hue should be either circular or as near 
scjuare as possible. 

For small plants the following table by Professor 
Carpenter will be found reliable: 

DIAMETER OR SIDE OF CHIMNEY IN INCHE.S RECJUIRED 
FOR VARYING AMOUNT.S OF DIRECT 
.STEAM RADIATING SURFACE. 



Sq. Kt. 

ofRad. 

Sur. 


H.P. 


Height of Chimney in Feet. 


20' 


30' 


40' 


50' 


60' 


80' 


IOC 


120' 


250 


2.5 


7.4 


7.0 


6.7 


6.4 


6.2 


6.0 


6.0 


6.0 


500 


5.0 


9.6 


9.2 


8.8 


8.2 


8.0 


7.6 


7.3 


7.0 


7.50 


7.5 


11.3 


10.8 


10.2 


9.6 


9.3 


8.8 


8.5 


8.2 


1000 


10.0 


12.8 


12.0 


11.4 


10.8 


10.5 


10.0 


9.5 


9.2 


1500 


15.0 


15.2 


14.4 


13.4 


12.8 


12.4 


11.5 


11.2 


10.8 


2000 


20.0 


17.2 


16.3 


15.2 


14.5 


14.0 


13.2 


12.6 


12.1 


.^(100 


30.0 


20.6 


18.5 


18.2 


17.2 


16.6 


15.8 


15.0 


14.4 


4(100 


40.0 


23.6 


22.2 


20.8 


19.6 


19 


17.8 


17.0 


16.3 


5000 


50.0 


26.0 


24.6 


23.0 


21.6 


21.0 


19.4 


18.6 


18.0 


6000 


60.0 


28.4 


26.8 


25.0 


23.4 


22.8 


21.2 


20.2 


19.5 


7(«)0 


70.0 


30.4 


28.8 


27.0 


25.5 


24.4 


23.0 


21.6 


20.8 


: 8000 


80.0 


32.4 


30.6 


28.6 


26 8 


26.0 


24.2 


23.4 


22.2 


900(1 


90.0 


34.0 


32.4 


30.4 


28.4 


27.4 


25 6 


24.4 


23.4 


1(1(1(10 


100.0 


37.0 


34.0 


32.0 


30.0 


28.6 


27.0 


25.4 


24.6 


15000 


150.0 






38.4 


36.2 


35.0 


33.0 


31.0 


29.2 


20000 


200.0 






43.0 


42.0 


41.0 


37.0 


35.0 


34.0 


30000 


300.0 








50.0 


48.0 


46.0 


43.0 


41.0 









THE BRICKBUILDER 



191 



The figures given are diameters in inches or the 
number of inches on the side of a square. The radia- 
tion should all be figured to the equivalent of direct 
radiation. 

The dimensions of the smoke connections between 
the boilers and chimneys should not be less than that 
required by the boiler manufacturer, when sectional 
boilers are used, and in the case of tubular boilers may 
be approximately determined by making the fine area 
equal to eighty per cent to one hundred per cent of the 
total area of the boiler tubes. 

All pipes should be covered with efficient insulating 
material as this will reduce the coal consumption and 
make possible a proper control of the heat in rooms 
through which the pipes pass, which is otherwise impos- 
sible. The best grade of pipe covering always proves to 
be the best investment. 

The employment of the best contractors always pays 
both the architect and owner, although sometimes in- 
volving a slightly greater first cost. 

Upon the completion of the installation of a warming 
and ventilating system proper tests should be made. 
Such tests involve a temperature test and a test of the 
ventilating system. The first is simple in cold weather, 
but in mild or warm weather it is necessary to know to 
what temperature the building must be heated to insure 
its being heated to 70° in zero weather. There is no 
accepted standard for this purpose, but the following 
table is frequently used. 

TEMPERATURE PRODUCED IN A ROOM BY A GIVEN 

AMOUNT OF SURFACE WHEN OUTSIDE 

TEMPERATURE IS HIGH 



Temperature of 
outside air. 


Coefficient. 
Heat per sq. ft. 
per hour per deg. 


Total heat per 
sq. ft. per hour. 


Resulting 

temperature 

of room. 


Difference tem- 
perature of radi- 
ator and room. 


— 10 


1.85 


288 


64.7 


155.3 





1.80 


270 


70.0 


150.0 


+10 


1.75 


253 


75.1 


144.9 


20 


1.70 


236 


81.0 


139.0 


30 


1.65 


218 


86.5 


133.5 


40 


1.60 


203 


93.1 


128.0 


50 


1.55 


188 


98.7 


122.5 


60 


1.50 


172 


104.7 


116.5 


70 


1.45 


158 


110.5 


109 5 


80 


1.40 


142 


117.1 


102.9 


90 


1.35 


130.5 


123.5 


96.5 


100 


1.30 


117 


130.3 


89.7 



Example : To determine by a test of the apparatus, when weather is 60", 
whether a guarantee to heat to 70" in 0" weather is maintained, operate the 
apparatus as though in regular use and note the average temperature of 
room. If room has a temperature equal to or in excess of 104.7° Fah., it 
would have a temperature of 70" in zero weather, all other conditions, 
such as wind, positions of windows, etc., being the same as when tested. 

104.7 

= 70" approx. 

1.5 

The temperature to which the heating plant must 
warm the building according to the requirement of the 
specification should be reached without forcing the 
boilers and should be maintained without the necessity 
of too frequent attention thereto. In the heating of 
residences and small buildings it is not unreasonable to 
require that the temperature shall be maintained with- 
out attendance being given to the boilers more often 
than once in six or eight hours. In medium sized build- 
ings once in four hours is reasonable. A temperature 
test should not cover less than ten to twelve hours' con- 
tinual running 

The test of the ventilation is usually made by measur- 
ing the quantity of the air supplied, although the quality 



of the air in the room may also be tested if desired. In 
measuring the quantity of air the aim is to see that the 
amount actually supplied is in agreement with the 
amount intended for the room, this amount being regu- 
lated by the setting of the volume dampers previously 
described. 

The volume of air supplied or exhausted from a room 
is measured by means of an anemometer. First, the net 
or working area of the opening is measured, and this 
area in square feet is multiplied by the velocity of the 
air as it passes through the opening. In measuring the 
air velocity through a fresh air register in a vertical 
position it will frequently be found that certain portions 
of the area are inefficient because of the fact that the 
velocity of the air in the flue carries the air to the top of 
the register. In such a case this inefficient area, some- 
times equaling one quarter or one third the height of the 
register, may be covered and the remaining area taken 
as the net working area. A further deduction of one 
quarter to one third of the remaining area of the register 
face should be made, according to the pattern of register 
used, for the iron work of the face. In the case of the 
usual wire grille a deduction of ten to fifteen per cent is 
sufficient. 

Holding the anemometer with its .shaft in line with the 
direction of the movement of the air, the anemometer 
may be very gradually moved over the surface of the 
opening for a fixed period of time, say one minute, or an 
average of readings with the anemometer held a fixed 
time in from three to twelve places may be taken, the 
points selected being such as to give a fair average of 
the velocity of the air through the register. If the first 
method is adopted an average of not less than three 
readings should be used. The reading of the dials of 
the instrument will give the lineal feet of travel of the 
air for the period during which the instrument was used, 
and this divided by the number of minutes will give the 
velocity in feet per minute, which, multiplied by the net 
working area of the openings in square feet, will give the 
cubic feet of air per minute passing through the open- 
ing. A certain correction must be applied to the reading 
of the dials, as indicated by the manufacturers' correction 
chart accompanying the instrument. The anemometer 
is a delicate instrument, requiring careful use and fre- 
quent adjustment. 

It may be desired to test the quality of the air in the 
room, the necessity for this occurring more frequently in 
occupied buildings. P'or practical purposes this involves 
the determination of the amount of CO.^ in the air in the 
room, for determining which there are several methods. 
That used by the inspection department of the Massa- 
chusetts District Police is known as Professor Wolpert's 
air tester, making use of lime water which is made tur- 
bid by the CO^ in the air. Clear lime water, which is 
required, is not always available and the method is not 
particularly accurate. Another approximate method 
which will be found more convenient in use is that 
known as Professor Wolpert's Carbocidometer, which is 
especially recommended by Prof. J. H. Kinealy. A 
more exact method involving a more elaborate apparatus 
is that devised by Otto Pettersson and A. Palmquist. 
These devices will be found explained at length in Pro- 
fessor Carpenter's book. 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



193 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 

Dispensary Building, New York City. — The Italian 
Renaissance seldom furnishes a more pleasing bit of 
architecture than this hospital on Worth street, New York 
City, by Trowbridge & Livingston. The facade, which is 
indicative of the interior arrangement, is quite expressive 
of the general use for which the building is designed. 
The brick is of golden tapestry effect and laid up in fine 
gravel mortar. The terra cotta trimmings around the 
entrance and window openings have a very decorative 
feeling and are in harmony with the whole design. The 
entire building is furnished with the most approved hos- 
pital methods. The floors consist of tile, while the walls 
and low partitions are of Keene's cement. Fireproof 
construction is used throughout the first floor. The 
building figures out at a cost of 24 cents per cubic foot. 



Margaret Edes Home, Washington, D. C. — Here the 
Modified Colonial style has received a proper setting in 
the heart of old Georgetown — now West Washington. 
Standing as it does in the midst of many well preserved 
brick buildings of the early nineteenth century work, 
one cannot fail to observe how perfectly the architects. 
Marsh & Peter, have made this building harmonize with 
the general surroundings. It is, as the exterior and 
plans indicate, a home — domestic in its feeling and at 
the same time retaining its distinctive character as a 
semi-public institution. The interior is arranged as if 
built for one large family, and is made very attractive 
by having the yellow poplar trim finished in ivory white, 
the hard pine floor varnished, and the doors finished to 
represent mahogany. The construction is non-fireproof, 
and cost $35,000, making 2Z cents per cubic foot. 



"Claremont," Broadmoor, Colo. — With mountain 
ranges to the west and plains sloping far to the east, this 
location furnishes a most attractive setting for a residence 
designed in the style of Louis XIV. This environment, 
together with the climate, has allowed MacLaren & 
Thomas to face the whole structure above the first floor 
with dull enamel white terra cotta, and the general tone 
of this facing furnishes an agreeable contrast to the pre- 
vailing neutral tone of the landscape. The facades express 
frankly the interior treatment. The basement provides 
for two very large billiard rooms, while the second floor 
accommodates ten bed rooms and three bath rooms. The 
walls of the library are built of short leaf yellow pine and 
stained ; those of the living room have oak, which is also 
stained ; while the dining room and vestibule are finished 
in plaster with marble base. The floors of the more im- 
portant rooms are of oak, the vestibules of tile similar to 
the bath rooms, while all other floors are of one quarter 
sawed pine. The heating arrangement is low pressure 
steam, with the use of thermostats. This building cost 
46 cents per cubic foot, or $14 per square foot of area 
covered. 

Railway Station, Waterbury, Conn. — This design 
of McKim, Mead & White for the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad Station is monumental in character 
and impresses one immediately with the charming results 
obtained from the Italian Renaissance. Of extreme in- 



terest is the tower which emerges gracefully from the 
main part of the building and furnishes an admirable 
location for the large clock. The base on the exterior is 
of granite, while the walls above are of sand struck red 
brick laid with ^8 inch joint. The ornamental portions 
of this structure are terra cotta which tones in perfectly 
with the color of the brick. The roofing is of a warm 
red tile. Upon the interior the buff brick and terra cotta 
trimmings form the wall treatment, while Guastavino 
tile finishes the ceiling. The combination of materials 
found in the general waiting room are artistic as well as 
serviceable, and furnishes another splendid example of 
the harmonious treatment effected by the use of brick, 
terra cotta, and tile. 



Stores and Apartments, Cedarhurst, L. I. — ^ The 
architect of this building, Louis Boynton, has evidently 
derived his inspiration from the Italian work. The colors 
for the pattern scheme between the third story windows 
are mixed with cement and produce the "old fresco" 
appearance of many buildings found in northern Italy. 
These colors blend nicely with the face brick, which 
vary anywhere from light red to deep blue. The trim- 
ming effect of this tapestry brick, laid in Dutch bond, 
is strengthened by the use of half-inch joints with a 
gray tinted mortar. The window trims and belt courses 
are gray terra cotta, harmonizing with the general color 
scheme. Red tiling is used for the roof. The cost of 
the building was 17 cents per cubic foot. 



St. Mary's Church, New York City. Carrere and 
Hastings have admirably adapted the Gothic to this 
church, making it very plain and attractive. The exterior 
is of red brick and presents a solid front from the walk to 
the top of the bell tower; the monotony of which is pre- 
vented by the arrangement of the concrete stone trim- 
mings. The entrance being placed to one side affords a 
surface well suited for the large window treatment of the 
front facade. The windows throughout are unusually 
large and furnish plenty of light and ventilation. The 
red brick is used upon the interior also for the wall deco- 
ration and extends from the wooden floors to the ceiling 
which consists of an open truss treatment with plaster 
panels. Maple and oak are used for the woodwork. 



Memorial Church of St. Paul, Philadelphia. — This 
structure furnishes us with an interesting example of the 
perpendicular Gothic, as applied to a small ecclesiastical 
building. Although the architects, Thomas, Churchman 
& Molitor, have treated both exterior and interior with 
ornate simplicity, still they have planned the terra cotta 
trimmings and tracery of the windows so as to lend a 
growing charm to the ensemble. The church is faced on 
the exterior with dark red brick and terra cotta. On the 
interior a buff colored brick extends from the cement 
floor to the open trussed wooden ceiling. The benches, 
choir stalls, pulpit, reading desks, etc., are of oak. An 
interesting feature of this little church is the side chapel 
which may be used for services of any nature in the winter 
time, being provided with a separate heating system, and 
so constructed as to be enclosed by itself. The seating 
accommodation of the church is a trifle over five hundred. 



194 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment 
Miscellan^ 



ant 



'y- 



CHARLES POLLEN McKIM. 

AS WE are about to go to press the announcement 
comes of the death of Charles FoUen McKim, 
founder of the architectural firm, McKim, Mead Sc White. 
He died September 14th at his home in St. James, L. L 
Mr. McKim was born in Chester County, Pa., August. 
1847. He entered Harvard Scientific School at eighteen 
and spent the years from 1867 to 1870 at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. After touring the continent of Europe for 
two years he entered into his professional work and soon 
associated with him in partnership William R. Mead and 
Stanford White. 

Mr. McKim's loss to his profession is inestimable. He 
was one of the highest authorities on civic planning and 
devoted considerable attention to the beautifying of our 
American cities. His work in connection with the firm 
covers a vast field and shows his remarkable versatility. 
His name is associated with the Columbia University 
Library; the Century, University, and Metropolitan clubs; 
the Pennsylvania Station ; the Pierpont Morgan library ; 
and the Municipal Office Building recently awarded to 
their firm, all of which are in New York City; also with 
the Boston Public Library; the War College and White 
House at Washington. 

Mr. McKim was the founder of the American Academy 
at Rome and evinced such an interest in the promotion 
of architecture that he was awarded medals from King 
Edward of England as well as at the Paris Exposition of 
1900. He belonged to many societies, among the most 
prominent of which are the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, the Architectural League, Municipal Art Society, 
National Academy of Design, American Fine Arts So- 
ciety, and Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



CIVIC PLANNING — "1915 
EXPOSITION. 



BOSTON 



THE wonderful movement of civic planning is 
spreading throughout the United States as well as 
European countries. 
France already furn- 
ishes splendid examples 
of cities made monu- 
mental through the 
artistic temperament of 
her people. Her trouble 
lies in being over- 
trained, and the Parisian 
newspapers are more 
than alive to this 
danger. The editorials 
bitterly denounce the 
seemingly lack of taste 
for good architecture, 
and warn the people to 
take care lest they lose 
the artistic charm of 
their cities. In Ger- 





MINNESOTA STATE AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL. 

Faced with buff brick, made by the Twin City Brick Company. 

Clarence H. Johnston, Architect. 



many the ideas of 
civic planning vary 
greatly from our own 
conceptions. They 
avoid longvistaswhich 
appeal to them as ex- 
tremely monotonous ; 
their streets vary 
greatly in width, pos- 
sessing many curves 
and angles; while their 
crossings are planned 
in every possible man- 
ner .so as to escape the 
square corners. But 
we find that Germany 
is alive to the great 
need of civic develop- 
ment, and that there 
is rapid progress in 
the improvement of 
the public taste in this 
direction. 

England surely has 
great reason to lament 
the general apathy 
that prevails in regard 
to city planning. Lon- 
don, with her vast 
population and her 
commercial activity, 
has suffered greatly 
from her lack of fore- 
sight in not adopting 
Sir Christopher Wren's 
entire scheme, which 
was thoroughly practicable in its design of grandeur and 
dignity, as well as in the relief afforded to her congested 
centers. Had that wealthy metropolis accepted the pro- 
posed scheme, her lanes and alleys of to-day would have 
been avenues with vi.stas of architectural beauty. But 
England is gradually awakening, and we find evidences 
of this in the establishment of a chair for civic design in 
the University at Liverpool — a work which our own 

universities, that pos- 
sess a course in archi- 
tecture, might well take 
cognizance. 

The // rthitcctural Re- 
vieic of London, after 
carefully considering 
the progress of the civic 
movement in the United 
States, says, " As tnight 
have been expected, 
these (plans for future 
development) display a 
breadth of scope and 
handling quite outside 
anything that is met 
with on this side of the 
Atlantic." This state- 
ment can be readily 



ENTRANCE POST OF K. OF C. 

BUILDINfJ, LOUISVILLE, KV. 

Executed by the Hartford Faience 

Company. 

J.J. Gaffney, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



195 



understood if we take into 
consideration the vast 
schemes that have been 
planned for the beautifying 
of our cities by the best men 
in the architectural profes- 
sion. The comprehensive 
design by L'Enfant for 
Washington has been given 
prestige by the sanction of 
the F'ederal Government. 
San Francisco rejected the 
opportunity of handing 
down to posterity one of the 
most beautiful cities in the 
world, and is cruelly build- 
ing with no idea whatever for the future 
the other hand, has been receptive to 
her best interests in civic improvement. 
Baltimore failed for some little time 
after her destructive fire to foresee the 
great benefit of planning. But recently 
under the guidance of selected men 
like J. M. Carrere, A. W. Brunner, and 

F. L. Olm- 




DETAII, OF EMPIRE BUILDING ENRICHED IN FIVE COLORS 



Chicago, on 




I 

II II" 

II ill! 
illlll 

iiillli 



sted, she is 
fast develop- 
ing into one 
of our ideal 
municipali- 
ties. St. Paul 
and Minne- 
apolis both 
needed an 
architect like 
Cass Gilbert 
to open their 
eyes to thtf 
wonderful 
possibilities 
for making 
these cities 
both monu- 
mental and 
artistic; Se- 
attle estab- 
lished her 
M u n i c ipal 
Plans League, which selected C. H. 
Bebb to formulate ideas for future ag- 
grandizement ; Milwaukee has also been 
contemplating the adoption of a beauti- 
ful conception prepared by A. C. Clas; 
while Detroit, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Portland, are 
seeking to formulate feasible plans which will eventually 
give to them 

the most valu- I^ ~ TT^ili* » 

able results ^^^BC^ "" ■ii*''^v?. »*• ~ 

artistically as 
well as commer- 
cially. 

It is very evi- 
dent, as exem- detail made bv the south ambov 



DETAIL B\ MARK FITZ 
PATRICK, ARCHITECT. 

The Nortliwestern Terra 

Cotta Company, 

Makers. 




as 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 




plified at our nation's Capi- 
tol, that the plans for a 
city's reconstruction can 
progress only in proportion 
to the intelligence of the 
general public. We must 
educate the people in archi- 
tecture and raise their taste 
to the level of our ideals. 
Realizing this fact, a 
number of leading citizens 
in Boston have come for- 
ward with the announce- 
ment, "1915" Boston Ex- 
position. These " Direct- 
ors of Boston " plan to 
show the people not only the present needs of their city, 
but also the future contingencies that 
may arise, and the proper way of meet- 
ing them. They will hold an exposi- 
tion from November 1 to November 27, 
1909, in the Old Art Museum, Copley 
Square. Here will be exhibited the 
local work of years that has made 
Boston 
what she 
is to-day, 
also the 
manyideas 
ex i sting 
for the 
present as 
well as 
those con- 
templated 
for the fu- 
ture ; the 
civic im- 
prove- 



•» 33 S '' « 

Id 3n ■ ^3 33 

II ; ? ^^ ^^ 

■■ " « 33 U 
■iBilllll!! 
11 II II Bl la 
II mi II Mm 




DETAIL MADE BY BRICK, 

TERRA COTTA AND 

TILE COMPANY. 



EMPIRE BUILDINi;, BIRMINGHAM, 

ALA. 

Entire building up to the band at tlie 

twelfth floor is of mottled cream 

colored terra cotta. E.xecuted 

b)- the Atlantic Terra Cotta 

Company. 

Carpenter, Blair & Gould, Arcliitects. 







ments that 
are being 
carried out 
in other 
American 
municipal- 
ities such as we have mentioned in the 
previous paragraph ; and the concep- 
tions of planning as undertaken by the 
European countries in connection with 
their inland cities as well as the coast 
towns that excel in their splendid 
harbors. 

We cannot commend this movement 
too strongly, for the time is here when the problem of 
our rapid expansion must be met. Every city should 

have societies 
formed for the 
purpose of 
studying its 
future growth, 
and making 
comprehensive 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. schcmes for the 




196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



needs of successive 
generations. Fortu- 
nate indeed will be 
the city that takes 
advantage of this 
civic improvement 
germ at the present 
time, for our coun- 
try seems to be on 
the verge of a pros- 
perity in archi- 
tectural building 
that will surpass anything the world has ever known. 




DETAILS EXECUTED BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONl. TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 



the marvelous re- 
sults that have been 
accomplished by 
men of clever train- 
ing and natural abil- 
ity. We bespeak for 
this first meeting of 
western architects 
great success, and 
would refer all in- 
terested to M. A. 
Vinson, business 



manager, 803 Market street, San Francisco, Cal. 



T 



HE Architectural League of the Pacific coast has 
cleverly planned to hold its first annual convention 



The Cleveland Architectural Club will open their 





UMTEl) STATES POSTOKKICK, MARIO.N, INl). 

Built of light gray brick, made by the Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta 

Company. 

James Kno.x Taylor, Architect. 

in San Francisco, October 18th-20th, when that city will 
be adorned during the great Portola Festival, as never 
before, to commemorate the discovery of San Francisco 
Bay. Already fifty mem- 
bers have signified their in- 
tention of being present, 
while many of the eastern 
architects are expected to 
enjoy this special occasion 
while on their way from 
the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific- 
Exposition. During the 
convention the San Fran- 
cisco Architectural Club 
will have charge of the 
League's first exhibition. 
This representative work of 
the Pacific coast architec- 
ture will undoubtedly show 




GARAC.ES FOR THE DEMAREST AND PEER- 
LESS COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 
Exterior of white matt glazed terra cotta, made by the 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 
F. H. Kimball, Architect. 

architectural exhibition in that city October 18th. A 
successful effort is being made to fill the Hippodrome 
Building with representative work throughout the States, 

especially those comprising 
the middle west. One of 
the many features worthy 
of note will be the strong 
exhibit of the leading mu- 
ral painters. 



DETAIL FOR SCHOOLHOUSE BY J. WALTER STEVENS, 

ARCHITECT. 

The Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



REPORTS from some 
forty states, as com- 
piled by the American Con- 
tractor, New York City, 
show gains varying from 
one to three hundred and 
fifty per cent. Hartford, 
Philadelphia, and Salt Lake 
City each furnish an in- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



197 




crease of over 
two hundred 
per cent. 
The total in- 
vestment of 
$56,077,096 
as compared 
to 140,585,- 
996 for Au- 
gust, 1908, 
cannot fail 
to impress 

one with the wonderful prosperity that is gradually 
spreading through the country, and which indicates a 
commercial activity in the near future greater than we 
have ever experi- 
enced. 



DETAIL FOR MURAT TEMPLE, INDIANAPOLIS, INU. 
The Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 
A. Bolilen & Son, Architects. 



D. 




IN GENERAL. 

Fiske & Com- 
pany, Inc., supplied 
the Tapestry brick 
for the stores and 
flats at Cedarhurst, 
L. I., which is illus- 
trated on plate 
number 124. 

The terra cotta 
used in the Railway 
Station at Water- 
hiny, illustrated in 
this issue, was supplied by the South Amboy Terra 
Cotta Company. 

The exterior brick used for the Memorial Church of 
St. Paul at Philadelphia was supplied by Sayre & Fisher 
Company. For illustration see plate number 126. 

The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company furnished the 
terra cotta used by Messrs. MacLaren & Thomas in the 
Claremont House, 
illustrated in this 
month's number of 
The Brickbuilder. 

B. Morgan Nisbet 
and Frank H. Para- 
dice, Jr., have 
formed a copartner- 
ship for the practice 
of architecture 
under the firm name 
of Nisbet & Para- 
dice. Their offices 
are at 201 Overland 
Building, Boise, 
Idaho — at which 
address they solicit 
manufacturers' 
catalogues and sam- 
ples. 

New York capi- 
talists are said to be 



RESIDENCE AT SQUIRREL HILL, PITTSBURCJ. 

Built of red roman brick, made by the Bradford Pressed Brick Company. 



back of a plan 
to rebuild the 
St. Nicholas 
Hotel in Cin- 
cinnati. 

George C. 
Sellon and 
E. C. Hem- 
mings, form- 
erly known 
as Sellon & 
Hemmings, architects, dissolved partnership August 1st. 
These men will continue business in Sacramento, and 
Mr. vSellon's address will be 5th Floor, 1005 K street, 

while Mr. Hem- 
mings' address will 
be Suite 37, 1005 
K street. 

The tile used for 
the Railway Station 
at Waterbury and 
the stores and flats 
at Cedarhurst, L.I., 
were furnished by 
the Ludowici-Cela- 
don Company. 
Both buildings are 
illustrated in this 
issue of The Brick- 
builder. 




-m^: 



residence at COLUMliUS, OHIU. 

The green glazed shingle tile were made by the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Frank L. Packard, Architect. 



Brazil and Japan are considering the purchase of 
premises for their ambassadors. Brazil, it is said, al- 
ready has under consideration several lots in the neigh- 
borhood of Du Pont Circle, and it is believed the 
purchase of one of these will be announced this winter. 

Pennsylvania and Ohio are the two foremost states of 
the Union with respect to cooperative building and loan 
associations. In the former state there are 389,500 

members, with 
assets of $158,- 
510,000; in the 
latter 380,000 mem- 
bers, with assets of 
$139,341,000. In 
New Jersey there 
are 156,300 mem- 
bers whose assets 
total $73,518,000. 

The New York 
Polyclinic Hospital 
has just acquired 
property in West 
50th street on which 
it will erect a 
$1,000,000 building. 

M. Bernier, the 
French architect, is 
to come to this coun- 
try with a corps of 
assistants the latter 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SPECIFICATION 

Pa- 



detail EXECUTED BY THE AMERICAN TERRA 
COTTA AM) CERAMIC COMPANV. 

part of this month to prepare for the construction of the 
French Embassy at Washington. Five hundred thousand 
francs have been appropriated for the new building, which 

is to be a three story house, 
with the chancellery sepa- 
rate from the residence of 
the ambassador. 

New York City is to 
make an exhaustive official 
test of the relative value 
of various fireproofing ma- 
terials to determine those 
which are to be authorized 
in future changes of the 
building code. Miniature 
buildings are to be con- 
structed and then sub- 
jected to the conditions 
made as nearly as possible 
the same as those prevail- 
ing in a great conflagra- 
tion. 

It is rumored that D. O. 
Mills will build another 
of the Mills Hotels in 
New York City. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BV THE 

NEW JERSEY TERRA 

COTTA COMPANY. 



NEW BOOKS. 



House Painting. A 
study of paints and var- 
nishes for the protection and ornament of houses. 
Written by A. H. Sabin, M.S., from an experience of 
many years in the manufacture and use of paints. 121 
pp. New York, John Wiley & Sons. 

The commission appointed by Act of Assembly of the State 
of Delaware, invites all qualified architects to enter a competi- 
tion for the selection of an Architect for alterations and additions 
to the State House at Dover. 

Program can be had on application by mail to the architec- 
tural advisor to the Commission, M. B. Medary, Jr., 1414 South 
Penn Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED — A December, 1899, issue of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER for binding. Text only will be sufficient — Plates 
not required. Will pay a suitable price. Address, C. H. Cullen, 
1493 Broadway, New York City. 



BLANKS 

T. ROBERT WIICC.KR, Architect 
(Koimerly with F. E. KIDDER) 

For all classes of buildings, each trade separate. Com- 
plete set, 44 pages, 25 cents. Reduction on quantities. 
SaiTiple page upon request. 

628 14th STRKRT .... DENVER, COj:.0. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOO D EN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic. Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; sh(juld be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States ("lovernment and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, k. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United States 
Navy ; the e.xtensions of the SutTolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect ; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE SCIIUUL OF ARCHITECTL'RE offers full professional 
training^ in a koi^k vk.vr course leading to the degree of B. S. 
in Architecture. An option is allowed in .^rchitectur.'KL 
ENGiNUKRiNG. The GRADU.-VTE YE.AR grants a Master's degree, 
allowing specialization in advanced work. Adv.axced 
ST.\NDiNG is granted to college graduates. Oualified ur.xkts- 
MEN, desiring advanced technical training, are admitted with- 
out examination to the two year special course leading to a 
Certificate of Proficiency, and technical studies only may be 
taken by other persons of approved fitness. Illustrated 
ANNU.\L sent on application. For full information address 
Dr. J. H. Penniinan, Dean, College Department, 

Utiiversity of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

"STUDIO YEAR BOOK 1909" 

Contains many illustrations showing the recent 
development in the decorative and the applied arts. 
Especially of interest to the interior decoration of 
the house. Shov/ing suggestions for 

INTERIORS RUGS STAINED GLASS 

MANTELS FIXTURES FABRICS, ETC. 

Size, II ^ X S/{, bound in green Buckram. Sent 
prepaid on receipt of $3.25. 

COMPLETE YOUR SET THEY ARE BECOMING SCARCE 

"Year Book 1906 •■ $5.00 

"Year Book 1907" 6.50 

"Year Book 1908 ■ 5.00 

All uniform in size 

Importer. Dealer W i \/IKICnKI 20S Cdtoi BaiMiii 

Booki oa Arcbitecture ITl. A. V lllOUn Cleyelud, Ohio 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII OCTOBER 1909 Number IO 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1900, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States. Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $S.OO per year 

Single numbers .................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union , . . . . . . , . , , , , , . $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada, Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classiBed and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Briclc Ill 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Briclc Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

COPE & STEWARDSON; CRAM, GOODHUE & FERCrUSON; CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON 

AND GEORGE H. WILLIAMSON ASSOCIATED; ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS; WILLIAM 

WARREN SABIN; PRIZE DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN THE COMPETITION FOR A 

BRICK HOUSE. ^ 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

CHURCH OF ST. URBANO, ROME Frontispiece 

THE GIRARD ESTATE'S OPERATION OF EIGHT HUNDRED DWELLINGS IN PHILADELPHIA, JAMES 

H. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT 199 

WARMING AND VENTILATING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOSPITAL BUILDINGS — VI. 

D. D. Kimball 202 

TERRA COTTA: ITS CHARACTER AND CONSTRUCTION — I Charles V. Thrall 204 

COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE — REP< )RT OF THE JURY OF AWARD 208 

COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE— MENTION DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN THE COMPETITION 209 

HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C, MARSH & PETER, ARCHITECTS 212 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS — VII 213 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 215 

PROGRAM FOR ANNUAL TERRA COTTA C(JMPETITION 220 




\rfU<Ui<<<{<iiiiiiii<<<<<<<i<<<<<<<<<<<<i<<<<<<<.>^>^^'>\'>'>\\yy\->->->'>'>\w\^^^^^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





VOL. 18 NO, 10 



DEVOTEDTO •THE-INTERE5TT-0r-ARCHITECTYR&-lN MATERIAiy-Or-CLAY- 



OCTOBER 1909^ 



rlW<<«««<(<<<«««<<«<«/«^«<«<«<<<«<<«»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»>>>»»»>]>) 



S 



IS 




The Girard Estate's Operation of Eight Hundred Dwell- 
ings in Philadelphia — James H. Windrim, Architect. 



BY THE will of Stephen Girard, large tracts of land 
within and without the city of Philadelphia came 
under the care of the Board of Directors of City Trusts. 
This body, organized in 1869, is composed of twelve citi- 
zens of standing and integrity, the mayor and presidents 
of Select and Common Councils exofficio. The steady 
income from the property of the famous " mariner and 
merchant " it is the task of these men to invest in the 
safest and surest channels. As the lands increase in 
value with the extension of population it is their care to 
so improve them as to reap the surest, if not the largest, 
profit. 

Some of this land is situated in the southern part of 
Philadelphia, removed by three miles from the center of 
the city, and where much of the ground has been pro- 
duced by filling in, where all is flat and where landlords 
can expect to obtain rentals of very moderate figures 
only. It was determined to improve this land by the 
erection of eight hundred small dwellings. At the 
present writing two hundred have been completed. 



Now the Girard Estate cannot sell its property. And 
when it improves it, it must do so, not with a view 
merely to the morrow, but to long periods of time. It 
realizes that substantial construction pays in the long 
run. The result of this view is a revelation in operative 
building presented by the two hundred houses at 18th 
and Porter Streets. They have been built with a view 
of minimizing maintenance cost. 

There are eight different types of houses. Two houses 
of each type are located beside two houses of another, 
and thus all the types appear in sequence and affording 
a relief from the monotony of thousands of street vistas 
in Philadelphia where houses have been built by the 
block. Midway between 17th and 18th streets, and 
parallel thereto, a new street has been opened and dedi- 
cated ; and nowhere better than here can the different 
styles of houses be seen, for the new planting here does 
not interrupt the view. 

The houses range in cost from $2,200 to $3,200 each, 
including all fixtures, painting, and tree-planting. All 




GIRARD KSIAIK FiOISKS. A (JONTRAS'l'. 
The three-Story house in solid row, common to Philadelphia, and the two-story house, semi-detachetl, unusual in built-up portions of the 

city. All are in the (lirard Estate Operations. 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



_ ^1 


A 


{A 


jB^^g 




^ ^^^^^n 


■pis'""" 


■ 1 -^^^^^^y^iS^-ISBi^^ 






-^- 


~- — --,.. 


"'-' 


' 


■*^ 



A VIEW DOWN THE NEW STREET. 




ITIE \AKIOLS r\ PES OF HOUSES; TWO-STORY AND SEMI-DETACHED. 

GIRARD ESTATE HOUSES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



20I 




figure in advance upon many other building enterprises, 
with the cost of evaporating a quart of water. 



SCHEDULE OF RENTALS. 



rnnnn 





Class A 


Class B 


Class C 


Class D 


Class E 


Class F 


Class G 


Class H 


January . 
February 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July. . . . 
Augu.st . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 




$45.50 
43.50 
41.00 
38.00 
34.00 
34,00 
34.00 
34.00 
35.00 
38.00 
41.50 
43.50 


$44.50 
42.50 
40.00 
37.00 
33.00 
33.00 
33.00 
33.00 
34.00 
37.00 
40.50 
42.50 


$43.50 
41.50 
39.00 
36.00 
32.00 
32.00 
32.00 
32.00 
33.00 
36,00 
39.50 
4L50 


$42.50 
40 50 
38.00 
35.00 
31.00 
31.00 
31.00 
31.00 
,^2 00 
35.00 
38.50 
40.50 


$41.50 
39.50 
37.00 
34.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
,30.00 
31 .00 
34.00 
37.50 
39.50 


$39.50 
37.50 
35.50 
32.50 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 
29.50 
32.50 
35.50 
37.50 


$37.50 
35.50 
33.50 
30.50 
27.00 
27.00 
27.00 
27.00 
27.50 
30.50 
33,50 
35.50 


$35.50 
33.51 
31.50 
29.50 
27.00 
27.00 
27.00 
27.00 
27.50 
29.50 
31.50 
33.50 


Total .... 


$462.00 


$450.00 


$438.00 


$426.00 


$414.00 


$396.00 


$372.00 


$360.00 


Average per 
month . . 


$38.50 


$37.50 $36.50 


$35.50 


$34.50 


$33.00 


$3L00 


$30.00 



tlOMTCt/lTH 



GIRARU ESTAIK HOUSES. PLOT I'l.AN. 

walls and cornices, where the houses occur in solid rows, 
as on 17th street, are of inflammable material. Tapes- 
try and Roman bricks, rubble stone, and rough-cast are 
the chief materials. 

Probably the most important feature of the enterprise 
is the power plant, situated a half mile distant, and sup- 
plying the houses with heat, electricity, and hot water, 
the cost of this being included in the rent. The heating 
method is hot water, the circulation of which is acceler- 
ated by means of a pump. The only ranges the houses 
contain are gas ranges, 
and each tenant pays 
the local company in- 
dependently for the 
gas he needs. This is 
the only expenditure 
he has to consider in 
addition to the rent, 
unless it be the possi- 
bility of exceeding the 
amount of electricity 
allotted to his use for 
the current, and this 
commodity only, is 
metered. The rentals 
are based on the cost 
of construction and on 
the contribution which 
the power plant must 
make to the comfort of 
each tenant. The skil- 
ful engineers of the 
estate begin the latter 
computation, as they 



Although the 
houses have 
scarcely been 
finished, many 
are already ren- 
ted ; and a view 
of the neigh- 
borhood affords 
great satisfac- 
tion to those 
who see in wise 
planning and 
building the 
foundation of 
wholesome and 
happy living, 
as well as a 
chance to beau- 
tify the resi- 
dential sections 
of the city. 





DCS/G/V K r/Zi^T AND JECOND fLOO/Z fLAJ\/,- 




0£.S/CJV //■ r/R,3T AND S£CC/va FLOOR. fLi^f^S 

(IIRARI) ESTATE HOUSES. IVI'IC 



DLSICN 7' FlKSr AJVD StCOND rLOOR PLANS 

Al. IM.ANS. 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Warming and Ventilating with Special Reference to 

Hospital Buildings — VI. 



BY D. D. KIMBALL. 



THAT the air contains solid matter may be plainly 
observed by noticing a shaft of sunlight in a par- 
tially darkened room. Much of it is practically harmless 
to the average person, being dust from the floor or fur- 
niture or dust brought in from the outside. With some 
of it will be found bacteria, in part harmless, even ben- 
eficial, but still other bacteria may exist in this dust 
which are of a harmful nature. 

This may be accomplished by filtering the air, which 
may be done by either the "dry" or "wet" method. 
In the dry system the filtering cloth used must be care- 
fully selected and the velocity of the air must never 
exceed 20 feet per minute through the cloth, a less 
velocity being preferable. The filtering cloth may be 
arranged on flat frames or in the form of bags, these 
usually being 8 inches to 12 inches in diameter, and of 
the necessary length up to approximately ten times the 
diameter to secure the necessary area of cloth. These 
bags are suspended from metal thimbles attached to a 
sheet metal diaphragm, the method of connecting being 
such as to make the bags easily removable. There should 
not be less than 3 inches between the surface of the bags. 
The air passes through the bags from the top. 

In the wet method the air is passed through a spray 
chamber, alwa3'S first being warmed to above the freez- 
ing point in cold weather, the spray chamber containing 
a series of nozzles designed to thoroughly fill the chamber 
with a fine water spray so that the air is thoroughly 
saturated and the dust is washed out. The air is then 
passed through a series of metal baffle plates at a velocity 
of about SOO feet per minute. In this eliminator practi- 
cally all of the suspended moisture is removed from the 
air, the water draining to the settling chamber at the 
bottom of the air washer, from which it is recirculated 
through the washer by means of a small rotary pump. 

The efi:ect on the air passing through the spray chamber 
is to increase its moisture or humidity to such an extent 
that the air becomes practically saturated. In cold 
weather the reheating of the air which necessarily follows 
this passage through the washer, reduces the relative 
humidity of the air. During such weather it is possible 
to largely control the relative humidity of the air by con- 
trolling the temperature of the air or water or both in the 
spray chamber, but in warm weather the use of the air 
washer may become objectionable because of the increased 
relative humidity of the air caused thereby. On warm 
days the air washer may be used to cool the air slightly 
if an increased relative humidity is not objectionable. 

Both methods of air filtration are largely confined to 
use in connection with a fan system of ventilation, al- 
though the cloth system may be used in a gravity venti- 
lating system if the air velocity through the cloth is 
limited to 4 feet per minute. 

Air cooling is sometimes essential in a hospital build- 
ing. It is but little practised because of the cost of 
installation of suitable apparatus and the cost of opera- 
ting the system. 



A limited amount of air cooling may be done by forc- 
ing the air over ice in the form of cakes supported on 
properly spaced racks. The air will melt the ice and will 
also warm the resulting water. Each pound of ice in 
melting absorbs 142 heat units and if the water is 
warmed to 62° 30 heat units additional are absorbed, thus 
giving 172 heat units per pound of ice. Thus if 30,000 
cubic feet of air per hour at 90° temperature is to be 
cooled to 80° temperature, the amount of ice required 
may be approximately found by multiplying the 30,000 
cubic feet by 10°, then dividing by 55, and again dividing 
by 172 heat units, as above, and the result will be ap- 
proximately 32 pounds of ice. The figure 55 is not 
exactly correct, but is here used to avoid confusion, as 
its significance has been previously explained. A liberal 
amount should be added for gains in the temperature of 
the air in transmitting it through flues, etc. 

In undertaking to cool a room or a building the heat gains 
become a serious factor. The amount of such heat gains 
is determined in the same manner as the heat losses in 
designing a heating system. If a building to be built is 
to be cooled during warm weather it should be constructed 
with this in mind, with an aim especially to the reduction 
of heat transmission through the walls, and also the 
reduction of the air leakage about the windows, doors, 
etc. , the latter especially having a serious eff^ect on the suc- 
cess of the air cooling installation. 

For a large problem only a mechanical refrigerating 
system is to be con.sidered. In this system the brine at 
about 10° Fah. is circulated through the coils, over which 
the air is forced or drawn by a fan. The cooling of the air 
increases its relative humidity just as warming the air 
decreases it, with the result that it becomes uncomfort- 
able unless some of the moisture is removed, to do which 
it is necessary to further cool the air and condense the 
moisture therein. The air is then reheated by means of 
a heating coil or by other absorption of heat until the 
desired temperature and the desired relative humidity 
result. 

The cooling of a room or building requires sufficient 
refrigerating capacity to: 

1. Overcome heat gains through walls, windows, roofs, 
floors, etc. 

2. Overcome heat gains from occupants, lights, etc. 

3. Cool the air to the necessary point. 

4. Cool the vapor in the air to a point at which the air 
becomes saturated. 

5. Condense the moisture to the form of water. 

6. Cool the remaining vapor in the air to the necessary 
temperature. 

The conditions surrounding each problem are such as 
to make it difficult to give any general rule as to the 
capacity required and each case must be the subject of 
careful determination. 

The importance of the proper relative humidity of the 
air within our buildings is now receiving much more 
consideration than heretofore, both by physicians and 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



203 



heating engineers. The natural relative humidity of 
outdoor air usually varies from sixty per cent to seventy 
per cent, although on rare occasions it may be found as 
low as fifty per cent, and on other occasions it may ap- 
proach one hundred per cent, the point of saturation. In 
the most arid regions only is as low as thirty per cent to 
forty per cent found, while Denver, with its "dry" cli- 
mate, averages about forty-eight per cent. Yet in fur- 
nace heated houses as low as twenty-five per cent, and 
in rare cases as low as sixteen per cent has been found, 
this being due to the heating of the air within the house. 
It is easy to understand that passing from an indoor 
atmosphere of twenty-five per cent relative humidity to 
an outdoor condition of sixty per cent to seventy per 
cent is very trying to the delicate mucous membrane of 
the upper air passages Generally speaking dry air is 
an excitant, sometimes causing sleeplessness and irrita- 
bility, while moist air seems balmy and has a soothing 
effect which tends to produce restfulness and sleep. 

Also a reasonable amount of moisture in the air is 
essential to the preservation of furniture, books, pic- 
tures, etc. 

Medical authorities assert that an atmosphere which is 
too dry will cause parched lips and tongue, a dry, fever- 
ish condition of the skin and, particularly in those children 
inclined to lung diseases, a serious irritating cough. 
Dr. W. M. Wilson of the Weather Bureau makes the 
following statement: " The evaporative power in the air 
at a relative humidity of thirty per cent is very great, 
and when the tissues and delicate membranes of the res- 
piratory tract are subjected to this drying process a 
corresponding increase of work is placed upon the mu- 
cous glands in order to keep the membrane in proper 
physiological condition, so that nature in her eiTort to 
compensate for the lack of moisture in the air is obliged 
to increase the functional activity of the glands which 
result in an enlargement of the gland tissues." He 
especially points out that catarrhal troubles are relieved, 
and frequently cured, by providing sufficient moisture 
in the air. 

It is interesting to note the intimate connection of 
temperature and relative humidity. The dry air absorbs 
moisture from the body so rapidly as to make one seem 
cold, even though the temperature as indicated by the 
thermometer seems quite sufficient. It has been found 
that a temperature of 65° with a relative humidity of 
fifty per cent to sixty per cent is quite as comfortable as 
a temperature of 70° with thirty percent to forty percent 
relative humidity; and the former, besides being more 
healthful, would result in an economy in the operation 
of the heating plant. It may soon be that no system 
of heating will be considered entirely satisfactory if in- 
door relative humidity is disregarded, not alone as a 
matter of health, but as a matter of comfort, the moist 
air producing a quieting and comfortable sensation, a 
sense of relaxation and poise contrasting strongly with 
the feeling of nervous tension which is so frequently 
experienced in a heated dry room. 

A full discussion of this subject is beyond the possi- 
bility of this paper, but it will be well to explain the 
distinction between absolute humidity and relative hu- 
midity, absolute humidity being the weight of moisture in 
grains per cubic foot at a given air temperature, and 



relative humidity indicating the ratio of the weight of 
moisture in a given space to the weight which the same 
space will hold when fully saturated at the same tempera- 
ture, expressed in percentage. The dew point is the 
temperature at which saturation is obtained for a given 
weight of water vapor or moisture. 

The relative humidity of the air may be obtained by 
the use of the hydrodeik, which consists of a wet and 
dry bulb thermometer mounted on a frame with chart 
from which direct readings of the humidity may be ob- 
tained without further calculations. The vSling Psy- 
chrometer, as used by the Weather Bureau, is probably 
the most accurate instrument in general use. 

If the air enters a room at 70° temperature and thirty 
per cent relative humidity, it will contain 2.39 grains of 
moisture per cubic foot, and if a relative humidity of sixty 
per cent is desired, 2.39 grains of moisture must be 
added to each cubic foot of air. There are several ways 
of introducing this additional moisture. In a small sys- 
tem it may be done by the use of evaporating pans or by 
injecting steam into the air, but such methods are sub- 
ject to the objections that the evaporation from the water 
pans may be insufficient and the use of the steam may 
produce odors. 

The relative humidity in a building provided with 
apparatus for the artificial introduction of moisture into 
the air may be regulated within reasonable limits. Where 
moisture is introduced by means of evaporating pans or 
by the injection of steam, the Humidostat may be used to 
control the relative humidity. In large installations the 
humidity may be controlled by making use of the air 
washer above referred to, the water or air being heated 
so that the capacity of the air for moisture is increased, 
the point to which it is heated being such that its absolute 
humidity at saturation will result in the desired relative 
humidity when the air is warmed to the temperature of 
the room to which the air is to be introduced. 

The use of these air washers also makes possible a dehu- 
midifying of the air under certain conditions which may 
be quite as important as humidifying at times when there 
is excess of moisture in the air. If the air is brought 
into contact with cold surfaces or cold water in sufficient 
quantities the temperature of the air will be reduced by 
the transmission of heat from the air to the water. If 
dehumidification is to be carried far it may involve the 
installation of a refrigerating plant to provide the cool 
water neces.sary, or a refrigerating plant may be used for 
this purpose as described for the cooling of air. 

There are many details which, in a small system, may 
be, and usually are, neglected, but which in a large plant 
become vitally essential. It is not to be expected that, 
in an article of this character all of these matters can be 
taken up, or that they can, without extended study and 
experience, be fully mastered. The explanations, for- 
mulas, and data given will make possible the design of a 
small plant by one reasonably familiar with warming 
and ventilating work, while the design of a large or 
especially important work will always remain within the 
province of the experienced warming and ventilating 
engineer working in conjunction with the architect; nor 
is extended argument necessary to prove that such an 
engineer should be entirely independent of any contract- 
ing or manufacturing interests. 



J04 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Terra Cotta: Its Character and Construction — I, 



H\ CHARLES U. IHRALL 



ARCHITECTURAL terra cotta, although one of the 
most important of building materials, and in these 
days of fireproof skyscraper construction, becoming more 
and more important as each year passes, is probably one 
of the least understood by most architects. Of course, 
it is known to be made of clay; is burnt in kilns; may be 
glazed and of almost any color ; is hollow, therefore very 
light, weighing approximately 70 pounds to the cubic foot 
and will bear a crushing strain of 3,000 pounds per square 
inch: but such items as the direction and location of the 
interior partition walls and uses to which they may be 



treatment consistent therewith, to obtain results that are 
either artistic or practical. 

Third. There has been a growing tendency among 
architects to leave the making of the terra cotta details 
showing the construction and jointing entirely to the 
manufacturer, the architect finally examining and ap- 
proving these drawings before the manufacturer proceeds 
to make the work. Very often this examination is very 
superficial, or is made without regard to manufacturing 
difficulties, the architect making changes and insisting 
upon impracticabilities which the manufacturer feels that 




nR;)T6TOIC< PitR, designed for sTone Consfrucl'lO'),— 
As these seuere lines den»nd «Act Alt^nnjent !bis 
Cotsfrucflon a uos&Ujfa.cfoT» for Tt«<i* CoTTA 
because m.r, ».■•« noV.rt.iTsa JoiOts iJblcH 
fri^ be-tri-mrneti to a.ffor<i a^diiisTo^tfTt wher< 
uneven jh"nk*gt occurs..— 



. - DEiiqn -B - 

.S^me pier &lleired to l>er'na of pr4.cUc&.\ rrjet^jod of 
jo,oW..Tl,tsc .astii»(.oi» kteJ-KlHe xoei. Unes 
40 Ibw »r)y ine*«.£to«3.s wb»c)j f*>ftj Occur will rot be 
^ppArciif^'lV rn*,si«« »ppu,r».ncc of ibe R«r is tnc'e&.= 
.J«a tjftbti J.HerAtwo.TSi* could ool be afplted -to a. cor- 
n.-p,.r ». II,. «furo .;^o^ld . be W5..i>.t~ Ttiewe 
p.«c<s co>j,\A be mode not mo>« th&o I 6' return— 



- DE.51&N- "C- 
:>cme p.erisJte.ed to ptr"i»t of jmilU. pieces - 
\\, uc.1.c»\ Jo,nts mo.j be -trim^ied to .ftord »<1- 
JusTojent wne'c tbe sb'vnlfc^e h»s been cmcwe^ 
Aoci tbercfofe Corner p.era nj^j be jcnte*! i,n tbis 
n50.nner— TVjiS dc-SCgn CS uery S^ttsf».cTorjf utVjen 
en b»-rmony cuvtl, tb. J.n.r»I design eif iVi 



-DEiSK 



D- 



i»^e p„, 
un&lte.ed 
the S.uere 
ujMc tbe 
low trlmrr 
&dl,eTenc« 



' lointtd tr) 5ucV) ^ fri 
tV profile of tbc p.. 
tinea ajid nrixssiue 
Joints e.re so ^.ra.' 
iUig to a.ffofd p'Oper 
■ to exs.etmeoju.e 



r-TV.isp,e3 
*.ppe».r9.nc 
■ged «J to 
»a.ast".er 



PI.ATF. II. 



put ; the methods of support ; the best location for joints ; 
the necessary bonds; the sizes and shapes practical; etc., 
are all more or less hazy in the mind of the average archi- 
tect. This may be accounted for : 

First. By the fact that it is a ceramic material which, 
because of its complex nature, demands in its manu- 
facture a large amount of scientific attention, thus 
requiring of the architect more general knowledge of 
the technique of its manufacture than he usually takes 
time to acquire. 

Second. Its appearance is so much like that of stone 
that architects will treat it as such without any thought 
that terracotta has a distinct character, which demands a 



he must attempt against his best judgment as he cannot 
afford to lose the time necessary to go back to the 
architect and explain the advantage of his method of 
jointing or detailing. This, of course, does not tend to 
educate the architect so that he may understand terra 
cotta as he should to use it to the very best advantage. 

Fourth. Although the manufacture of architectural 
terra cotta is centuries old, having been in practice six 
hundred years before the birth of Christ, it was left to 
the progressiveness of the American Age to develop 
that method of construction that makes terra cotta a 
necessity; therefore, there is very little literature which 
may serve as a guide for those inexperienced in its use. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



205 



C OA5TRytTiaN^ ^ C OLVMN5 - 

A,— 5b*-^D"*tt-upof-clparr)i-Di^»Y)etcrnot to-exceecl-l-fl' — > 

B.— Desipi9-dtsper5si.od uiCt[) Verta-nd coocea-Unibed-Joi.nfs- Dia--r)ot-to excetd ■ 3"0.-" 

C.-Anjefpocl ofdeji^oio^ Col.-ibaft6ooerl'&'D<.a-: ujilbreedi- Ln6tea.do"i flal.es ihub-rDa^\.r) = 
'tra.u7io^'"tbe-n5a.is<.ue-a^>peaj-Ancc-oTa, pla~.\.r)-Columc>ai.oci C09Cc^Kng-ir>e'VeTt>.ca.\ 
lOllots- totnc-lvotfioT-'tl^e • reeaA-r)^ — » 

D.*-Pro^cticaJ ■ rrjetpod olioxottn^llulcd-CoV sba^J^ti oucp'1-8 ■ Dv^-^ 

E..— Tu)odesi^os-of nJ<xatT^£d■^lU^l,^§1or-Cl^>.sslc^>A■Colurnr)■ 
Jbe^ft>■c•oocea.Ul^• Veft-Jointa .*— 



? 








NB- <Stbir ■ td««A of Jouitio^ ■ 




1 


D 


1 




2o6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Owing to the fact that a block will shrink approxi- 
mately one inch to every foot while in the process of 
manufacture, and that the degree of this shrinkage is 
governed by so many influences, such as the size and 
shape of the block to be made, the stiffness of the clay 
when pressed in the mold, the dryness or absorbing 
power of the mold into which the clay is pressed, the 
exactness with which the clay ingredients have been 
mixed, the varying influences of atmospheric conditions 
while the block is drying, the extreme heat to which it 
is burned, which necessarily varies to some extent in the 
different portions of the kiln, due to a thousand and one 
causes, all make it a practical impossibility, even with the 
utmost care and skill to control this shrinkage to minute 
exactness. Therefore, a piece, say three feet (3') long 
should shrink three inches (3"), but perhaps owing to 
the way it has to be laid in the kiln, or for some other 
cause, it might shrink ^ or J^ of an inch too much or 
too little. Ordinarily the direction of the shrinkage in 
a block of terra cotta converges to a common center, 
but there are many pieces whose size and shape are such 
that the shrinkage strains pull against or away from each 
other, and consequently there is always a tendency to 
warp to a greater or less extent. 

The leading manufacturers by careful methods and 
artificial means control this unequal shrinkage and warp- 
ing tendency to a large extent, but as a safeguard the 
jointing should be arranged in such a manner that cutting 
or fitting may be done without injury to the members of 
the moldings or ornament and thus afford sufficient 
adjustment to counteract the fault of the warping and 
irregular shrinkage and thereby obtain proper align- 
ment. 

Take for instance the construction of a column whose 
flutes must take up properly or its beauty be lost entirely. 
If the diameter is approximately 1 foot 4 inches to 1 foot 
8 inches or less, it is possible to obtain fairly good re- 
sults with a column made in drums, as at "A," Plate 1, 
especially if the height of the courses is not more than 
1 foot or 1 foot 4 inches. Such columns may be made 
with a hole in the center to admit a steel column, pro- 
viding the steel is arranged so as to slide the terra cotta 
pieces down from the top of the steel column. But the 
best way to design a terra cotta column is to have bands 
around it, as shown at " B." The projection of the bands 
break the line of the flutes so that there are no members 
to take up, consequently any mechanical inaccuracies are 
not apparent to the eye, and both the top and bottom 
beds of the fluted piece could be trimmed if necessary to 
maintain certain heights. For example, the large col- 
umns to the central feature of the New York Hippodrome 
were originally designed without bands, but to avoid bad 
alignment the bands were added with very satisfactory 
results. 

The large columns in the concourse of the Union 
Station at Washington were originally designed to be 
plain, but the diameter was so great that it was prac- 
tically impossible to obtain satisfactory alignment with- 
out cutting the drums with vertical joints, but these 
unsightly joints on a white glazed column were not 
acceptable to Mr. Burnham. To put flutes on these 
columns would spoil their design, as the sinkage of the 
flute would detract from the massive appearance desired. 



It was finally decided to make the columns with flutes 
and reeds, as shown at " C," on Plate 1, and thus avoid a 
deep sinkage into the body o^the shaft, such as a flute 
would make, and yet allow opportunity to place concealed 
vertical joints in the lines of the reeding which could be 
trimmed to afford adjustment. 

When a column is fluted, it is not very objectionable 
to place vertical joints in the center of certain flutes, as 
the additional lines made by the joints are not particu- 
larly apparent, being lost in the many lines made by the 
fillets between the flutes, so that large columns or those 
with a steel column in the center are often treated in this 
manner, as shown at " D," but in the case of white glazed 
material it is better to design a special fillet so as to 
conceal the joint, as shown at " E," Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. 
Other ideas might evolve from these suggestions. For 
instance, the architects of the Masonic Temple, Brooklyn, 
have arranged their large columns to be made in very 
small pieces about four or five inches high and one foot 
long, the vertical joint being small and in the center of each 
alternate flute, while the horizontal joint is an inch thick. 
As the flutes are colored "yellow " and the fillets "cream" 
the design is very interesting, and the mechanical execu- 
tion of the work is excellent. 

Careful adaptation of design to material applies to any 
architectural feature — for instance, the 3 foot 9 inch pier, 
shown on Plate 2, design "A," although very simple for 
stone construction, is impractical for terra cotta, unless 
properly jointed. As all terra cotta now manufactured 
has a surface more or less vitreous, even if not glazed, 
the face cannot be trimmed or cut away without oblitera- 
tion of the surface exposing the more porous and prob- 
ably different colored body. Therefore, these large 
pieces of terra cotta which will probably vary in size to 
some extent cannot be cut to fit each other as there are 
no vertical joints to afford adjustment. If it is desired 
that these pier pieces be made without vertical joints, 
the introduction of the rustications with the corners 
rounded, as shown by design " B," will so break up the 
vertical line of the corner of the pier that any inexact- 
ness in size that might occur will not be apparent to the 
eye, as there are no faces that must meet each other in 
the setting, the jamb being jointed into pieces separate 
from the pier pieces and having sufficient joints to trim 
for adjustment. Even though there were j4 inch or 
more difference in the size of the pieces, they could be 
sorted out and the smaller ones placed at the top of the 
pier, while the larger ones are below, and it would be 
impossible without the aid of a straight edge to detect 
the variation. But if a corner pier occurred, this method 
would be impracticable on account of the extent of the 
returns making it impossible to keep the pieces square, 
1 foot 6 inches being the extreme depth to which such 
pieces could be made. Therefore, design "C" would 
meet most requirements, as the corner piers could also 
be treated in this way, provided, of course, that it har- 
monized with the general design of the building. 

In this design there are joints that could be trimmed 
wherever necessary to afford adjustment so as to keep 
the proper measurements, while the narrow pieces have 
far less tendency to warp. 

If the suggestion of rustication cannot be used on 
account of the general design of the building and the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



207 



severe straight lines of the pier must be maintained, 
design "D" will be very satisfactory as it has all the 
advantages of design " C " except the rustications. The 
pieces after being burned should be placed on the rub- 
bing bed and the joints ground down until they are as 
straight and square as the best cut stone. 

If on each course there were a very faint design of 
ornament of a guilloche or similar pattern which would 
be hardly more perceptible than a design on stamped 
leather, it 
would so 
break up the 
surface as to 
make any in- 
accuracies in- 
discernible. 
If the pier 
were white 
glazed terra 
cotta, this 
low, faint de- 
sign of orna- 
men tat ion 
would be 
very attrac- 
tive. The 
reader may 
say, " Why 
use terra 
cotta at all, 
and have all 
this bother 
aboutdesigns 
and joints ?" 
The answer 
is that for 
columns and 
piers, as well 
as for other 
architectural 
features, 
terra cotta 
has advan- 
tages that 
cannot be 
overlooked. 

In regard 
to the col- 
umns there is 
the element 
of "cost." 
Fluted col- 
umns and 
Corinth i an 
Capitol s 
carved in 
stone are 



yVHlTE. f.Jl ola.^:ed Te.rra Cotta is unsurpa-sAca i^& the voall 

fa.Ctnrf for Light Courts- lt»biorU no dirl frorr, tW if-nos- 
pKers5u,»^K,od cU»n aft<.r ». ilo.T.-'nie cndi^Kir,^ u,V,iti Col. 
o- wiH 'AcO' {'he l'«U, idd^otf .v,»leri»lW fo \h^ a.rr.O""t 
obr»iO«l~l('tilW rnost affecUue miit.r1.iA Xo use foofc^ 

<9.\r, a- ujell \igV)t«ti interior ».nd m a,y be la-td Out i-o 
atrra^^r^ue deivgnA -\^u^ ^rescnl'to^ a^rj arcV>^tec+ura.l ■ 
apt>co.r&nce ^rriposstblefo otta^in uiMV, rflo^e^ V>*\.t\y- 
Thli pUtr. g^O.S a. CO.M,er,rvOn».\ {r.».rrr5er.r of iiWr - 
facvp^ wiTh 51.1U a^nd Cornvce .sWowio^ proper- 



PLATE III. 



feature, is more satisfactory than a similar feature carved 
in stone because in the case of terra cotta the modeling is 
made directly in the clay, so that every piece made may 
bear the tool marks or the direct impress of the artist's 
hand, while in the case of stone an otherwise beautiful 
ornamental feature is often spoiled by the heavy clumsy 
work of a stone carver who copies his work from a p]a.ster 
cast of the artist sculptor's model. Then there is the 
advantage of the fireproof terra cotta shell protecting the 

steel columns 
encased 
therein; the 
fireproof 
qualities of 
terra cotta 
being ac- 
knowledged 
by the best 
authorities as 
being supe- 
rior to those 
of any other 
material. 
Also the op- 
portunity for 
a design in 
beautiful and 
lasting col- 
ors, the great- 
est range of 
shades is 
obtainable. 
Its durability 
when prop- 
erly made is 
unquestion- 
able. The an- 
cients made 
tomb orna- 
ments of 
terra cotta 
probably 
with a knowl- 
edge of its 
durability. 
Not only will 
it stand all 
the disinte- 
grating influ- 
ences of time, 
but it will re- 
tain the color 
of its glazed 
surf aces prac- 
tically un- 
dimmed for 
ages. 







^r..T-SE:CT\(5'/i. 



often eight times as expensive as terra cotta, owing to the Plate ,3 shows a suggestion for the use of white glazed 

fact that the terra cotta is made from molds from which material for the light court of a skyscraper. Instead of 

many pieces may be reproduced at comparatively slight the matt surface which is preferable from an artistic 

expense; therefore, in duplication, there is economy when standpoint for exterior walls, the material should have a 

terra cotta is used. .Further, the modeling of a terra cotta full lustrous glaze when used for light courts, as it will 

Corinthian or Ionic Capitol, or in fact any ornamental reflect more light than if built of any other material. 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Competition for a Brick House. 



REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD. 



THE program of this competition is summed up in 
the words, " A charming brick house of moderate 
cost," and the jury was glad to find among the one 
hundred and forty-five designs submitted to them so 
many that literally comply with these terms. Selection 
is made somewhat easier by the care with which was 
considered the item of cost. The charm readily speaks 
for itself. It is notorious among architects that pub- 
lished desigas, especially in non-technical journals, can 
usually not be built for anywhere near the marvel- 
ous prices or estimates with which they are accom- 
panied. vSince the object of this competition was to 
present a convincing case for the wider use of brick in 
dwelling houses, it was essential that the ten thousand 
dollar limit should be understood by the jury in the 
light of their experience as practicing architects. The 
program to them implies simplicity, modesty, a "sweet 
reasonableness," and includes good planning, good ac- 
cessories, and an interesting use of brickwork. 

First Price. An able and characteristic brick design, 
with good plan, good mass, attractive "features," i.e., 
gables, chimneys, bays, and roof, a well studied and 
convincing effort. 

Second Price. A small and picturesque house, count- 
ing for far more than it would cost, a multiim in parvo 
plan, simple mass, and modest but adequate details. 
The whole exterior depends for its effectiveness upon 
the color and texture of the brickwork, brought out by a 
somewhat daring contrast with shingled roofs. This 
effectiveness is almost unattainable in any other material. 

Third Prise. This is a good design for other materials 
than brick, but an excellent design in brick by reason of 
such touches as the rounded gables and the slender chim- 
neys. The plan is compact, and has agreeable rooms 
and abundant convenient closets. It would build well. 
The detail of brickwork is rather uninteresting, but the 
proportions of the building are notably good. 

Fourth Prize. In this design the chief excellences 6f 
the first prize design are present in a different guise. 
Tall chimneys, strong gables, a high plain roof, and 
broad wall surfaces show the architect's skill in the use 
of the prescribed material. As if this were not enough, 
he has diapered his walls, as the scale details show, 
almost to the point of restlessness, • an effect which is 
exaggerated, probably, by the rendering, for the design 
does not need to be carried out in red brick on yellow. 
The plan, though convenient, has some details unusual 
in this country. We do not serve meals from the kitchen 



through the back hall. The inglenook in the living room 
is an effective feature, both in plan and perspective. 
The bedrooms would be better for cross ventilation. 

First Mention. A simple and effective design, some- 
what reminiscent, clever details of brickwork, a pleasing 
perspective. The design as a whole too ambitious and 
dangerously near the limit of cost. 

Second Mention. A simple, pleasing design, some- 
what fussily rendered. It is, however, an excellent 
example of the kind of house that this competition was 
expected to bring out, economical of space and materials, 
and lending itself to accessories of porch, terrace, plant- 
ing, and approaches. Good at the outset, it cannot fail 
to grow more beautiful with time. 

Third Mention. A design that appealed to the judges, 
in spite of its presentation in a bird's-eye view, which is 
deplorable. The elevation and details show excellent 
taste and training. The plan is not so good as many of 
the others. 

Fourth Mention. A design that, because of its assert- 
ive simplicity, cannot be overlooked. The detail of the 
brickwork is most interesting, and redeems the some- 
what uncompromising angular mass. The plan is fussy, 
and the servant's room and bath in the second story, five 
steps below the remainder of the floor, would not readily 
fit the elevation. 

Fifth Mention. The published drawing does not do 
justice to the design, which is carefully studied, and 
gives a well proportioned picturesque exterior and very 
ample, perhaps too ample, accommodations on each 
floor. This and other designs show a servant's bedroom 
on the ground floor, a questionable arrangement in many 
localities. 

Sixth Mention. One of the very few attempts to de- 
sign a brick house with a flat roof, interesting- in that 
respect and because of the detail of the brickwork, which 
vindicates a design that might also be worked out in con- 
crete. Although simple in mass, the planning is so 
generous that this mention gives the designer the bene- 
fit of a very considerable doubt. 

J. Randolph Coolidc.e, Jr., 
J. LovELi, Little, Jr., 
Guy Lowell, 
Hubert G. Riplev, 

Jury of Aivard. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 10. PLATE 127. 




ARTlLLtKT SIABLC5. 



HMT nOCK. PLTM 

I T r r I T . r . 




U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY, 
WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, 
architects. 




.„;;||.||. II 1 



Vf^*^ Wff I "^ 







CAVALRY STABLES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 10. PLATE 128. 




TFIE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 10. PLATE 129. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 130. 



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ARTILLERy BARRACKS. 



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CAVALRY BARRACKS. 

U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY, WEST POINT, N. Y. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 131. 





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VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 132. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 133. 





BA^tALMT 





LIBRARY AT WILLOUGHBY, OHIO. 

William Warren Sabin, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 134. 



S3 " ' R!!!i.!!!!!i^iji7- tJ-. Jm p TTITipp,* .^-^ 





OFFICE BUILDING 

AND 

LIBRARY 

FOR THE COLLEGE 

OF PHYSICIANS, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

PA. 

Cope & Stewardson, 
Architects. 




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5EjC0ND floor. 

3CALt ttmt — t- f X f *t Y-^ ' PEtT 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 135. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 10. PLATE 136. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 137. 




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VOL. 18. NO. 10. PLATE 139. 




THIRD 

PRIZE DESIGN. 

THE 

BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION 

FOR A 

BRICK HOUSE. 

Submitted by 

Charles C. Clark. 

Boston, Mass. 



THE BR ICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 10. PLATE 140. 




FOURTH 

PRIZE 

DESIGN. 




SUBMITTED 

BY 
HAROLD J. 
GRAVENOR, 
MONTREAL, 
CANADA. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE. 



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THE R R I C K RU I T. D E R 



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DETAILS OP FRONT 



FIRST MENTION DESIGN. SUBMITTED BY E. DONALD ROBI!, NEW YORK CITY. 





CKHOUJE- 



THIRD MENTION DESIGN. SUBMITTED BY EUGENE WARD, NEW YORK CITY. 

THE liRICKJJUILDKR COMPETITION FOR A in<ICK HOUSE. 



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FOURTH MENTION DESIGN. SUBMITTED PA' D. E. ROBB, MOUNT VERNON, N. V. 




SIXTH MENTION DESIGN. SUBMITTED BY EDGAR STANLEY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A BRICK HOUSE. 



212 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



HOUSE AX WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Marsh & Peter, Architects. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Standard Architectural Books — VII. 



213 



Orders, Etc. — Continued. 

WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D. : Emeritus Professor 
of Architecture, Columbia University. The 
American Vignola : Part I. The Five Orders ; Boston, 
The American Architect and Building News Company, 
1902: Part II. Arches and Vaults, Roofs and Domes, 
Doors and Windows, Walls and Ceilings, Steps and Stair- 
cases; Scranton International Text-book Company, 1906: 
small fol. (.32 by .24 by .015) ; text, ill., pi. ; 2 pts. ; cloth, 
$4.00. Professor Ware's Vignola derives its chief value 
from a convenient method of drawing the orders and 
other details of the classic scheme. 

Construction. 
American School of Correspondence at Armour Insti- 
tute of Technology, Chicago. Cyclopedia of Archi- 
tecture, Carpentry and Building; a general reference 
work, etc., prepared by a staff of architects, builders, 
and experts of the highest professional standing, illus- 
trated with over three thousand engravings. Chicago, 
American School of Correspondence; latest ed. 1908; 
8° (.24.S by .175 by .045) ; 10 vols , ill., pi. ; cloth, |24.00. 
Contents: Vol. I., building superintendence, founda- 
tions, framing, city buildings, brickwork, contracts and 
specifications, studies in materials, the formal contract, 
government contracts, specifications, building law, re- 
view questions; vol. II., carpentry, laying out work, 
joints and splices, the wall, the floors, the roof, special 
framing, stair building, handrailing, estimating, typical 
estimate, review questions; vol. III., strength of mate- 
rials, moment of inertia, statics, analysis of trusses, stress 
diagrams, masonry construction, building materials, foun- 
dations, masonry structures, retaining walls, construction 
of arches, review questions; vol. IV., reinforced con- 
crete, cement, mixing concrete, finishing concrete, flexure 
in reinforced concrete, retaining walls, reinforced con- 
crete columns, strength of T-beams, steamfitting. elec- 
tric wiring, electric lighting, review questions; vol. V., 
steel construction, the steel frame, fireproofing, beams 
and girders, columns, trusses, framing details, founda- 
tions, mill building construction, riveted girders, eleva- 
tors, review questions; vol. VI., mechanical drawing, 
lettering, geometrical drawing, orthographic projection, 
shade lines, intersection and development, isometric pro- 
jection, architectural lettering, architectural drawing, 
rendering in wash, exhibition drawings, architectural 
design; vol. VII., freehand drawing, freehand perspec- 
tive, perspective drawing, planes of projection, lines of 
measure, vanishing point, parallel perspective, shades 
and shadows, use of auxiliary planes, the Roman orders, 
intercoluminations, superposition of orders; vol. \'III., 
the classic Greek orders, Greek Ionic order, Greek Cor- 
inthian order, classic Roman order, early Roman Doric 
order, classic Roman Doric order, classic Roman Ionic 
order, classic Roman Corinthian order, glossary, bibliog- 
raphy, rendering in pen and ink, the steel square; vol. 
IX., tinsmithing, sheet metal work, practical workshop 
problems, tables for light gage work, coppersmith's 
problems, problems in heavy metal, skylight work, 
roofing, cornice work, miter cutting, problems in men- 



suration; vol. X., systems of warming, principles of 
ventilation, furnace heating, direct steam heating, indi- 
rect steam heating, direct hot water heating, indirect 
hot water heating, exhaust steam heating, vacuum sys- 
tems, plumbing, review (questions, index. 

We have given the contents of each volume so that the 
reader may know the scope of the undertaking. The 
intention throughout is excellent, although, as in most 
works of this class, the quality is imeven. It is in the 
nature of an encyclopedia that it must pass through 
repeated revision to insure perfection. 

Frank E. Kidder (1859^1905), C. E., Ph.D., F. A. I. A. : 
Consulting Architect and Structural Engineer. Building 
Construction and Superintendence: New York, Wil- 
liam T. Comstock, 8° (.25 l)y .185 by .04); 3 parts, ill.; 
cloth, $3.00. Part I. Mason's Work, 260 ill., ninth ed., 
1909 ; Part II,. Carpenter's Work, 525 ill., seventh ed., 
1908; Part III. Trussed Roofs and Roof Trusses, .^06 
ill., 1906. The late Mr. Kidder's building construction 
and superintendence covers the theory underlying all 
the practical operations of architecture as understood in 
the best American practice. In his active life Mr. Kid- 
der met the many difficulties of his profession with their 
practical solution, and his published work is the perma- 
nent embodiment of his experience. 

Frank E. Kidder. The Architect's and Builder's 
Pocket-book : A handbook for architects, structural en- 
gineers, builders, and draftsmen. New York, John Wiley 
& Sons, fourteenth ed.; 1905; 12'"" (.175 by .105 by .06); 
19+1,655 p., 1,000 ill., mostly from original designs; 
$5.00. It is not within the scope of Kidder's larger work 
to carry all the data of construction. This is done in the 
Pocket-book, which contains a fine general body of 
tables. 

Ira O. Baker, C E., Profes.sor of Civil Engineering, 
University of Illinois. A Treatise on Masonry Construc- 
tion. New York, John Wiley & vSons, ninth ed., 1903; 
8° (.235 by .15 by .04); 13 + 5.56 p., ill., pi.; appendix, 
Specifications for Masonry, pp. 529-543; cloth, $5.00. 
Baker's Masonry Con.struction is especially competent in 
the discussion of the qualities of various materials. It 
deals with principles rather than with details, and its 
matter is arranged with much regard for order and 
proportion. 

Charles F. Marsh, M. Inst. C. E., M. Am. Soc, C. E. 
Assoc, M. Inst., M.E., and William Dunn, F. R. I. B. A. 
Reinforced concrete. London, Archibald Constable & 
Co. Ltd., 1906; 4"' (.285 by .2 by .05); 7+635 + 1 p., 
front, ill., tables partly folded, diagrams partly folded ; 
cloth, 31s. 6d. net. Simple concrete in construction, 
as a technic of engineering, does not have place in this 
list ; but reinforced concrete, which has become one of 
the most common and valuable methods of construction, 
should be represented by one treatise of the highest tech- 
nical value. The work of Marsh and Dunn is the foun- 
dation of the best practice in this material. It gives 
complete discussion of the systems employed, of mate- 
rials, the methods of practical construction, the data and 
calculations, and at the end a series of practical exam- 
ples of works actually built. 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Albert W. Buel, C. E., and Charles S. Hill. Reinforced 
Concrete; Part I. Methods of Calculation by A. W. Buel ; 
Part II. Representative Structures, and Part III., Meth- 
ods of Construction by C. S. Hill. New York, the En- 
gineering News Publishing Company; 1906; 8° (.235 
by .16 by .04); 12 + 499 p., ill., tables partly folded, 
diagrams partly folded; cloth, §5.00. This is a simpler 
work than that of Marsh and Dunn, but quite as authori- 
tative. The work is done by practical working formulas, 
and examples of representative structures, rather than 
by theoretical discussion. 

Theodore Minot Clarke, F.A.I. A. Building Superin- 
tendence. A manual for young architects, students, and 
others interested in building operations as carried on at 
the present day. New York, The Macmillan Company, 
new edition, revised and rewritten; 1903, 8" (.225 by 
.15 by .035) ; 6 + 306 p., ill. ; cloth, $3.00. The purpose 
of this book is well given in its preface. It is a " simple 
exposition of the ordinary j)ractice of building in this 
country, with suggestions for supervising such work 
efficiently." It meets the conditions of ordinary prac- 
tice satisfactorily. 

W. Frank Bower, Member of New Jersey Society of 
Architects. Specifications, a practical system for writ- 
ing specifications for buildings. New York, William T. 
Comstock, second ed., 1898; small fol. (.3 by .25 by 
.015); 2 + 229 + 2 p.; cloth, $5.00. In a subject, 
which can hardly be brought to any finality, it may be 
questioned whether a book is the best form in which to 
present the material. Bower's work is probably as 
good a codification of general principles as is possible 
in a book. 

Francis Ward Chandler, Professor of Architecture, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. Con- 
struction details prepared for the use of students of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Boston, The 
Heliotype Printing Company, 1892; fol. (.52 by .37 by 
.015); 1 p., 25 pi. ; $10.00 in portfolio.* This book gives 
in large scale plates all details of common building; 
framing, trim, bonds, etc., which are too often left to 
the mechanics employed. The measurements are given 
carefully, and the various materials presented in dif- 
ferent colors. 

Clarence A. Martin, Assistant Professor of Architec- 
ture Cornell University. Details of Building Construc- 
tion. Boston, Bates & Guild Company, 1899; 4'" (.32 by 
.25 by .915); 6 p., 32 pi. ; cloth, $2.00. Profe.ssor Martin's 
book omits the subject of framing, but otherwise covers 
essentially the same field as Professor Chandler's work 
already noted. It is concerned simply with houses and 
minor public buildings. The plates are in line without 
color. 

William Paul (Gerhard: House-draining and Sanitary 
Plumbing. Twelfth ed.. New York, D. Van Nostrand 
Company, 1907; 231 p., ill.; paper, 50 cents. Mr. (rer- 
hard has published many thorough works on sanitary 
engineering, but perhaps no one of them is so immedi- 
ately applicable to the needs of the housebuilder and 
householder as this compact treatise. 

William R. Ware: Modern Perspective, a Treatise 
upon the Principles and Practice of Plane and Cylin- 
drical Perspective. London and New York. The Mac- 
millan Company, revised ed., 1900; text, 8" {.22 by .03); 



8 + 321 p. ; atlas fol. (.365 by .3 by .02); 27 pi. ; $5.00 
unbound. Professor Ware's book treats the subject in 
the broadest way with full appreciation of its underlying 
psychology. This makes the book a little complex cer- 
tainly, but in the end much more satisfactory. The 
application of perspective to pictorial representation is 
especially useful. 

Henry Kerr McGoodwin, Instructor in Architecture at 
the University of Pennsylvania. Architectural Shades 
and Shadows. Boston, Bates & Guild Company, 1904 ; 
small fol. (.32 by .25 by .015); 118 p., ill., diagrams; cloth, 
$3.00. After structural conditions are satisfied, archi- 
tectural design is almost entirely a matter of the disposi- 
tion of dark and light, the entire array of decorative 
conventions having been created simply to vary the 
luminosity of surface. Mr. McCioodwin frankly takes 
this point of view, and in the selection of problems and 
their discussion keeps carefully in mind the effect de- 
sired. The execution of his illustrations is beautiful. 

ArCHITECTURAI, JrKISl'RlDENCK. 

John Cassan Wait, M.C.E., LL.B., sometime As- 
sistant Professor of Engineering in Harvard University. 
Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence; a presen- 
tation of the law of construction for engineers, archi- 
tects, contractors, builders, public officers, and attorneys 
at law. New York, John Wiley & Sons, First ed., 1898; 
8° (.23 by .16 by .055) ; 80 + 905 p. ; §6.00 calf. In the 
last analysis the architect as well as the engineer is a 
creator of property, and is in contact with the law of 
property in a complicated way. To meet the situation 
which arises in practice a special class is forming of 
practitioners, who understand both law and construction. 
A leader ot these men is Mr. Wait, whose training and 
practice have been both in law and engineering. Of the 
books v.hich he has published on his specialty we can 
mention but one, which is a complete presentation of the 
American law of building, supported by abundant ref- 
erences to other books, and the citation of all important 
cases. 

Theodore Minot Clarke, Architect, Owner, and Builder 
before the Law. A summary of American and English 
decisions on the principal questions relating to building, 
and the employment of architects, with about eight 
hundred references, including also practical suggestions 
in regard to the drawing of building contracts, and 
forms of contract suited to various circumstances. 
New York and London, The Macmillan Company, 1905; 
8° (.23 by .17 by .035); 31 + 387 p. ; cloth, §3.00. The 
large amount of legal practice connected in various ways 
with building in this country seems to call for a special 
reporting journal similar to the "Architects' Law Re- 
ports" in England. Until something of this sort 
appears. Clarke's book is a good substitute. In many 
difficulties which arise in practice it will give all the 
assistance required. 

Frank Chouteau Brown: Letters and Lettering, a 
Treatise with two hundred examples. Boston. Bates & 
Guild Company, 1902; 8° (.22 by. 15 by .025); 18 +214 p., 
ill. ; cloth, $2.00. The necessity existing in every archi- 
tect's office for information about all sorts of lettering 
has produced this book, which has been done with great 
thoroughness. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



215 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellan^ 



'y- 




PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION. 

United States Military Academy, Wkst Point, N. Y. 
— The situation of West Point on the Hudson River is 
extremely picturesque and furnishes an admirable loca- 
tion for a national institution of this sort. The monu- 
mental character of 
the building's present 
us with an example of 
modern architecture 
unsurpassed in the 
harmonious distribu- 
tion of the buildings 
as well as the dignity 
of style necessary for 
the proper training 
of military men. In 
planning for the 
needs of this acad- 
emy. Cram, Goodhue 
& Ferguson have adhered to the Gothic style as consist- 
ently as possible without interfering with the practical 
requirements of the buildings. The tone of the red brick 
laid up in Flemish bond is in complete harmony with the 
ensemble and unites with the buff Indiana limestone 
trimmings in making an exception- 
ally artistic effect. Here also is one 
of those hillside propositions that 
required a vast amount of terrac- 
ing similar to the great engineering 
feat already accomplished at Monte 
Carlo, France. This terracing has 
been well executed and extends 
from the broad artillery planes up 
to the top of this wild and rocky 
fastness. The floors of the build- 
ings illustrated are mostly con- 
crete, while the interior walls are 

of brick, with a wood finish of North Carolina pine. The 
cost of the buildings varies from 25 to 40 cents per cubic 
foot. 

LiiiKARY AT WiLi.ouGHBY, Ohio. — No Setting could be 
more suitable for a small English Gothic library than this 
site at Willoughby, which faces an old "College Sc[uare " 
with its ancient 
landmarks still 
standing on all 
sides. William War- 
ren Sabin readily 
grasped the possi- 
bilities of such a 
location and has 
produced a library 
which is modern in 
every respect and at 
the same time har- 
monizes perfectly 
with the old build- 
ings that surround 



llROl'P FOR A HOSPITAL. 

Made by Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company 

John T. Comes, Architect. 




it. The effectiveness of the architecture is enhanced by 
the result of the half-inch joints being recessed deeply 
between the rough fire Hashed shale brick, which is laid 
up with a row of headers every third course. The trim- 
mings are of imitation stone which blend in with the tone 
of the brick facing. The roofing consists of green glazed 
tiling. The window frames are wood, stained to match 
the color of the stone. Upon the interior the walls are of 
sand finished plaster, which material is used also for the 
ceiling panels formed by plaster beams, all of which are 

painted in oil. Dark 
stained oak is used 
for all the interior 
trimmings. The 
radiators for the 
steam heating sys- 
tem are concealed 
behind the book- 
cases. The cost of 
the building was 
$12,500. 

Fairmount Col- 
lege Library, Wich- 
ita, Kansas. — Albert 
Randolph Ross, appreciating the value of dignity in 
our college architecture, has placed at the end of a 
quadrangle which constitutes the main entrance to the 
college group an adaptation of Roman classical archi- 
tecture of the Ionic order. The plan is admirably 
expressed in the exterior treat- 
ment, the colonnade across the 
front indicating the public space 
upon the interior. Once more we 
see the effectiveness of a wide 
joint with a mortar that harmon- 
izes in color with the hard burned 
light colored buff lirick. The buff 
Indiana limestone is used for 
trimmings and adds considerably 
to the complete repose and dig- 
nity of the whole structure. Upon 
the interior we have plaster and 
stucco walls which are tinted with quiet gray green 
cold water paint. The floors are of oak with the 
exception of the public rooms, which are of mosaic. 
The trimmings are oak stained to harmonize with 
the tinting of the walls. The entire cost of the 
building was ,$40,000, which included furniture, equip- 
ment, etc. 



dktail i;y mckim, mkad a white, 
architects. 

Made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 




THE 
phi 



DETAIL FOR A RESIOFNCE. 

^^ade by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

George Oakley Totten, Architect. 



phia Chapter 
of the American In- 
stitute of Architects 
at its last regular 
meeting passed a 
resolution on the 
death of Charles 
I'" o 1 1 e n M c K i m , 
from which the fol- 
lowing is quoted: 

" The quality of 
his work combined 



2l6 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



to an unusual degree scholarly 
correctness and profound artistic 
feeling, with the result that his 
work, reverently following clas- 
sical models, was yet imbued 
with that individuality insepara- 
ble from the best architecture." 

" His whole influence ran 
coiinter to that striving for nov- 
elty and ostentation, which in a 
new and rich country most im- 
perils the right development of 
its architecture, and acted as a 
constant stimulus to restraint, 
refinement, and the study of 
classical models." 



TH E will of Charles F. 
McKim provides that a 
large share of his residuary estate 
be given either to the American 
Academy in Rome or to the presi- 
dent and fellows of Harvard Uni- 
versity. By the following clause 
the terms of the gift are stated : 

" If said endowment should be completed at the death 
of my daughter, or if then incomplete, the balance of the 
said trust I bequeath to the ' American Academy in Rome, ' 
provided that at the death of said daughter the trustees 
of the Academy shall have in 
hand, cash, good securities, or 
in valid cash subscriptions, any 
portion of the said $1,000,000; 
but if for any reason the above 
legacy shall not vest in the Acad- 
emy, I give and bequeath the 
balance of the trust to the presi- 
dent and fellows of Harvard 
University." 

If the money goes to Harvard, 
it is understood that a scholar- 
ship will be established in the School of Architecture, 
the student obtaining it to make a special .study of 
Italian, Sicilian, and Grecian architecture. It is the style 
of these countries with which we associate Mr. Mc Kim's 
name ; and it is fitting that 
his bequest, in addition to 
his numerous works, may 
serve to sustain an active 
interest in it. 




immediately connected with the 
college, is empowered by the will 
of Henry O. Avery to purchase 
all books for the Avery Archi- 
tectural Library. In the Avery 
collection there are between 
18,000 and 19,000 volumes. In 
addition to this, the University 
Library possesses in its circula- 
ting department an indetermin- 
ate mass of artisticmaterial which 
is probably equivalent to 10,000 
volumes. Altogether, the Uni- 
versity Library contains between 
28,000 and .50,000 volumes on 
various subjects connected with 
the fme arts — a much larger 
number than is to be found in 
any other library in America. 



I 



l)ET.MI, I OR SCHOOI.HOUSE. 

Made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Compatiy 

John W. Donolme, Architect. 




T IS the understanding that 
not one of the great office 
buildings recently erected in 
New York has failed to return 
at least four per cent on the in- 
vestment within two years from the time all the space 
was ready for tenants. This would seem to be confirmed 
by building -plans for the future on the part of large in- 
terests, notably the Vanderbilts and the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, both of whom intend 
to improve the space they have 
available in the heart of New 
York. 



M-^. 



DKTAll. in CEO. I. I'EI.H.AM, AK( HITECI'. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers 



GLENN BROWN has 
been elected a mem- 
ber of the Avery Library 
Commission as successor 
to the late Russell vSturgis. 
This commission, which 
is made up of the librarian 
of Columbia College, the 
professor of the architec- 
tural department of 
Columbia College, and 
an architect who is not 




J. P. MORGAN'S eflfort 
to buy the famous Corte 
Reale at Mantua has been frus- 
trated ])y the operation of the 
Italian law forbidding the sale 
of works of art. The building, 
formerly known as the Reggia is 
justly valued by the Italians as one of the most interest- 
ing royal residences in all Europe. It dates from 1302 
and has played a conspicuous part in Italian history. 
Here the (ionzagas held court and Lsabella d' Este lived. 

The palace has six hundred 
rooms. Miss Morgan, the 
financier's daughter, who 
is familiar with Italy and 
its history and art, urged 
her father to buy the 
palace ; but his offer of 
$5,000,000 for it was made 
in vain. 



AT7HIL1 
VV Tho 



DKIAII. OVEK ENTRANCE lO CHAMBER Ol COMMERCE, 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

E.xeciitecl in Faience by Hartford Faience Company, 

Warren iV Welton, Architects. 



.E guests on Sir 
lomas Lipton's 
yacht several years ago, 
Marie Corelli, the novelist, 
proposed to Edward Mor- 
ris of Chicago, that the 
house built in Stratford in 
the sixteenth century by 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 








Alderman Thomas 
Rogers, the father-in- 
law of John Harvard, 
and in which Harvard 
lived, should be res- 
cued and preserved. 
It was then for sale 
and likely to be demol- 
ished. Mr. Morris 
was quick to act and 
purchased the prop- 
erty. Sir Thomas and 
Miss Corelli were 
named as trustees, 
the latter supervising 
the restoration of the 
building to its original 
state. ]\Ir. ^Morris has 
presented the house to 
Harvard University 
and the dedication ex- 
ercises were held Octo- 
ber 6th. 



MENTOR r.UII.DING, CHICAGO. 

Built of brick made by Ohio Mining & 

Manufacturing Company. Thomas 

Moulding Company, Chicago 

Agents. 

Howard Shaw, Architect. 



IN THE reconstruc- 
tion of the Parker 
Building, New York 
City,which was burned 
last year, the architect 
has specified 12 inch 
hollow terra cotta 
blocks for the floor 
arches. They are to 
be laid so that they 
will cover the bottom surfaces of beams and girders, 
protecting the metal members by 2 inches of fireproof 
material. The columns will have as protection a 3 inch 
thickness of hard burned 
terra cotta, joined together 
by Portland cement mortar. 
This covering will insulate 
the material from the fierc- 
est heat capable of being 
generated in the building. 
The elevator shafts and 
stairways are to be en- 
closed in such a manner 
that, if a fire starts, it will 
not be able to spread from 
one floor to another, but 
will be confined to the level 
of its origin. In every de- 
tail the architect has planned 
to make the new structure 
absolutely fireproof. 



have been made 
by J. E. O. Prid- 
more, architect, 
Chicago. As the 
ruins are reported 
to have been com- 
pletely demolished 
by the earthquake 
of December 28th, 
M r. P r i d m ore 
probably has the 
only measure- 
ments in existence. 
He believes he will 
find the key to the 
wonderful acoustic 
properties of the 
theater and is con- 
fident that when 
he has made his 
diagrams he will 
discover a secret 
of construction 
that will be inval- 
uable in the future 
building of Ameri- 
can auditoriums. 




mmi 



■i">V, 















HillliEBB 
llllllll 





MEASUREMENTS of 
the Greek Theater at 
Taormina, Italy, the audi- 
torium referred to in 
ancient history and famous 
the world over because of its 
perfect acoustic properties. 




TAPFSTRY Mccormick isuii.ding, chica(;(). 

r>r> Tr-'T^iir/^-o T' Built of brick made bv Columbus Brick & 

BRICKWORK. ,.,^^ ,, ^, -,, 

1 erra Cotta Company. 

THIS is the Holabird & Roche, Architects, 

title of anew 
booklet which has just been published by Fiske & Co., 
New York and Boston. Needless to say, it is devoted in 
part to the possibilities which may be obtained struc- 
turally and esthetically by the use of " Tapestry Brick," 
of which they are the sole manufacturers. A goodly por- 
tion of the work, however, 
is given over to a presen- 
tation of some of the most 
charming brickwork which 
is to be found in the world 
— and brick as a building 
material is discussed by 
Claude Bragdon in his own 
inimitable way. The work 
is further embellished by 
eight colored plates, which, 
if not mechanically perfect, 
are as nearly so as the pres- 
ent standard of color work 
permits. 



METHODIST CHURCH, NEW ORLEANS. 

Built of Hydraulic- Press Brick. 

DiboU & Owen, Architects. 



C( )N\'ENTI()XS OF THE 
AMERICAN INSTI- 
TUTE OF ARCHI- 
TECTS AND THE 
ARCHITECTU RAL 
LEAGUE OF 
AMERICA. 

THE annual convention 
of the Architectural 
League of America will be 



2l8 



T HE B R I C K B U I L O E R 




DETAIL HV SLinVARTZ \ 

GROSS, ARCHITECTS. 
Made by New Jersey Terra 



held in Washington, Decem- 
ber 11th, 13th, and 14th. The 
convention of the American 
Institute of Architects will be 
held in Washington, Decem- 
ber 14th, 15th, and 16th. The 
object in holding the two con- 
ventions at approximately the 
same time is that certain edu- 
cational matters of importance 
to the profession may be given 
full consideration, and that 
some definite steps may be 
taken to 
bring about 
a more ;ini- 
f o r m and 
harmonious 
course of 
action on 
the part of 
the two 
bodies. 



Cotta Company. 



IX 

(GENERAL. 
At the annual meeting held Oct. 11, 
1909, the following officers were elected 
by the Philadelphia Chapter, A. I. A. : 
President, William D. Hewitt; first 
vice-president, John Hall Rankin; 
second vice-president, Milton B, 
Medary; treasurer, C. L. Borie, Jr.; 
secretary, Arnold H. Moses; librarian, 
J. P. B. Sinkler. 

Marcus R. Burrowes, architect, has 
opened offices in the Trussed Concrete 
Building, Detroit, Michigan. Manufac- 
turers' catalogues and samples desired. 





DETAIL i; V 
SOUTH AMI'.OY 
TERRA COTTA 
COMPANY. 



DETAIL B\ HENRY LOOMIS 

CURTIS, ARCHITECT. 

H.Necuted in polychrome terra cotta by 

O. W. Ketcham Terra Cntta 

Company. 



George W. Hellmuth and Louis C. Spiering, archi- 
tects, St. Louis, announce the dissolution of the firm of 
Hellmuth & Spiering. Mr. Hellmuth has taken offices 
in the Chemical Building, while Mr. Spiering has located 
in the Liggett Building. 

The firm of Whitfield & King, architects, New York 
City, has been dissolved. Henry D. Whitfield has taken 
offices at 160 Fifth Avenue. Gur- 
don S. Parker will be associated with 
Mr. Whitfield. Beverly S. King an- 
nounces his association with Harry 
Leslie Walker, under the firm name 
of King & Walker, with offices in 
the Terminal Building, New York 
City, and the Studio Building, 
Atlanta, Ga. 



Arnold & Punchard, Boston, were 
the landscape architects for the gar- 
den for H. S. Shaw, Esq., Milton, 
Mass., illustrated on Plate 107 of 
The Brickbuilder for September. 




DETAIL FOR HOTEL. 

Made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Toledano & Wogan, Architects. 



Warren cV Welton of Birmingham, 
Ala., were associated with Carpenter 
c\: Blair as architects for the Empire 
Building of Atlanta, which was illus- 
trated in The Brickhuilder for 
September. 

What is probably the finest ap- 
pointed country house in the middle 
west, or anywhere beyond the New 
York district, is the palace at Lake 
Forest into which J. Ogden Armour 
is about to move. About four rooms 
out of the one hun- 
dred or more have 
been fitted up under 
haste orders to 
make the owner 
comfortable. 

The new $1,500,- 
000 administration 
building of the Chi- 
cago Board of Edu- 
cation, and which 
Architect Dwight 
Perkins is designing, is to have eight- 
een stories instead of fourteen and is 
to be located on the lake front at the 
north end of (irant Park, if the consent 
of the municipal authorities can be 
obtained. 

The New Jersey Terra Cotta Com- 
pany of New York will supply the 
architectural terra cotta for the follow- 
ing buildings: Tilden Building, New 
York City, D'Oench & Yost, architects; 
Department Store, Charlotte, N. C, 
Wheeler & Stern, architects; High 
vSchool, Lynn, Mass., Penn Varney, architect; New Resi- 
dence on Riverside Drive, New York City, Schwartz & 
(Jross, ai'chitects. 

The Harris Trust and Savings Bank will shortly have 
a permanent home on Monroe street, Chicago. The 
nineteen floors above the bank in the new building to be 
erected will contain offices, and the structure will repre- 
sent an investment of $2,500,000. 



At the suggestion of Mr. James 
Rush Marshall, architect, the engi- 
neering department of the City of 
Washington has ac(juired a new 
English publication entitled " Town 
Planning," which Mr. Marshall says 
is " the first of its kind of any con- 
sequence in the English language." 

The new plant of the Bradford 
Pressed Brick Company, at Brad- 
ford, Pa., which produces a wire 
cut impervious red brick, has a 



TllK 1^ R IC K iUM I. I) K R 



219 




APARTMENT BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Faced witli wire cut dark red brick, made by Western Brick Company. 

H. R. Wilson, Architect. 

daily capacity of 70,000. 2,000,000 of these brick were 
shipped on order during the month of September. 

vSayre & Fisher Company supplied most of the brick 
used in the West Point Buildings which are illustrated 
in this number of Thk Brickbuilder. 

The exterior brick iised in many of the houses for the 

Girard Estate 
were furnished 
by Fiske & Co. 
Inc. Illustra- 
tions of these 
buildings are 
to be found in 
this issue of 
The Brick- 
builder. 




detail in LUNG i LOiNG, AUCHITEITS. NEW BOOK 

Made by American Terra Cotta c^i- Ceramic 

Company. Structural 

Details or Ele- 
ments of Design in Heavy Framing. By Henry S. Jacoby, 
Professor of Bridge Engineering in Cornell University. 
8vo, ix -I- 368 pages, pi-ofusely illustrated with figures in 
the text, 6 folding plates, and 34 full page illustrations. 
Cloth, $2.25 net. New York, John Wiley & Sons. 




culinarv department, warm stora(;k room, im.a/.\ 

hotel, new york city. 

Finislied in enamel brick, made by American Enameled Brick and Tile 

Company. 



WANTED AT ONCE — A mature, up-to-date, first class, 
practical draftsman, fully qualified to take entire charge of 
office doing a modern practice in the Northwest. Must possess 
tact, push, and business capacity, and be familiar with office 
system, correspondence, plumbing, heating, wiring, etc., on 
large work — office buildings, public work, etc. Man with 
New York experience in large, systematized offices preferred. 
Address, giving experience, business qualifications, and state 
whether married or single. SSS-BRICKBUILDER. 

WANTED — Architectural draftsman with one or two years' 
practical experience. Young technical graduate preferred. 
Position permanent for right party. Address " Pittsburg," 
care The Brickbuilder. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE architectural PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
E'OR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST (JRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 

6 E. Madison St., Chicago. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
(rerman Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battleship in the United .States 
Navy ; the extensions of the .Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect ; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



60 WATER COLOURS $2.00 

"The Cathedral Cities of Spain," a portfolio con- 
taining 60 reproductions from original w^ater colours 
by W. W. Collins, R. 1. 

This portfolio is of interest to all architects, drafts- 
men, and artists, "dabbling" in v^ater colours. 

The above portfolio is an addition to the series listed below : 

"English Cathedrals," 60 plates - - - $2.00 

" French Cathedrals," 60 plates - - - 2.00 

" Versailles and the Trianons," 56 plates - - 2.00 

"Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus," 38 plates - 2.00 

The five portfolios will be sent, express paid, on receipt of $9.00 



J. H. JANSEN 



SUCCESSOR 
TO 



M. A. VINSON 



302 Caxton Bidg. - - Cleveland, Ohio 

WANTED "BRICKBUILDER" AUGUST. 1898. AND APRIL, 1899 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



COMPETITION FOR A 
PUBLIC BATH AND GYMNASIUM BUILDING. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. 



SECOND PRIZE, $200. 



THIRD PRIZE, $100. 



COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 17, 1910. 



T 



PROGRAM. 

HE problem is a Public Bath and Gymnasium Building. The location may be assumed in any American city of about 50,000 

inhabitants, or some section in a larger city. Competitors may choose between two sites, one at the corner of two inter- 

the middle of a block. Both lots are ample in size to accommodate the building and are 

or of the pavilion type, having a central motive and two wings, with the lon- 



.secung streets, 
practically level. 

In plan the building may be rectangular (block) 
gitudinal a.xis parallel to the street. 

The plan should provide for the following: — 

IF OF THE BLOCK TYPE: — 

In the basement : a swimming pool, six showers, a suitable number of lockers, dressing rooms and benches, 

toilet rooms, supply rooms, a small laundry for washing and drying, heating plant, and coal storage. 
On the first floor: general waiting room, administration offices, at least fifty showers (forty with individual 

dressing rooms, and ten arranged in groups), lockers, dressing benches, toilet rooms, etc. 
On the second floor, which may extend approximately two stories : a gymnasium, six showers, four sponge 

baths, a rubbing table, lockers, dressing rooms, benches, instructors' and medical attendants' rooms. 

IF OF THE PAVILION TYPE: — 

In the central part of the building: first floor to provide for a reception room and administrative offices. 

Secondifloor to provide a hall for lectures and other entertainments. 
In one wing : a gymnasium with the same accommodations as recommended for the block type. 
In the other wing : a swimming pool, the shower baths, and other features suggested for the block type. 

GENERAL:— 

In connection witli the gymnasium a running track should be provided which will have not more than twenty- 
four laps to the mile. Other gymnasium apparatus need not be indicated. 
Competitors are free to add any additional features to the plan and ecjuipment which may seem desirable. 
The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terracotta, employing color treatment in at least portions 
of the walls. It is suggested that large blank surfaces of gymnasium walls afford an excellent opportunity for design in terra cotta. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : — 
A. Rational and artistic treatment of the exterior. 



B. 
C. 



Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 
Excellence of plan. 



It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural 
terra cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material 
in which it is to be executed. 

In- awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of architectural terra cotta and the development or 
modification of style, by reason of the material, will be taken largely into consideration. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. On the .same sheet, belov? the front eleva- 
tion, the floor plans drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

On a second sheet, at the top, the elevation of 'secondary importance drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; immediately below 
half inch scale details of the most interesting features of the design. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing 
of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a .series of notes printed on the 
same sheet with the secondary elevation and details, at a size which will permit of two thirds reduction. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on 
both sheets, one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

.\11 drawings are to be in black ink, without wash or color, e.\cept tliat the walls on the plans and in the sections may be 
blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a no»t de plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the 
nam ill- plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of Thk BRiCKurii.DKR, S.") Water .Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on 
or before January 17, 1910. 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reason- 
able care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brickbitilder, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their 
names, ten cents in stamps, if on cardboard twenty-five cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

There have been published in Thk Brickbuii.dkr from time to time articles treating of the Public Bath and the Gymnasium, 
also illustrations of both types of buildings. This data, which may be of assistance to those who intend to enter this competition, 
will be found in the following issues : — 



1909. 
1908. 



February, March, April, May, June. 

February, March, April, May, June, August, November. 



We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers 
who are represented in the advertising columns of The Brickbiilder. 
This competition is open to everyone. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII NOVEMBER 'I909 Number II 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1S92. Copyright, lon'i, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in rhe following order : 



PAGE 



Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ 11 

„ Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled _. . . . Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ I\' 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

COOLIDGE & CARLSON; CRAM, GOODHUE & FERCrUSON; MARSH & PETER; NEWMAN 

& HARRIS; DWIGHT H. PERKINS; CHARLES F. SCHWEINFURTH ; 

WHEELWRIGHT & HAVEN. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AGK 

THE TEMPLE OF VESTA AND THE TEMPI.E TIBURTIXE SIBYL, AT TIVOLI Frontispiece 

TWO NEW SCH(^OLHOUSES, BOSTON 221 

THREE NEW SCHOOLHOUSES, CHICACO 225 

NEW SCHOOLHOUSE, MOUNT VERNON, N. V 229 

TERRA COTTA: ITS CHARACTER AND CONSTRUCTION — II Charles l. Thrall 231 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS— DESCRIPTION 235 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 237 










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THE BRICKBVILDER 




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Two New Schoolhouses, Boston. 



THE object of this article is to describe the most 
recent methods of the Boston Schoolhouse Com- 
mission, particularly as shown in the two new elemen- 
tary schools — the Nathan Hale, a primary school, and 
the Bishop Cheverus, a grammar school. The problem 
of comfortably and properly housing, in the midst of the 
confusion and congestion of a large city, an army of one 
hundred thousand school children, is an elaborate one, 
but it may be conveniently classified for discussion under 
the following heads: 

1. To accommodate the standard class of forty-four 
pupils, in a room as compact and economical as is con- 
sistent with the comfort and health of the inmates. 

2. To give the pupils clean wholesome air, unvarying 
in temperature, and, if possible, in humidity. 

3. To provide the rooms in which they work with 
abundant daylight, so directed as to favor to the utmost 
the eyes of the pupils. 

4. To provide further a similar artificial illumination 
for night work. 

5. To introduce into each room a certain amount of 
sunshine, as this has been proven essential to the best 
health and happiness of the children. 

6. To furnish each pupil with a desk and chair espe- 
cially adapted to the individual physique. 

7. To encourage under proper conditions the spirit of 
play, indoors and out, by playgrounds and play rooms. 

8. To provide clean and abundant toilets, wash rooms, 
and coat rooms. 

9. To provide a nurse's room for the better care of 
children who are ill, or uncleanly in their habits. 

10. To equip the building with every device needed to 
accomplish an easy and prompt administration of the 
school ; including clock, bell, and telephone systems, fire 
exits, offices, and storerooms. 

11. To provide an assembly hall for general exercises. 

12. To give the children a building which will offer 
every reasonable discouragement to dirt and dampness; 
which will be cheerful, not easily marred or injured, safe 
from fire, and beautiful enough to lead the pupils' taste 
rather upward than downward ; and to do all this with 
that rigid economy of the public funds which the citi- 
zens have a right to demand of their servants, the 
commissioners. 

Let us examine in some detail the above summary of 
requirements for the two schools under discussion. 

1. The size of the standard class room, seating forty- 
four pupils (formerly fifty-six) has been reduced from 24 
feet by 30 feet by 13 feet (in height) for primary, and 26 



feet by 32 feet by 13 feet for grammar, to 23 feet by 
29 feet by 12 feet for all elementary grades. This reduc- 
tion in the class room unit results in more material and 
labor per cubic foot, inasmuch as the walls, floor, and 
ceiling, which contain the labor and materials, decrease 
directly as the dimensions of the room, while the cube 
decreases as the square of the dimensions. This would 
indicate a higher cost per cubic foot, other conditions 
being the same. It is, therefore, surprising and gratify- 
ing to note that both of the two new schools, built under 
the above conditions, the Nathan Hale, a small building 
of twelve rooms, and the Bishop Cheverus, of sixteen 
rooms, cost but eighteen cents per cubic foot, an 
unprecedentedly low figure. The Nathan Hale cost 
$67,320, with a cube of 362,000, and the Bishop Cheverus 
$102,937, with a cube of 540,000. The cost per pupil in 
the Bishop Cheverus, $160.84, is far below the average, 
$197.13, while that in the Nathan Hale, $140.26, is the 
lowest but one on record, where the average (lower ele- 
mentary) is $162.83. 

2. The problem of heating and ventilation has become 
a more and more complex one. The department has 
recently adopted the more economical policy of doing its 
own engineering work, instead of employing for this 
work outside domestic engineers. There has been a 
systematic effort to get rid of the galvanized iron ducts 
by using concrete trenches under the basement floor 
both for fresh and tempered air, and building the verti- 
cal ducts of brick, pointed on the inside, or keystone 
blocks made smooth on one side. This reduces the cost 
by a considerable amount, and simplifies the construc- 
tion, making less demand for repairs and renewals. 
Brick flues have been used for both the new schools. 
Both are also equipped with the gravity system of 
indirect heat, low pressure, gravity return, with supple- 
mentary coils at the bases of the vertical ducts. Motor 
driven fans are added for the cooking and manual train- 
ing rooms in the Bishop Cheverus. The above system 
has been adopted generally as the most satisfactory for 
the smaller schools. The temperature of the air entering 
the class rooms is controlled by hand-mixing dampers, 
operated by the teachers. Each occupant of the room is 
provided with 30 cubic feet of air a minute, the amount 
required by the state law. 

Experiments are being carried on to discover a practi- 
cal method of maintaining a constant degree of humidity 
in the air. No system yet devised has given results 
sufficiently good to warrant the expenditure necessary to 
install it. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




NATHAN HAI.E SCHOOL, BOSTON. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects, 



3. The windows are placed on the long side for left 
hand lighting. The Board continues in its policy of 
making the area of glass, measured inside the sash, not 
less than twenty per cent of the floor area, or 135 square 
feet for a room 23 

feet deep. If the 
outside light is ob- 
structed by neigh- 
boring buildings this 
allowance should be 
increased. The win- 
dow head is always 
built square, and kept 
close to the ceiling, 
as the top light is the 
most efficient. The 
decrease in the height 
of window, owing to 
the one foot drop in 
the ceiling, is offset 
by the decrease in 

floor area, so that the proportion of window to wall is 
but little changed. 

4. The rapidly growing need for night schools re- 
quires a complete equipment for artificial light in the 
class rooms. The number of outlets in each room has 
been reduced from nine to six in the Bishop Cheverus, 
and five, in the Nathan Hale. The fixture is a simple 
chain or stem pendant, with a 60 watt Tungsten or 100 
watt G. E. M. lamp, and an acid etched holophane 




shade. The system is therefore one of direct light, re- 
placing the former more elaborate fixtures designed for 
a combination of transmitted and reflected light, and 
affording a twenty or twenty-five per cent gain in the 

efficiency per watt to 
off'set the reduction 
in the number of 
outlets. The change 
from reflected and 
transmitted to direct 
light has been the 
outcome of experi- 
ments which appear 
to demonstrate that 
direct light from 
above and slightly to 
the left of the pupil 
(accomplished by 
placing the lights for- 
ward and off center of 
the room toward the 
window wall), has two advantages over the former sys- 
tem. It utilizes a larger per cent of the light; and it 
affords some shadow, and in such a direction as distinctly 
to aid the unconscious sense of location of the pupil. It 
appears also to be a more cheerful light, and it is only 
for special cases, where drafting rooms require the most 
careful adjustment, that the Board now uses indirect 
light. 

5. The selection of the lot and the planning of the 



FIRST Kl.OOR PLAN. 



E SCHOOL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 



building are influenced as much by the reciuirement of Bishop Cheverus with an open U. Such a requirement 
sunshine in every class room as by any other considera- makes a compact and symmetrical plan impossible, 
tion. It means lining up the class rooms on the east, Nevertheless, the case of the Nathan Hale school is of 





1 



4 i ■ 1 




1 



11 



"iiiiiiii 








'-"'-^'^ •-* 



BISH01> CHEVEKIS SCHOOL, liOSToN. 
Brainerd & Leeds, Arthilects. 



south, and west exposures, and running the corridor marked interest. The site is on a hill, and has a com- 
along the northern outside wall. To accomplish this the manding ledge of Roxbury pudding-stone on the southern 
Nathan Hale school is designed with an L plan and the portion. The first floor is practically at the grade of the 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



top of the ledge, with the entrance and playground on 
the inside of the L at the lower grade. This plan has 
worked out satisfactorily, and, notwithstanding the blast- 
ing necessary, the figures show the building to be an 
especially economical one. 

6. To favor every weakness of physique, and make 
the pupil as comfortable as is possible, every chair-back 
is adjustable, as well as every desk. The patterns of 
casting used for these fixtures have been reduced to great 
simplicity and durability, but the benefit of the adjust- 
able furniture will always depend largely upon the faith- 
fulness with which it is used. 

7. On the sunny side of the building are the play 
courts, paved with brick, planted with trees, where pos- 
sible, and often affording the only suitable playing space 
in the neighborhood. The Board endeavors to obtain a 
lot which will contain about 35 square feet of vacant 
ground per pupil, the greater part of which is used for 
these playgrounds. The school basement contains two 
large play rooms, one for boys, one for girls. These are 
finished with granolithic floor, painted brick walls, and 
whitened ceiling, and are practically proof against injury. 

8. The toilet accommodation has been cut from three 
closets per class room, two for girls, and one for boys, 
to 2.25, 1.5 for girls, .75 for boys, and from 36 inches of 
urinal to 33. The play rooms are equipped with slate 
sinks as formerly. 

The fixtures consist in the wash-down closet with large 
local vent, and sealed and connection between earthen- 
ware and iron ; and the slate range-urinal, flushed with 
water from a perforated pipe. In the Nathan Hale 
school the closets are flushed periodically by an auto- 
matic arrangement. 

The wash sinks are placed in the play rooms, and addi- 
tional sinks for drinking are provided in the corridors 
on all floors. 

The wardrobes open off the class rooms, and are built 
with granolithic floors and base, painted burlap wainscot, 
and special heat and ventilation. The principle in the 
arrangement of the wardrobes has remained the same 
for several years. 

9. The nurse's room is a recent and important factor 
in the school regime. It is designed along the lines of a 
modern hospital room, terrazzo floor, tiled wainscot, 
special device for shampooing and bath, if required, 
toilet, medical cabinet, gas stove, etc. 

10. The administration has always been highly efti- 
cient. Every room is provided with a secondary clock, 
run from a master clock in the principal's office. In the 
primary schools, push buttons control the signal bells; 
in the higher schools they are operated automatically by 
master clocks, according to a prearranged program. 
There is a single center telephone system connecting all 
the rooms with the master's or his assistant's office. 

11. The assembly hall has furnished almost the only 
opportunity for the display of any design. In the 
Bishop Cheverus school it is made the feature of the 
building, yet without extravagance. The floor is lino- 
leum, and very quiet. The walls for 10 or 12 feet are 
painted burlap, capped with a small wood cornice, with 
tinted plaster above, and a heavily beamed plaster ceil- 
ing. The proscenium arch is modeled in plaster and is 
rich without being costly. The principal beauty of the 



room lies in the windows, which are leaded glass in stone 
mullions. Each window bears a group of stained glass 
shields, all together making a complete series of the 
coats-of-arms of the several states of the Union. The 
hall is on the ground floor, with independent exit directly 
to the street. Although this is highly desirable, it has 
been found possible only in this school and the Thomas 
Gardner. The hall is equipped for stereopticon work, 
and for the use of the reflectosgope. Common settees 
are being used for seating. 

12. Throughout the design of the buildings the most 
careful consideration is given the use of materials and 
forms, in order to avoid dirt. The result has been the 
elimination of elaborate moldings in wood or plaster 
finish, and the universal adoption of the hospital base in 
its various forms, wood for wood floors, terrazzo for 
terrazzo floors, and cement for linoleum and granolithic 
floors. The Bishop Cheverus school has a cement "base- 
board " as well as curved angle, in connection with 
granolithic floors. 

To protect the building from dust the windows are all 
fitted with a metal weatherstrip. The cost of repairs is 
reduced to a minimum by constructing the sash of small 
panes and protecting the windows on the playgrounds 
with wire grilles. The wood finish is left natural, except 
for treatment with raw linseed-oil, rubbed in. This does 
not completely fill the pores and leaves a surface easily 
soiled, and apt to catch dust. It would seem that some 
better surface must soon be discovered. 

The class room walls have painted burlap dadoes (with 
tinted plaster above) and can easily be washed. In the 
Bishop Cheverus school the same material is placed on 
the corridor walls, with good effect. The Nathan Hale 
corridors are common brick, painted a glaring white, and 
though irreproachably clean, present to the eye a rather 
barren and uninviting aspect. Salt-glazed brick gave 
promise of fulfilling the requirements but was found not 
to be economical. Here there has been an obvious diffi- 
culty in reconciling the practical to the esthetic; a process 
which can well be postponed until most of the vital prac- 
tical questions have been settled one way or the other. 

To safeguard the children against fire the most careful 
planning has been followed out. All doors from the 
building open out. Wardrobe doors are double swung. 
The children's entrances are always to the basement and 
are independent of but convenient to the staircases up. 
The main entrance or entrances are free of the staircases. 
The staircase leads to the basement, making basement 
entrances as well as the others available. The buildings 
are entirely fireproof, and the clearest approach to the 
stairs is considered the best. The use of metal doors for 
class rooms is being considered. This would make these 
rooms safe even if the corridors were filled with smoke. 
The heating plant is always isolated in the basement. In 
the Bishop Cheverus school it is in a low wing by itself. 

A considerable saving has been made by building the 
roof frame of wood instead of steel or concrete. The 
roof is considered as practically isolated from the rest of 
the building, and as a recent decision of the Law Depart- 
ment has made this interpretation of the Building Law 
possible, the Board has been glad to adopt the above 
mentioned policy of economy. 

The esthetic side of the school buildings, as already 



THE BRICKBITILDER 



"5 



hinted, must await the crystallization of practical forms. 
A general style of Tudor design in brick and stone 
seems to be the predominant school exterior, and many 
beautiful compositions have resulted. In spite of the 
almost complete absence of stone trimmings from the 
Nathan Hale school, in spite of the rigid simplicity 
throughout, the design is distinctly excellent. The 



charm of the Bishop Cheverus assembly hall has already 
been touched upon. 

In summing up, it is plainly visible that steady prog- 
ress is being made towards providing ideal accommodation 
for the city's school children, progress not only on the 
scientific and engineering side, but even in the direction 
of more beautiful structures. 



Three New Schoolhouscs, Chicago. 

DWKIIIT H. PERKINS, ARCIIITKCT. 



BERNHARI) MOOS SCHOOL. In planning the 
Bernhard Moos School ample provision was made for 
playgrounds. The building was located so that two large 
recreation spaces were arranged in front, upon which the 
older students are privileged, while two more were fitted 
up in the rear for the smaller pupils. Adjoining the 
playgrounds in the rear of the school will be a number 
of carefully planned vegetable gardens. P>ncircling the 
ensemble will be rows of shrubbery and trees which will 
in time furnish protection as well as shade. 

The exterior of the building is treated with a dark 
brown vitrified brick, which has a dull glaze, and 
trimmed with a terra cotta that matches the color of the 
brick. The planning has been carefully studied so as to 
meet future contingencies. The central portion of the 
present building contains an assembly hall, a gymna- 
sium, heating apparatus, and toilets which will provide 
for future increase of class rooms, — twenty-six additional 
rooms being contemplated. 

There are three stories and a basement, the floors of 
which are connected by iron stairs with asphalt treads. 
The stairs are wide and furnish excellent avenues for 
escape in case of fire, especially when the pupils are 
drilled to make a hasty and orderly exit. In addition 
to the stairways, at the opposite ends of the building, 
there is a flight leading from the ground level to the 
main floor of the as.sembly hall, which is located in the 
center of the schoolhouse. The second floor contains 
nine class rooms having maple floors, burlap wainscoting, 
and slate blackboards. The gallery of the assembly hall 
opens into the main corridor of this floor. The same 
number of class rooms similarly furnished are found on 
the third floor, while the remaining space is given up to 
a gymna.sium, which is located over the assembly hall. 

The interior finish is somewhat similar to the rest of 
tne recently built Chicago schoolhouses, having all the 
corridor floors of asphalt. The entire basement, with 
the exception of the manual training and domestic sci- 
ence departments, is furni.shed with a concrete flooring. 

The cubical contents of the building are 1.291,022 
cubic feet, while the entire cost amounts to S20.S,0(X), 
making 15.87 cents per cubic foot. 

Albert G. Lane Tec H.vicAr. Hkjh School. This is one 
of the largest and best equipped technical institutions in 
the world. The exterior has been designed with two 
ideas in view, simplicity in character and a provision for 
the maximum amount of light. The exterior is a frank 
expression of the interior, which has been planned to 
facilitate the work neces.sary in accommodating eighteen 



hundred pupils. Plenty of playground surrounds the 
building, which afi"ords a suitable setting for the mass of 
purplish brown brick that is tied together with harmo- 
nious trimmings of stone. 

The division of instruction consists of four periods, 
three of which are in the daytime and one in the evening. 
From the plans we can see how the space has been 
allotted so as to have the various trades arranged by 
them.selves and still closely allied to each other. In this 
way little time is lost by the scholars and such economy 
is necessary where so many pupils are accommodated in 
such a short part of each day. 

The ground floor contains locker rooms, machine shop, 
woodworking, foundry, forge, pattern, wood-turning, 
and electric construction shops with lecture and testing 
rooms; also the power plant, generator, 1)oiler and coal 
rooms. The shops contain four hundred benches, the 
laboratories are equipped with two hundred and twenty 
tables, while the drawing and drafting rooms have three 
h'undred tables. The shops have a working capacity of 
four hundred pupils during one period, and a working 
unit of twenty-four, which is one half the unit of the other 
departments. Provision has been made for sufficient 
light and ventilation, as each .shop has a skylight in addi- 
tion to the side windows. The fresh air is distributed 
throughout the laboratories and shops by means of forced 
ventilation, which supplies also the class rooms and other 
parts of the building. 

On the first floor are the principal's main and private 
offices, a museum, botanical and physiographical lab- 
oratories, a commercial department, and thirteen class 
rooms. Here also is the study room assembly hall. 
This hall has a seating capacity of nine hundred, accom- 
modating five hundred on the main floor, while the re- 
maining four hundred are in the balcony on the second 
floor. The seats on the first floor are constructed to 
serve as de.sks during the day sessions, and when lectures 
are to be held they can be easily lowered out of the way 
and replaced by extra portable chairs. 

The second floor shows chemical laboratories, dark 
rooms, balance rooms, private laboratories, and lecture 
rooms. The lecture rooms are supplied with opacjuc 
.shades at the window.s, which permit of darkening for 
the use of the stereopticon. There arc al.so on this floor 
drawing departments which comprise mechanical drafts- 
manship, architecture, and free-hand, all of which have 
ea.sy access to the printing rooms located on the roof. Be- 
sides the six class rooms there is a library which contains 
over five thousand volumes. The corridor on this floor 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



top of the ledge, with the entrance and playground on 
the inside of the L at the lower grade. This plan has 
worked out satisfactorily, and, notwithstanding the blast- 
ing necessary, the figures show the building to be an 
especially economical one. 

6. To favor every weakness of physique, and make 
the pupil as comfortable as is possible, every chair-back 
is adjustable, as well as every desk. The patterns of 
casting used for these fixtures have been reduced to great 
simplicity and durability, but the benefit of the adjust- 
able furniture will always depend largely upon the faith- 
fulness with which it is used. 

7. On the sunny side of the building are the play 
courts, paved with brick, planted with trees, where pos- 
sible, and often affording the only suitable playing space 
in the neighborhood. The Board endeavors to obtain a 
lot which will contain about 35 square feet of vacant 
ground per pupil, the greater part of which is used for 
these playgrounds. The school basement contains two 
large play rooms, one for boys, one for girls. These are 
finished with granolithic floor, painted brick walls, and 
whitened ceiling, and are practically proof against injury. 

8. The toilet accommodation has been cut from three 
closets per class room, two for girls, and one for boys, 
to 2.25, 1.5 for girls, .75 for boys, and from 36 inches of 
urinal to 33. The play rooms are equipped with slate 
sinks as formerly. 

The fixtures consist in the wash-down closet with large 
local vent, and sealed and connection between earthen- 
ware and iron ; and the slate range-urinal, flushed with 
water from a perforated pipe. In the Nathan Hale 
school the closets are flushed periodically by an auto- 
matic arrangement. 

The wash sinks are placed in the play rooms, and addi- 
tional sinks for drinking are provided in the corridors 
on all floors. 

The wardrobes open off the class rooms, and are built 
with granolithic floors and base, painted burlap wainscot, 
and special heat and ventilation. The principle in the 
arrangement of the wardrobes has remained the same 
for several years. 

9. The nurse's room is a recent and important factor 
in the school regime. It is designed along the lines of a 
modern hospital room, terrazzo floor, tiled wainscot, 
special device for shampooing and bath, if required, 
toilet, medical cabinet, gas stove, etc. 

10. The administration has always been highly effi- 
cient. Every room is provided with a secondary clock, 
run from a master clock in the principal's office. In the 
primary schools, push buttons control the signal bells; 
in the higher schools they are operated automatically by 
master clocks, according to a prearranged program. 
There is a single center telephone system connecting all 
the rooms with the master's or his assistant's office. 

11. The assembly hall has furnished almost the only 
opportunity for the display of any design. In the 
Bishop Cheverus school it is made the feature of the 
building, yet without extravagance. The floor is lino- 
leum, and very quiet. The walls for 10 or 12 feet are 
painted burlap, capped with a small wood cornice, with 
tinted plaster above, and a heavily beamed plaster ceil- 
ing. The proscenium arch is modeled in plaster and is 
rich without being costly. The principal beauty of the 



room lies in the windows, which are leaded glass in stone 
mullions. Each window bears a group of stained glass 
shields, all together making a complete series of the 
coats-of-arms of the several states of the Union. The 
hall is on the ground floor, with independent exit directly 
to the street. Although this is highly desirable, it has 
been found possible only in this school and the Thomas 
Gardner. The hall is equipped for stereopticon work, 
and for the use of the reflectosQope. Common settees 
are being used for seating. 

12. Throughout the design of the buildings the most 
careful consideration is given the use of materials and 
forms, in order to avoid dirt. The result has been the 
elimination of elaborate moldings in wood or plaster 
finish, and the universal adoption of the hospital base in 
its various forms, wood for wood floors, terrazzo for 
terrazzo floors, and cement for linoleum and granolithic 
floors. The Bishop Cheverus school has a cement "base- 
board " as well as curved angle, in connection with 
granolithic floors. 

To protect the building from dust the windows are all 
fitted with a metal weatherstrip. The cost of repairs is 
reduced to a minimum by constructing the sash of small 
panes and protecting the windows on the playgrounds 
with wire grilles. The wood finish is left natural, except 
for treatment with raw linseed-oil, rubbed in. This does 
not completely fill the pores and leaves a surface easily 
soiled, and apt to catch dust. It would seem that some 
better .surface must soon be discovered. 

The class room walls have painted burlap dadoes (with 
tinted plaster above) and can easily be washed. In the 
Bishop Cheverus school the same material is placed on 
the corridor walls, with good effect. The Nathan Hale 
corridors are common brick, painted a glaring white, and 
though irreproachably clean, present to the eye a rather 
barren and uninviting aspect. Salt-glazed brick gave 
promise of fulfilling the requirements but was found not 
to be economical. Here there has been an obvious diffi- 
culty in reconciling the practical to the esthetic ; a process 
which can well be postponed until most of the vital prac- 
tical questions have been settled one way or the other. 

To safeguard the children against fire the most careful 
planning has been followed out. All doors from the 
building open out. Wardrobe doors are double swung. 
The children's entrances are always to the basement and 
are independent of but convenient to the staircases up. 
The main entrance or entrances are free of the staircases. 
The staircase leads to the basement, making basement 
entrances as well as the others available. The buildings 
are entirely fireproof, and the clearest approach to the 
stairs is considered the best. The use of metal doors for 
class rooms is being considered. This would make these 
rooms safe even if the corridors were filled with smoke. 
The heating plant is always isolated in the basement. In 
the Bishop Cheverus school it is in a low wing by itself. 

A considerable saving has been made by building the 
roof frame of wood instead of steel or concrete. The 
roof is considered as practically isolated from the rest of 
the building, and as a recent decision of the Law Depart- 
ment has made this interpretation of the Building Law 
possible, the Board has been glad to adopt the above 
mentioned policy of economy. 

The esthetic side of the school buildings, as already 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



225 



hinted, must await the crystallization of practical forms. 
A general style of Tudor design in brick and stone 
seems to be the predominant school exterior, and many 
beautiful compositions have resulted. In spite of the 
almost complete absence of stone trimmings from the 
Nathan Hale school, in spite of the rigid simplicity 
throughout, the design is distinctly excellent. The 



charm of the Bishop Cheverus assembly hall has already 
been touched upon. 

In summing up, it is plainly visible that steady prog- 
ress is being made towards providing ideal accommodation 
for the city's school children, progress not only on the 
scientific and engineering side, but even in the direction 
of more beautiful structures. 



Three New Schoolhouses, Chicago. 

DWIGHT H. PERKINS, ARCHITECT. 



BERNHARD MOOS SCHOOL. In planning the 
Bernhard Moos School ample provision was made for 
playgrounds. The building was located so that two large 
recreation spaces were arranged in front, upon which the 
older students are privileged, while two more were fitted 
up in the rear for the smaller pupils. Adjoining the 
playgrounds in the rear of the school will be a number 
of carefully planned vegetable gardens. Encircling the 
ensemble will be rows of shrubbery and trees which will 
in time furnish protection as well as shade. 

The exterior of the building is treated with a dark 
brown vitrified brick, which has a dull glaze, and 
trimmed with a terra cotta that matches the color of the 
brick. The planning has been carefully studied so as to 
meet future contingencies. The central portion of the 
present building contains an assembly hall, a gymna- 
sium, heating apparatus, and toilets which will provide 
for future increase of class rooms, — twenty-six additional 
rooms being contemplated. 

There are three stories and a basement, the floors of 
which are connected by iron stairs with asphalt treads. 
The stairs are wide and furnish excellent avenues for 
escape in case of fire, especially when the pupils are 
drilled to make a hasty and orderly exit. In addition 
to the stairways, at the opposite ends of the building, 
there is a flight leading from the ground level to the 
main floor of the assembly hall, which is located in the 
center of the schoolhouse. The second floor contains 
nine class rooms having maple floors, burlap wainscoting, 
and slate blackboards. The gallery of the assembly hall 
opens into the main corridor of this floor. The same 
number of class rooms similarly furnished are found on 
the third floor, while the remaining space is given up to 
a gymnasium, which is located over the assembly hall. 

The interior finish is somewhat similar to the rest of 
the recently built Chicago schoolhouses, having all the 
corridor floors of asphalt. The entire basement, with 
the exception of the manual training and domestic sci- 
ence departments, is furnished with a concrete flooring. 

The cubical contents of the building are 1,291,022 
cubic feet, while the entire cost amounts to f20.S,000, 
making 15.87 cents per cubic foot. 

Albert G. Lane Technical High School. This is one 
of the largest and best equipped technical institutions in 
the world. The exterior has been designed with two 
ideas in view, simplicity in character and a provision for 
the maximum amount of light. The exterior is a frank 
expression of the interior, which has been planned to 
facilitate the work necessary in accommodating eighteen 



hundred pupils. Plenty of playground surrounds the 
building, which afiiords a suitable .setting for the mass of 
purplish brown brick that is tied together with harmo- 
nious trimmings of stone. 

The division of instruction consists of four periods, 
three of which are in the daytime and one in the evening. 
From the plans we can see how the space has been 
allotted so as to have the various trades arranged by 
themselves and still closely allied to each other. In this 
way little time is lost by the scholars and such economy 
is necessary where so many pupils are accommodated in 
such a short part of each day. 

The ground floor contains locker rooms, machine shop, 
woodworking, foundry, forge, pattern, wood-turning, 
and electric construction shops with lecture and testing 
rooms ; also the power plant, generator, boiler and coal 
rooms. The shops contain four hundred benches, the 
laboratories are equipped with two hundred and twenty 
tables, while the drawing and drafting rooms have three 
hundred tables. The shops have a working capacity of 
four hundred pupils during one period, and a working 
unit of twenty-four, which is one half the unit of the other 
departments. Provision has been made for sufficient 
light and ventilation, as each shop has a skylight in addi- 
tion to the side windows. The fresh air is distributed 
throughout the laboratories and shops by means of forced 
ventilation, which supplies also the class rooms and other 
parts of the building. 

On the first floor are the principal's main and private 
offices, a museum, botanical and physiographical lab- 
oratories, a commercial department, and thirteen class 
rooms. Here also is the study room assembly hall. 
This hall has a seating capacity of nine hundred, accom- 
modating five hundred on the main floor, while the re- 
maining four hundred are in the balcony on the second 
floor. The seats on the first floor are constructed to 
serve as desks during the day sessions, and when lectures 
are to be held they can be easily lowered out of the way 
and replaced by extra portable chairs. 

The second floor shows chemical laboratories, dark 
rooms, balance rooms, private laboratories, and lecture 
rooms. The lecture rooms are supplied with opaque 
shades at the windows, which permit of darkening for 
the use of the stereopticon. There are also on this floor 
drawing departments which comprise mechanical drafts- 
manship, architecture, and free-hand, all of which have 
easy access to the printing rooms located on the roof. Be- 
sides the six class rooms there is a library which contains 
over five thousand volumes. The corridor on this floor 



226 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



227 




ALBERT G. LANE 
TECHNICAL HIGH .SCHOOL 

Dwight H. Perkins, Architect. 




ASSEMBLY HALL. 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDER 









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THE BRICKBUILDER 



229 



takes care of the people from the balcony of the large 
assembly hall, thus alleviating the congestion that 
usually arises. 

The third floor is given up mostly to the lunch room, 
which feeds six hundred at a time and which accommo- 
dates all the pupils in about two periods. The kitchen 
and storerooms are located on this floor as well as an 
overflow space which can be utilized by the drawing 
department. 

On the fourth floor are found the gymnasium, running 
track, toilets, showers, lockers, and instructors rooms. 
The lockers are of iron and arranged in stacks and 
alcoves, so as to form dressing rooms for six hundred 
and fifty students. 

The cubic contents of the building are 2,518,534 ciibic 
feet, costing $470,000, which makes approximately ISyi 
cents per cubic foot. The equipment amounts to 
$150,000 in addition. 

Tii.TON vScHooL. This building has been designed after 
a careful study of the extremely rapid growth of the 
outlying districts near the city of Chicago. It is planned 
with a broad view of the future wants, as is shown by 
the dotted lines on the plans which indicate some future 
extension of the two wings. There are several radical 
changes from the typical school biiilding, the most 
important of which is the elimination of the basement 
floor, making the first floor practically on the ground 
level. 

A rather unusual appearance results from the horizon- 
tal bands upon the exterior. These courses are made up 
of buff brick, alternating in the light and dark tones. 
The base and lower trimmings are of Bedford stone, while 
above the first story is substituted terra cotta, which 
maintains the same color and texture as the adjacent 
brick. The towers lend considerable interest to what 
might otherwise prove a monotonous and tiresome treat- 
ment of the fai^ade and at the same time provide for 
toilet rooms on each floor. 

Upon the interior the floors of the corridors, toilets, 



and stairs are of asphalt, while those of the class rooms 
and assembly hall are of maple, which wood is considered 
to be one of the best upper floorings. Southern pine is 
used throughout for the woodwork, with the exception 
of the floors just cited. The walls of the play rooms and 
corridors are of glazed brick, while those of the assembly 
hall and toilets are of enameled brick. In the class 
rooms burlap is used for the wainscot and plaster for the 
remaining portion of the walls and the ceiling. 

The arrangement of the first and second floors is 
clearly shown on the plate which illustrates this build- 
ing. The assembly hall seats seven hundred and fifty 
people, is centrally located, and within easy access of the 
main entrances. On the third floor are planned six class 
rooms, a gymnasium, and library. The class rooms have 
unilateral light with blackboards on three sides. The 
entrances to all the rooms are close to one of the four 
main stairways, which afford ample exit facilities in case 
of fire. The fourth floor has also six class rooms, a con- 
struction room, and teachers' toilets. Each of the class 
rooms is provided with a wardrobe separated by means 
of vertical sliding doors, upon which are blackboard sur- 
faces. The exhaust ventilation is through the wardrobe. 
Impervious materials are used extensively throughout 
the building, especially in the corridors and toilets, mak- 
ing the cleaning practical as well as economical. 

There are 1,421,466 cubic feet with a total cost of 
$216,500, which figures approximately 15)^ cents per 
cubic foot. This makes the cost of each class room 
$10,825, or $216.50 per pupil. vSuch an amount for each 
scholar would be exceedingly high were it not for the 
fact that when the rest of the building is completed 
the total cost will be $315,000, which comes to $168 per 
pupil. The assembly hall, facilities for heating, toilets, 
gymnasium, manual training and domestic science de- 
partments, have been planned with a view to accommo- 
dating the forty schoolrooms, which will be the capacity 
of the whole building after the future extension has been 
completed. 



New Schoolhouse at Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

ALBRO & LINDEBERG, ARCHITECTvS. THOMAS R. JOHNSON, ASSOCIATED. 



IN THIS building the windows extend practically the 
full length of the rooms and have very little frame- 
work to interfere with the light. The general tone of 
the facade is pleasing, the brick harmonizing with the 
gray terra cotta. 

There are sixteen school rooms, each one accommoda- 
ting fifty pupils. The assembly hall is large enough to 
seat all the students There are two entrances to the 
hall, directly opposite each other, which lead to sepa- 
rate stairways. The two main stairs extend from the 
basement to the top, and have the uniform width of 
5 feet. The floors of the corridors are of cement, while 
those of the class rooms are of hard pine. The trim used 
throughout is ash. The walls are of hard plaster. 



The basement has four entrances, arranged so that the 
boys and girls may enter their respective quarters 
directly from the outside. One of the entrances opens 
into the third division, which consists of the principal's 
ofifice and teachers' room. There is a wardrobe for each 
class room, having an outside window and two doors, 
one of which opens directly into the corridor. These 
cloak rooms are 4 feet in width. 

The building is heated by the indirect system in con- 
nection with hot water, and unites with it an appropriate 
system of ventilation. 

The total cost of the building, including the heating, 
plumbing, electric wiring, and electric fixtures, was 
), 169, or 15_^^ cents per cubic foot. 



230 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




— • I I ; y 




PUBLIC SCHOOL 

NUMBER 10. 
MOUNT VERNON, 

N. Y. 

Albro & Lindeberj;, 

Arcliitects. 
Thomas R. Johnson, 

Associated. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 141. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 142. 




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VOL. 18, NO. i;. PLATE 143. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11, PLATE 144. 




.i<^«15SteS?i"^ 




.rnrnrr,;;;-.,^ 







SQUASH COURT, 
NORTH EASTON, MASS. 

CooLiDGE & Carlson, 
Architects. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 145. 




LONGITVDINAL SECTION THROVGH AVDITORIVM 



"^t:^ 




BOSTON OPERA HOUSE, BOSTON, MASS. 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 11. PLATE 146. 






SECTION THCOVGH STAGE 










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BOSTON OPERA HOUSE, BOSTON, MASS. 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 11. PLATE 147. 




<>h-i--'^> 




BOSTON OPERA HOUSE, BOSTON, MASS, 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 148. 







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DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

BOSTON OPERA HOUSE, BOSTON, MASS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 149. 




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VOL. 18, NO. 11. PLATE 150. 










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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 151. 




.SErC.T'lOAr 



ELEVATlOAl 



DETAIL OF ORIOLE WINDOW. 

HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

C. F. SCHWEINFURTH, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 152. 




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THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. II. PLATE 153. 





GENERAL VIEWS OF GARDEN. 

HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

C. F. SCHWEINFURTH, ARCHITECT. 



T 




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I 



THE B R I C K BU I L DE R. 

VOL. IS. NO. PLATE 153. 





GENERAL VIEWS OF GARDEN. 

HOUSE AT CLEVELAND. OHIO. 
C. F. SCHWEiNFURTH, Architect. 



ill 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 11. PLATE 154. 




DETAIL OF FOUNT/.';. 



HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

C. F. SCHWEINFURTH, ARCHITECT. 



DETAIL OF ORIOLE WINDOW. 



THEBRICKBUILDER. 231 

Terra Cotta: Its Character and Construction — ^11. 



BY CHARLES U. THRAIX. 



REFERRING again to what has been said concerning 
the designing of columns to be executed in terra 
cotta it needs to be emphasized that when an architect 
decides that a column shall be of terra cotta, and then 
disregards entirely the character of the material he has 
chosen, the result is almost invariably a failure, but 
when he will stop long enough to design a column that 
will be practical for terra cotta, he has made possible the 
first requisite of an 
artistic result, viz: 
good workmanship. 

Because of its 
qualities, whether 
considered from the 
esthetical stand- 
point, the structural, 
or the physical, 
terra cotta is un- 
excelled as a build- 
ing material for the 
modern tall build- 
ing, and especially 
so on account of its 
lightness and con- 
formability to the 
steel structure. In 
regard to its light- 
ness, there are 
hundreds of dollars 
saved by its use as 
compared to stone, 
not only in freight 
charges but in the 
cost of the steel 
structure itself, 
which may be much 
lighter for a terra 
cotta building than 
for a stone building. 

In the smoky 
cities of the west 
the non-absorbent 
surface of glazed 
terra cotta is the 
only surface that 
can be washed clean, 
and on that account 
white glazed terra 

cotta is coming into general use for this purpose, for once 
a year, at least, when the annual " wash day " arrives, the 
building built of this material stands out as white as the 
new fallen snow. The plates which accompany these 
articles will demonstrate the ease with which it may be 
molded to the adjoining materials, especially to the steel 
supports of the building, while its color possibilities may 
be used, not only for polychromatic design, such as the 
Academy of Music, Brooklyn, but also for most practical 
purposes. 

The conformability of terra cotta to other building 




TpgRA Cotta 

El^borAfe Arid .saJv^fiMitory resulft 
Tf.riia Cotta Dome. cajTlca 






may be <^tk.\.r>eji 

.srlTb. 



of ejyf r 



. ; ttrra^ cotta. ajid-flie _ . 
jiifurc uih^cV} mtghV poui.bl^ 



fr&n)e uJor^.aJlouiLng arDfJe ai,r sp&ce 
coocrefedon^ctb afford- cuAporaTtoc 
oHecT under fbe " Ikntw Cott.^ . ■ — ■ 



PLATE IV. 



materials, especially to structural steel and reinforced 
concrete, is shown in the dome of the First Church of 
Christ, Scientist, at Boston, which is illustrated by Plate 4. 
It is a simple though ingenious and very practical arrange- 
ment of concrete, steel, and terra cotta. The inner dome 
was made of reinforced concrete, very thin, intended to 
be self-sustaining but not necessarily carrying any addi- 
tional load. The inner surface of the dome was intended 

to be decorated with 
mural paintings at 
very great cost, and 
therefore these 
should have ample 
protection from 
leaks which might 
mar their beauty. 
To obtain a water- 
tight roof the archi- 
tects put 4 inch by 
4 inch " T " irons 
extending upward 
from the base of 
the dome to its 
apex, the nib of the 
web resting on the 
exterior face of the 
concrete, but in 
such manner that 
practically no 
weight was trans- 
mitted to the 
concrete dome. 
Outside of these 
were placed smaller 
" T's" that formed 
hoops around the 
dome and were 
bolted or riveted to 
the uprights, these 
hoops forming 
shelves to receive 
the terra cotta ex- 
terior to the dome. 
In the construc- 
tion of a terra cotta 
dome the weight of 
the upper courses 
bearing down on 
those below causes a tendency to buckle at about one 
quarter the height of the dome unless the terra cotta is 
anchored back in some manner. The method shown on 
Plate 4 obviated this tendency as the weight of each 
course was carried on one of the iron hoops. There was 
also afforded ample air space to evaporate any moisture 
that might possibly collect under the terra cotta, and as 
a further protection from leaks water-tight joints were 
formed both vertically and horizontally. 

Owing to the monumental character of the edifice, all 
of these precautions were deemed advisable, yet they 



232 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



were accomplished at a minimum cost, the concrete and 
steel being very light because the terra cotta blocks were 
so light (and in this case made thinner than ordinarily). 
The terra cotta was very inexpensive in comparison to 
other materials because of the duplications of like pieces, 
it being necessary to make molds of only one rib and 
one or two pieces of each course of one field. The cut- 
ting of the tapering rib and the curved faces of the field 
pieces would be very expensive in any other material. 
The dome was sur- 
mounted by a heavy 
ornamental course, 
above which was 
the lantern. This 
course was open at 
the back, into which 
was built the brick 
backing. A raggle 
was provided to re- 
ceive a copper flash- 
ing above. It was 
necessary to make 
a mold of only two 
of the pieces form- 
ing this course. 

The surface of 
the terra cotta for 
this dome is glazed, 
of a peculiar yellow 
color which catches 
the sunlight and re- 
flectsit so brilliantly 
that the dome at- 
tracts the eye almost 
as forcibly as the 
gilded dome of the 
State House. 

Plate 5 illustrates 
another idea of 
combining terra 
cotta and concrete, 
forming a vaulted 
ceiling with a mon- 
olithic body. This 
plate shows a ceil- 
ing in the state en- 
trance of the Union 
Station at Washing- 
ton and was built of 

PLA 

granite colored 

terra cotta resembling the granite of the main walls. 
After the terra cotta was all set on the wooden center, 
the concrete was poured into the open spaces in the back 
of the pieces and carried up to the required thickness, a 
very simple and inexpensive process. The converging 
moldings of the panels of such a vault are very expen- 
sive to make in any material, but in the case of terra 
cotta it is necessary to make molds for only four panels, 
one in each course, instead of thirty-six (36), the other 
thirty-two (32) panels being pressed at very slight cost 
from these molds. In addition to this the bond of the 
terra cotta blocks is very small, but with the concrete, al- 
though thin, will carry all the weight imposed. There- 




».nd be- 






on are otjCexpe' 



— TVnj plate artouis e. r^ 






fore, the economy in the amount of materials used by this 
method, as well as their inexpensiveness, is of great im- 
portance. The joints of the terra cotta are all so placed 
as to permit such trimming as is necessary to produce 
proper alignment. Such a design treated in color would 
be most effective. 

Plate 6 shows how the same idea was applied to 
other vaulted ceilings on the same building, the arches 
as well as the ceilings being backed with concrete, but in 

the case of the 
arches very much 
thicker, on account 
of the weight they 
have to carry. Note 
the arrangement of 
the joints in the ceil- 
ing so that the pieces 
would approximate 
the same size in all 
courses and thus 
avoid extremely 
long and impracti- 
cal pieces in the 
outer courses. The 
first and second 
courses from the 
center have the 
same number of 
pieces, but the third 
course has two 
pieces for every one 
in the first and sec- 
ond course, whereas 
the fourth course 
has three pieces for 
every two of the 
third course, etc. 
Where the courses 
were cut by the 
granite arches the 
joints were ar- 
ranged so as to coin- 
cide to some extent 
with some of the 
lines of the granite. 
The reinforced 
concrete building 
properly requires an 
^ ,. outward covering 

which may have an 
artistic treatment, and terra cotta is more suitable for 
this purpose than any other material, because it may be 
made very thin, and, on account of its lightness, may 
easily be anchored to the wall, the hollow spaces being 
then filled with concrete, so as to bear such crushing 
strains as may be imposed upon it. 

The terra cotta, especially if glazed, also fulfils the 
practical purpose of acting as a waterproof face for the 
absorbent concrete and protects it from the action of 
frost or fire better than any other material would. Ow- 
ing to the shrinkage, swelling and warping of the plank 
forms into which the concrete is poured to form the walls 
of such a building, it cannot be expected that those walls 



of' Concrete wW^tti 









^ fJJIlilllUI 



-r u,\,^\, J t..>rof jfooe u,o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



233 




L6>/iGlTUDlNAL .S&CTl^A 




Dcil^n- of a- VaULTED ■ C£^ms<^ - to coooectioo- With Granite - 
Thc-"terra. cdtta^- ii D»-cKeei Wiibconcrcte - tu^tc^; fills "tn« uoid* 
in tr)c tcrro^ coiTa^ , rog%.\\\.nS d^ ryjosC ecoiooroicaA- a.ncl aJ^soluteU 
5ft.fe conitructiOD'^TIoc a.Doue destgn uja^^ suppUeci "toMv. Durnoa-m 
Tor-"tK«. Union ^t" alitor) ©."t ■ Wa^sb^'^^'too.-DoME.s oT- uarioub 
5i-zea- DCLop- buvlt- to tois-rna^noev'-- Toe- terra- coirtB. • ■ujo^ ©..o 
cxo^ct- lyid-tcb in color Tor -"tne ■ a..aiotnto^- <^rd-nuc- rfiuinrf 
tloc- Lmprc&sion ■ of gT6.ndc ■ us^ultb/ act one -Pnvrol "tne ■ Cost — 



• R£FL£:CT£D PLAN ^ dP/^^ 



--SCALt t.nv7T77r.Tt^ ^ 7rrrT- 



I'LAIK VI. 



2.34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



will be very accurate in their dimensions. This inaccu- 
racy makes it necessary to arrange methods of adjusting 
the terra cotta to the concrete. For instance, holes are ar- 
ranged in the plank forms through which are laid anchors 
which are embedded in the concrete when it is poured, 
but the location of these holes may not coincide with the 
exact position of the anchor holes or joints of the terra 
cotta. To overcome this difficulty holes are arranged in 
the ends of the terra cotta blocks through which are 
passed small rods around which are bent the anchors 
(see Plate 7). The top bed of the terra cotta is cut 
away so that the workman may put his hand inside 
the blocks and bend the anchors. The block is then 
filled with cement or fine concrete, if desired, and the 
next block is built upon the one set, there being a run- 
ning dowel on the bottom of each piece to fit into the 
open space of the piece below, and in this way both the 



and adds to the cost of manufacture, as each piece has to 
be cut by hand. 

Notice how the lintel course is carried on an iron plate 
bolted to the concrete. The holes in this plate should be 
slotted so as to allow adjustment, as the location of the 
bolts may be inaccurate unless the plate is put into posi- 
tion before the concrete is poured. 

The bolt and clip shown in the third course at " B-B " 
is an excellent anchor for the large courses and a fre- 
quent setback in the wall is desirable to take the weight 
off of the courses below and thus prevent buckling. On 
account of the inaccuracies in the building plenty of 
space, say one inch or more, between the terra cotta and 
the concrete, should be allowed to prevent the necessity 
of cutting any of the terra cotta at the building, which 
is always an expensive operation, delaying the work. 
The same amount of space should be allowed where terra 




Aocnors use bedeci 
in ihc concrete wbeo 
rnoulded.- 
TH«ie *.rc Ijtni (Uouod. 
roCb ^nicrted lo boles 
prouwdccL ^n ^b«''^="'«- 
totti-^tbe upper iide. 

rt^for Ibe n&^-o^ "to* 
Luorl^ma-o -^ 
rbe uouis Ln ^c Terra. 
Cotta. a.Te in&n ulUd 
cytto cemem or Tuie 
Ccsncrete -^^ 



•^ECTIOA AT AA 




-- Fl/i^ at • GC 




^^ 




-Part EleiVatic'/s °'-L!NTfcL- -Lectio/a ^ 

-Alfffroafe rrpefood of AncbofLO^- 



5SiCX\On AT 

T'ne aiwma.'te melQoa sbouj^ noriionlajl 
Tcdi laiUncd io tbe ii>ail ujdb *-n- 
cbor^ bedcd tn inc. . Coa:Te\k ~ 
TVxse rods AJe ficd wi^r) copper 
wire io rod/ uisftrted in boiti ttouujej 
mibe Terra. 6»t^ Tbii i^ done aT tW 
joirifs r&cb piece li T&iTened one iSxr 
antstner, ibereforc ^b« iworl^maji r>eed 
ndfuJorl^ 10 i\jc coo'fin^d 5P4C.« 
the loltrior of "tbe. Dice* ^oid^ • 
Tb^ li tbe betfer rT>elHod - 



• Lintel 



--PLAN-AT DD 



"IHE. oenerai uie of K.einforccd Concrete ^a-s ma.jie. TERRA CoTTA- a. 

neceasit/ for tne a.rttil'ic XrealmcTiV of jutij OuddiogA , bccaoxac 
-tbe Tcrra..Cotta. rm^ be noa.de a^ rr)ere shell 3or4LOcb)e5 "toic^ 

!>.od or,-o.«onof of Js li^ktoess 11 eo.»i\y a/icbored "fS "tloe looJl — 
TbeTerra-C^ta. CipeciAlL- if ola.3ccl a.c^ s.i a. waJer proof" 

fa.oe for Vne. a-bsorkajVl concrete.-a.nd proiTjctb if fronj -tbe- 

o.cfioo of froSt" a.nd fire bettir -tba-O &Jy °"'=' Mate.ii.iai- — 



PL.\TE VII. 



top and bottom of each piece are held in place unaffected 
by any inaccuracy in the wall or location of anchors. A 
better method in some respects is to fasten rods along 
the face of the concrete wall by bending the anchors 
around them, and as each piece is set, put a small piece 
of rod in its end, and with wire tie this piece of rod to 
the rod anchored to the wall, keeping the wire close up 
to the piece, so that when the adjoining piece is set the 
rod will fit into a hole in its end and the wire be confined 
in the joint. By this means the workman will have open 
space in which to work, and the top bed of the terra 
cotta need not be cut away. To cut this bed away 
weakens the pieces, makes more likelihood of breakage, 



cotta is used in connection with steel, as will be explained 
in a subsequent article. 

One of the advantages of the use of terra cotta in con- 
nection with a reinforced concrete building is that no 
time need be lost waiting for the wall facing, as the 
building may be practically finished before beginning to 
set the terra cotta. 

The idea embodied in the examples set forth in this 
article, all of which have been actually built, is that terra 
cotta is a veneer and may properly be used as such, in 
fact, it should be used as such; yet owing to the hollow 
space in the back of the pieces it is a veneer that be- 
comes incorporated into the wall with no possibility 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



235 



of becoming detached. It is such examples as these 
that express the real character of terra cotta, display- 
ing its practicability and its beauty, but without an 
intimate knowledge of that character on the part of the 
architects who design these features the happy results 
obtained would have been impossible. Therefore, archi- 
tects who have not had a large experience in the use of 
terra cotta, or those whose ambition gives them courage 
to step into untrod fields, need the cooperation of the 
manufacturers which for obvious reasons the manufac- 
turers are only too glad to give, to work out, not only 



such novel features as those mentioned in this article 
but those of more every day occurrence as well as those 
of color and texture. 

The leading manufacturers have in their employ 
graduates of the best technical schools and universities, 
such as architects and ceramic chemists who are study- 
ing the various problems that arise, keeping abreast of 
the advanced thought in science, art, and construction, 
and who are always at the command of architects to 
demonstrate the great possibilities of this material in 
American architecture. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



Parish House for the All Saints' Church, Dor- 
chester, Mass. The half timber work on the exterior is of 
plain oak and tones in with the gray of the wire-cut 
brick. The roofing consists of slate. Upon the interior 
of the Parish House the woodwork is of stained cypress, 
and the walls of plaster, except in the gymnasium where 
brick is used. The cost of the entire building, including 
heating, plumbing, and lighting, is $30,000. The cost 
per cubic foot is 19 cents. 

McAllister House, Philadelphia, Pa. This residence 
has been constructed on a lot approximately two hundred 
and fifty by three hundred feet, with gardens laid 
out after the manner of the English in their general 
planting. The exterior treatment is of the English 
Georgian style and built of dark red brick with a 
purplish tinge running throughout. Upon the interior 
the colonial style prevails also. The dining room is 
paneled in white, the hall has an open string stairway 
with carved ends, white spindle balusters, mahog- 
any rail, and spiral starting newel. White pine is used 
throughout the interior for all woodwork except the 
floors, which are of oak. The cost of the house is 
approximately thirty thousand dollars, or about thirty 
cents per cubic foot. 

Boston Opera House. The exterior of this building 
has been treated in red brick and a dull glaze terra cotta 
of a cream tone with occasional touches of light blue. 
Provision has been made, exclusive of the main entrance, 
for a carriage entrance from the side; both have separate 
entries into the main foyer. 

The floors of the entrance hall, the foyers, and the 
palm room are a combination of marble and terrazzo. 
The walls and ceilings are of hard plaster with a general 
tone of French gray. The stairs are constructed with 
steel and reinforced concrete with marble covering. The 
balustrade is of cast-iron with a mahogany rail. 

The general color scheme of the auditorium is a dull 
gold against a quiet gray background. The ceiling deco- 
rations have some light blue in addition to the gold and 
gray. The upholstery and hangings throughout the 
main auditorium are in warm red. The seating capacity 
is 2,750. 

The ventilating system is designed to furnish each 
person with 1,200 cubic feet of fresh air per hour. The 
air is taken from the roof into a shaft 75 feet square and 
heated to 68° F. Thence it is discharged into three large 



plenum chambers under the auditorium and balconies, 
from where it is forced under pressure through metal 
tubes to an inlet underneath every seat in the building. 
The vitiated air is drawn through vent grilles located in 
the ceilings, carried through galvanized iron ducts to the 
main vent chamber and discharged from the building. 
Each opera box has a separate supply of fresh air. The 
heat loss on the exposed surfaces is counteracted by 
means of direct radiators controlled by thermostats. 

Henry D. Cooke School, Washington. The building 
is located in one of the most charming parts of Washing- 
ton, within easy access of the car lines and yet removed 
far enough away from the main thoroughfare to escape 
the annoyance that arises when a school is located on a 
street of traffic. Nothing obstructs the sunlight or pre- 
vents a free circulation of air. Ample space surrounds 
the building, providing playgrounds and an excellent 
opportunity for gardens wherein the principles of agri- 
culture and horticulture may be taught. 

The building maintains a simple dignity, and demon- 
strates that a pleasing architectural efl^ect can be pro- 
duced by keeping the surfaces somewhat plain and with 
the ornamentation adapted to the general character of 
the whole building. The hard red bricks are laid in 
Flemish bond, with wide mortar joints, and relieved by 
the special architectural treatment at the entrance and 
in the frieze and window panels, where the pattern work 
consists of red brick and green tiles. The base of the 
building is granite, while the other trim is sand-blast 
white terra cotta. All the exterior woodwork, including 
the projecting soffits of the roof, is colored sage green, 
which harmonizes with the tones of the other materials. 

The building contains sixteen class rooms, each one of 
which has a cloak room and ample unilateral light, and 
an assembly hall which extends through the basement 
and first story with accommodations for six hundred and 
fifty pupils. The entire corridor space of the first floor 
can be utilized as a balcony for the assembly hall. The 
second story is planned similar to the first, differing only 
in its provision for rooms to accommodate the principal, 
a library, a resting place for the teachers, and some extra 
toilets. The interior walls are of masonry, while the first 
floor and the corridors of the second floor are of fireproof 
construction. 

The total cost of the building was $103,000, and the 
cost per cubic foot 13}^ cents. 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE accompanying illustrations show the treatment of 
wall surfaces in brick after designs by Addison B. Le 
Boutillier. They afford an excellent opportunity of showing 
the possibilities that may be obtained by using the various 
sizes and colors of brick. The 
panels are laid up in the differ- 
ent bonds, viz: English, Dutch, 
Flemish, and running bond, and 
suggest ornamental patterns 
made from the same brick. The 
length of the bricks range from 
eight to eighteen inches. In the 
panel which shows the Flemish 
bond, the very long stretcher is 
made bylaying two 8 inch bricks 
together with a blind joint. The 
work throughout furnishes ex- 
amples for belt courses, the dif- 
ferent ways of treating headers, 
the manner of framing open- 
ings, and frieze effects. Beneath 
the window openings are pat- 
terns for the laying of walks with brick, as well as a scheme 
for the use of tiles 6 inches square. No attention in laying 
the brick was given to the color scheme, and yet one finds 




aiieiiiBKimmmiiiiiii 



all the warm hues, such as the yellows, reds, and browns 
mixed in with shades of blues, grays, and greens. The 
mortar has been mixed to harmonize with the various tones 
of the brick and is tinted in red, white, gray, or brown. 

The rake and flush joints vary 
in width, the latter having the 
thickness of an inch in one of 
the panels. In the very wide 
joints small pebbles are used to 
effect a rough texture and at the 
same time increase the strength 
of the mortar. By a thorough 
study of the detail one can 
readily see that the work has 
been executed in a free manner, 
and little attention has been paid 
to the uniformity of the joint- 
ing or that the brick on one 
side of an axis should corre- 
spond exactly with those on 
the other, and yet the whole 
effect, with the natural balance 
of the light and dark colors, gives harmony and symmetry 
to the ensemble. This whole work is a display of 
" Tapestry " brick in the Boston ofifices of Fiske & Co., Inc. 




jfiiimiirinHinririfiiminimm^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



237 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 









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NOTHING could be of more vital interest to the 
American people than the growing desire for better 
housing of our school children that is taking root in the 
majority of our larger cities. In most cities competent 
men are selected to meet the ever increasing needs of the 
pupils. These public school commissions are spending 
every effort possible 
to find suitable 
quarters for the boys 
and girls that regis- 
ter, as well as secur- 
ing healthier and 
better adapted build- 
ings for them. The 
Board of Education 
in New York City is 
confronted with the 
problem of accommo- 
dating 70,000 chil- 
dren for whom no 
provision has been 
made. This is a con- 
dition that arises in 
the metropolis every 
year, but never be- 
fore to such an ex- 
tent, and the fault 
seems to belong else- 
where than upon the 
educational commit- 
tee, who petitioned 
the Board of Esti- 
mate for an appropri- 
ation of $7,000,000 
with which to build 
public schools, but to 
date they have re- 
ceived no definite re- 
ply to their petition. 

England is now 
entering upon a new 
era in regard to her public schools. She is breaking away 
from her stereotyped building which holds little regard 
for modern methods and is now planning for the physical 
needs of the children as well as furnishing them with an 
abundance of light and fresh air. Of the features worthy 
of special commendation are the facilities for bathing. 
Believing that cleanliness should be a national virtue 
they have established shower, spray, and slipper baths. 
Furthermore they are teaching the pupils the essentials 
in domestic living and are providing dining halls in con- 
nection with well equipped kitchens. The best typical 
examples of English school planning which show proper 
regard for every modern improvement are found at 
Staffordshire, Letchworth, and Bradford. 

Unusual interest is exhibited towards our public schools 
by the various art societies. The Chicago Water Color 



Club in conjunction with the Chicago Society of Artists 
have organized a rotary exhibition, loaning to the schools 
a collection of a hundred or more paintings which they 
allow to remain for several weeks at one place before 
removing them to another. Well known artists appear 
before the pupils and give interesting talks upon these 
works of art, thereby instilling into their young lives a 
knowledge of colors and their proper use. Other organi- 
zations like the Public School Art Society are decorating 
many of the schools in the poorer districts and have 
at the same time executed examples of model schools 
whereby all sections that are able to do so can beautify 

their own rooms. 
Surely such princi- 
ples as these when 
adopted by the boards 
of education located 
in the various cities 
cannot fail to stimu- 
late a keener appreci- 
ation for the good and 
beautiful among the 
children in our public 
schools — a vast ma- 
jority of whom never 
receive a higher edu- 
cation. 



COOPERATIVE 

APARTMENT 

HOUSE. 





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DETAIL OF FRIEZE BETWEEN COLUMNS OF MAIN FACADE, BOSTON 

OPERA -HOUSE. 

The figures are in cream white on a light blue background. The work was 

executed in terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



ER VA- 

E calcu- 
lation places the 
amount of capital at 
present invested in 
cooperative apart- 
ment house proper- 
ties on Manhattan 
Island at between 
$2 5, 000, 000 and $30,- 
000,000, says the 
New York Evcnijiz 
Post. While still a 
comparatively new 
idea in this country, 
the joint ownership of such city homes has been in vogue 
in Europe for centuries. Curiously enough, the sup- 
posedly uncommercial artist class have been the pioneers. 
The first apartment of this type was the "Rembrandt 
Studios" built on West 57th street by Jared Flagg and 
a number of artists in 1880. Within three years ten 
others were built. After the conspicuous failure of the 
"Navarro Flats" (owing to the error of building on 
leased ground), construction lagged until 1898, when 
Harry Ranger, heading a syndicate of artists, revived 
the idea. Steadily since then they have been becoming 
a stronger and stronger factor in the New York real 
estate field. 

The essentia] features of the cooperative apartment 
house are its ownership by a stock corporation, the share- 
holders of which are entitled to acquire apartments on 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



long-term leases, and that it permits the gathering to- 
gether of select tenants, which besides creating a com- 
munity of interests, adds to the value of the property 
and the prestige of the neighborhood. 
They have in fact increased the supply 
of middle-grade private dwellings which 
have been made impracticable by the 
growth in the value of land. The method 
nowadays is this: A number of friends 
decide upon a location, form their com- 
pany, purchase the site outright, select 
their architect, and build themselves, 
thereby eliminating the middleman's 
profit. The company holds title to the 
ground. Upon payment of their sub- 
scriptions stockholders are given apart- 
ments for ninety-five years usually, 
sometimes nine hundred and ninety-nine 
years, in some cases in perpetuity. In 
all of these apartment houses there are a certain number 
of apartments to be rented to non-stockholders, and 
revenue for taxes, assessments, running expenses, and 
other fixed charges is thus provided. A stock- 
holder knows at the beginning very nearly what 
his home is going to cost. The cooperative 
apartment recently completed opposite the Mu- 
seum of Natural History exemplifies, perhaps, 
the progress that has been made in this type of 
structure. 




and avenues within the city in order to facilitate the 
movement to and from the business district. The de- 
velopment of centers of intellectual life and civic ad- 
ministration so related as to give coher- 
ence and unity to the city. 



DKTAII. BY PEABODY & STEARNS 

ARCHITECTS. 

Made by Conkling-Armstrong Terra 

Cotta Company. 



THE annual report of the supervis- 
ing architect of the Treasury, made 
public October 14th, states that dur- 
ing the last fiscal year twenty-one new 
government buildings and sixteen ex- 
tensions of old buildings have been 
completed and eighty-five buildings 
commenced, while twenty-nine are still 
under contract. There are thirty-one 
extensions of Federal buildings in course 
of erection, fifty-six extensions yet to be 
placed under contract, and one hundred 
and forty-one sites for which no piiblic 
buildings have as yet been provided. On July 1st last 
there was a balance of |!4, 476,308 available for sites and 
additional land, and $20,821,476 for construction, exten- 
sion and repair work. 



A SEVERE blow to Chicago's plans for a 
"city beautiful" has been dealt by the 
superior court at Springfield, 111., in holding 
that the $8,000,000 structure to house the Field 
Columbian Museum may not be erected in (irant 
Park, the lake-front playground. Upon this 
site the museum had been made the center of a 
system of parks, driveways, and other imposing 
buildings, which were to transform the city. 
Under the terms of the will the trustees of the 
museum still have three years in which to ob- 
tain a site; but it is doubtful if one near the 
heart of the city can be secured. 




AFTER nearly three years of labor the Com- 
mercial Club of Chicago, aided by the local 
architects, has published its comprehensive plans 
for the beautification of the city. The plans are con- 
tained in a volume of over one hundred and fifty pages, 
profusely illustrated by Jules Guerin, Fernand Janin, and 
others. The six chief objects 
aimed at are the following: 
The improvement of the lake 
front. The creation of a sys- 
tem of highways outside the 
city. The improvement of 
railway terminals and the de- 
velopment of a complete trac- 
tion system for both freight and 
passengers. The acquisition of 
an outer park system and of 
parkway circuits. The system- 
atic arrangement of streets 



DKIAII, I'.V lOHN 
W. VESTOR, 
ARCHITECT. 
Made by Brick Terra 
Cotta & Tile Com- 
pany. 



ARCHITECTS in the larger cities of the 
United States have been invited by officials 
of the Argentine Republic to submit, in compe- 
tition, designs for a hospital group at Buenos 
Ayres. The buildings are to cost $10,000,000 
and are to follow the system of twenty-four de- 
tached institutes of sixty beds in each. Houses 
for members of the faculty and residents, the 
electric lighting, water supply, heating, laundry, 
and other details, are to be presented in the plans. 
The program has been distributed by the con- 
sul general of the Argentine Republic at Wash- 
ington. The competition is to close at noon, 
December 10th. The successful architect's 
compensation is to be five per cent, and he is 
to superintend the construction. The plans 
deemed second best are to obtain a prize of 
$10,000, and those considered third best will 
win $5,000. 



D' 




of a Chicago and 
Northwestern railroad bridge at Clinton, 
Iowa, a white worm about one half an inch long 
has been discovered attaching itself to the timbers far 
below the water line in such a manner as to soon render 
the bridge unsafe. Specimens of the worm have been 

.sent to the University of Chi- 
cago for examination, and if 
found as destructive as is sup- 
posed another reason will have 
been discovered for the avoid- 
ance of wood construction. 



UKTAIL BY F. C. BONSACK, ARCHITECT. 
Made by Winkle Terra Cotta Company. 



PLANS for the William 
Rainey Harper Library, 
drawn by Shepley, Rutan & 
Coolidge, have been accepted 
by the board of trustees of the 
University of Chicago and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



239 



ground will be broken this summer 
for the erection of this, the Univer- 
sity's largest and most costly struc- 
ture. Four structures, adjoining the 
library and forming integral parts of 
the design made public in Chicago 
July 9th, will be erected as soon as 
funds are obtained, the whole repre- 
senting an outlay of about $1,000,000. 



THE Wall street district is full. 
So it would appear with the 
erection of the Bankers Trust Com- 
pany's sixteen or twenty story build- 
ing upon what is about the only site 
left which is unimproved by tall build- 
ings. This is the land on which Jona- 
than Edwards' famous church once 
stood. It has been leased for twenty- 
one years, or with options for re- 
newals for eighty-four years, at an 
aggregate rental of $7,000,000. Within 
the past year investments aggregating 
some $15,000,000 are represented in the construction of 
new buildings upon or very near Wall street. Future 
banking structures must be erected north of the famous 
thoroughfare. 




DETAIL HV SOMMKKFF.LU A: STECK.LER, 

ARCHITECTS. 

JIade by New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 



PRESIDENT DELANO, of the Wabash 
Railroad, has submitted to the City of 
Chicago the plans for a $100,000,000 trans- 
portation center to be built in that city. It 
includes new terminal facilities of the West- 
ern Indiana Railroad and contemplates the 
abandonment of present freight and passenger 
terminals and the centralization of many lines 
in a structure half a mile south of the present 
limits of the business district. 



PROF. CHARLES RICKET, of Paris, 
claims to have discovered a means of 
purifying air in a room by use of an ap- 
paratus consisting of an air filter which me- 
chanically sterilizes the air. Fine drops of 
glycerine are scattered along the walls of a 
cylinder, containing a suction fan, through which the air 
is whirled. 




development of the new site of the 
University of Pittsburgh is progress- 
ing rapidly. Upon the forty-three 
acres in the Oakland district of the 
city, and formerly a part of the 
Schenley Farms, the School of Mines 
and the School of Engineering have 
been reared and the School of Medi- 
cine is to be commenced at once. A 
memorial fountain is to be erected 
with the sum of $30,000 bequeathed 
by Christopher Magee. The Univer- 
sity of California has completed the 
purchase of two hundred and fifty ad- 
ditional acres of ground adjoining the 
campus and comprising the entire 
inner portion of Strawberry Caiion. 
The trustees of the Andover Theolog- 
ical Seminary, which removed last 
year to Cambridge and became affili- 
ated with Harvard University, have 
purchased about two hundred thou- 
sand square feet of ground in Cam- 
bridge. Upon this a group of buildings will be erected. 
The principal building, to be called "Andover Hall," 
will front on Francis avenue. By the $500,000 gift of 
Lord Strathcona, McGill University comes 
into possession of a quarter of a million dol- 
lars, the difference being donated by Andrew 
Carnegie. Rutgers College will break ground 
within a few weeks for a new chemistry 
building. 



DETAIL I!Y G. AJELLO, 
ARCHITECT. 

Made by New York Archi- 
tectural T.erra Cotta 
Company. 



IN GENERAL. 

Hugo H. Zimmermann has opened an 
office for the practice of architecture at 184 
La Salle street, Chicago, 111. 

Lansburgh & Joseph, architects, of San 
Francisco, have dissolved their copartner- 
ship. G. Albert Lansburgh will continue 
practice with offices in the Gunst Building. 



THE trustees of Princeton have selected the site of 
the Graduate College for the erection of which 
William Proctor has donated $500,000. It is to be a 
short distance southwest of the present campus. The 
prudential committee of the 
Yale corporation has voted 
in favor of erecting the 
new Physical Laboratory, 
for which $425,000 was re- 
cently given by William D. 
and Henry T. Sloane, on 
the Hillhouse property 
(Sachem's Wood) and at a 
point about midway on the 
Prospect street front. The detail hv south amhoy 




At the October meeting of the Cleveland 
Chapter A. LA., W. Dominick Benes was 
elected president, Frederick W. vStriebinger, 

vice president, and Emile Thebaud, secretary and 

treasurer. 

Warren & Welton, architects, have removed to new 
and enlarged quarters, 1607-11 Empire Building, Bir- 
mingham, Ala. 

The Architectural Club of Baltimore has removed 

from 6 West Eager street 
to its new rooms at 847 
North Eutaw street. 



The Avery Library Com- 
mission was created by the 
Letter of Gift of the found- 
ers, Mr. and Mrs. .S. P. 
Avery, who established and 
endowed the library in 
memory of their son. 



TERRA COTTA COMTANV, 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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REFECTORV BUILDING, HUMBOLDT I'ARK, CHICAdO. 
Roof laid with Ludowici- Celadon Tile. 
Schmidt, Garde n & Martin, Architects. 



Henry O. Avery. The statement in our October issue 
that the library was established and endowed by Henry ( ). 
Avery is incorrect. 



James C. Green announces that he has with- 
drawn from the firm of Kirby, Pettit & (ireen, 
and will continue the practice of architecture 
with offices at 103 Park avenue, New York City. 

Announcement is made that the firm of Wills 
& Ingle has been dissolved. Hereafter Mr. Wills 
will continue business under the name of J. L. 
Wills, architect, Rookery Building, 127 Fourth 
street, Evansville, Ind. 

Desjardins & Sheblessy, architects, Cincinnati, 
have dissolved their copartnership. Mr. Desjar- 
dins will retain the old offices in the Fourth 
National Bank Building, while .Mr. Sheblessy 
has taken offices in the Provident Bank Building. 
Manufacturers' catalogues desired. 

The Empire Building, for which CarjDcnter & 
Blair and Warren & Welton, associated, were 
architects, is located at Birmingham, Ala., and 
not at Atlanta, Ga. , as stated in our October 
issue. Bruce & Morgan were the architects for 
the Empire Building at Atlanta. 



The Year Book of the San Francisco Archi- 
tectural Club issued in connection with the Fifth 
Exhibition and under the direction of the Archi- 
tectiiral League of the Pacific Coast, is of more 
than ordinary merit and interest. The illustra- 
tions of work which is being done by the leading 
men of the coast is especially attractive and well 
worth studying. If we may venture a sugges- 
tion, it is that the illustrations would have had 
greater interest had more of them been from photographs 
of the buildings themselves rather than drawings. 

After a struggle, lasting about thirteen years, Kansas 
City is to have an adequate union railroad station. The 
voters have overwhelmingly endorsed the new depot and 



Uh.lAIL ]i\ 
THOMAS 
HANNA, 
ARCHITECT. 
Made by North- 
western Terra 
Cotta Com- 
pany. 



terminal ordinance, and the railroad officials have ac- 

cjuiesced, promising that actual construction will soon be 

begun. The station is to cost about $3,000,000, 

and other improvements involved will cost about 

$12,000,000 additional. 

Norfolk, Va., is about to pass upon a project 
to bring several railway systems through a 
tunnel, to be built under the Elizabeth River 
from Pinner's Point, into the business center of 
Norfolk and there terminate in a union station to 
be newly erected at a cost of about $1,000,000. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the Cooke 
School at Washington, illustrated in the Plate 
Form of this issue, was furnished by the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company. 

The terra cotta used for the Tilton School, 
illustrated in this issue, was supplied by the 
American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. 

The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company fur- 
nished the terra cotta for the Bernhard Moos 
School, which is illustrated in this issue. 



The enameled brick used in the Tilton School, 
Bernhard Moos School, and the Albert G. Lane 
Technical High School, the three new school 
buildings at Chicago, illustrated in this issue, 
was supplied by the Tiffany Enameled Brick 
Company. 



We are indebted to the Boston Post for the 
photograph showing the interior of the Boston 
Opera House, illustrated in this issue. 



The " Belnord," which is the new twelve story 
apartment house occupying the entire block bounded by 
Broadway, Amsterdam avenue, 86th and 87th streets in 
New York, is finished and opened to inspection. The 
facts about the building appearing in the advertisements 
soliciting tenants at rentals of $2,100 and upwards make 
interesting reading. The building is erected around an 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 



open court 231 by 94 feet and contains apartments of all 
sizes from seven rooms up, with two, three, and four bath- 
rooms and two or three servants' rooms and baths. Each 
apartment has a foyer hall opening directly into the 
parlor or dining room. Each apartment has an individual 
fireproof storage room in the basement. The kitchens, 
butlers' pantries, and laundries face on the streets, and 
the bedrooms open on the interior court, insuring quiet to 
the sleeping or living rooms. The advantage of this is 
seen when it is realized that the width of the court is 
greater than that of the average city street. All kitchens 
are equipped with gas ranges and have a garbage recep- 
tacle built in the wall and ventilated. The refrigerators 
are artificially cooled. Wall safes are a feature of each 




A FACTOR\' liUILDING. 

The walls of which are constructed of 12 inch by 12 inch by 12 inch 

terra cotta blocks furnished by National Fireproofing Company. 

Building is 44 feet by 80 feet, with two wings each 18 feet by 

. 36 feet. Floors, frame. Cost, $13,000, or 10 cents per 

cubic foot. Tile contract, $1,247. 




HOUSE AT ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Built of dark gray brick made by Twin City Brick Company, St. Paul. 

Clarence H. Johnston, Architect. 

ical and electrical plant, spell what is probably the last 
word in modern apartment house equipment. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the Boston Opera 
House, illustrated in the Plate Form of this issue, was 
supplied by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. All the 
columns shown and the trim were of a soft toned, cream 
white terra cotta. 

"The Shubert Theatre" is the name of a new play- 
house to be built in New York by the 39th street Theatre 
Company, of which Lee vShubert is the head. It is to be 
erected opposite the old Casino Theatre, on the site of 
the old Mystic Flats. The building will be seven stories 
high, and part of it will be fitted up as studios. 



apartment. A vacuum cleaning plant with an outlet in 
each apartment and a complete telephone system, mechan- 



It is rumored that D. O. Mills will build another of the 
Mills Hotels in New York City. 



W^ANTED — Architect with Paris training and experienced 
in country work, not having sufficient independent business, 
would like to make arrangement with New York firm of 
good standing. Address " L. M.," care The Brickbuilder. 

WANTED — Draftsman w^ith extensive experience in terra 
cotta works and capable of taking charge of drafting room at 
factory. Give age ; length of time employed and name of 
Works. Salary, $2,000 per year. Address Terra Cotta, care 
of The Brickbuilder. 



WANTED — A POSITION January 1st as chief draftsman 

BY A HIGH CLASS RAPID DRAFTSMAN, DESIGNER, DETAILER, 
AND COLORIST. EXPERT IN ORNAMENT AND PERSPECTIVE. 
TWENTY-FIVE YEARS' EXPERIENCE IN THE LEADING CITIES 
OF THE UNITED STATES. PRICE, $75 PER WEEK. ADDRESS, 

"DESIGNER," 414 N. Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MV LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La Salle St., Chicago. Long Distance Tel., Franklin U28. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 

The quality of our work has passed the inspection of tlie United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The Franklin Union Building in Boston, R. Clipston Sturgis, 
Architect, is a sample of our work, and we have contracts for 
the North Dakota, the largest Battlesliip in the United States 
Navy ; the extensions of the .Suffolk County Court House in 
Boston, George A. Clough, Architect ; and the Registry of 
Deeds, Salem, Mass., C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



242 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



W^ANTED — Situation by competent architectural draftsman 
who has had seven years' experience in first class offices in 
Boston and the Middle West. Has also studied abroad. Age, 
twenty-four years. Address, M. H. K., care of The Brick- 
builder. 



WANTED — Writer of specifications ; man of good address. 
College or Technical Institute graduate, experienced in writing 
specifications of the general divisions of fireproof buildings, 
exclusive of the electrical, mechanical, and sanitary divisions. 
Address Holabird CSb Roche, Architects, 1618 Monadnock 
Block, Chicago, III. 



60 WATER COLOURS $2.00 

"The Cathedral Cities of Spain," a portfolio con- 
taining 60 reproductions from original water colours 
by W. W. Collins. R. I. 

This portfolio is of interest to all architects, drafts- 
men, and artists, "dabbling" in w^ater colours. 

The above portfolio is an addition to the series listed below : 

" English Cathedrals," 60 plates - - - $2.00 

" French Cathedrals," 60 plates - . . 2.00 

" Versailles and the Trianons, " 56 plates - - 2.00 

" Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus," 58 plates - 2.00 

The five portfolios will be sent, express paid, on receipt of $9.00 



J. H. JANSEN 



SUCCESSOR 
TO 



M. A. VINSON 



302 Caxton Bldg. - - - Cleveland, Ohio 

WANTED -" BRICKBUILDER " AUGUST, 1898, AND APRIL, 1899 



THE ARCHITECTURAL Comprisms th. principal 

FORMS of the CLASSIC AGES Tcplst^'t^ 

Lntablaturci. 
By CONST ANTIN UHDE 

Second Edition Revised by R. PHENE SPIERS. Author of " The Architecture 
of Greece and Rome." 

Containing 76 plates in color, collotype, and photo-lithography, with descriptive letter-preas 
in English. French, German, or Spanish. 

Price, $20.00 



EXAMPLES of COLONIAL ARCHITEC- 
TURE m SOUTH CAROLINA ant/ GEORGIA 

By E. A. CRANE and E. E. SODERHOLTZ 

52 plates, very finely reproduced in heliotypes, folio size (12^ by 16 inches) 

In portfolio, $16.00 

Fxteriors. inlerlors. halls, mantels, doorways, staircases, furniture, details of decoration, etc. 

Illustrating some of the best and most interesting examples of American Colonial Work. 

many of which have now disappeared. 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

64 EAST 12th STREET NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Catalogue will be sent upon request 



COMPETITION FOR A PUBLIC BATH AND GYMNASIUM BUILDING. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. 



SECOND PRIZE, $200. 
COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 17, 1910. 



THIRD PRIZE, $100. 



PROGRAM. 

TH E problem is a Public Bath and Gymnasium Building. The location may be assumed in any American city of about 50,000 inhabitants, or some section in a larger 
city. Competitors may choose between two sites, one at the corner of two intersecting streets, or one in the middle of a block. Both lots are ample in size to 
accommodate the building and are practically level. 

In plan the building may be rectangular (block) ; or of the pavilion type, having a central motive and two wings, with the longitudinal axis parallel to the street. 
The plan should provide for the following : — 
IF OF THE BLOCK. TYPE: — 

In the basement : a swimming pool, six showers, a suitable number of lockers, dressing rooms and benches, toilet rooms, supply rooms, a small laundry for washing 

and drying, heating plant, and coal storage. 
On the first floor : general waiting room, administration offices, at least fifty showers (forty with individual dressing rooms, and ten arranged in groups), lockers, 

dressing benches, toilet rooms, etc. 
On the second Hoor, which may extend approximately two stories : a gymnasium, six showers, four sponge baths, a rubbing table, lockers, dressing rooms, benches, 
instructors' and medical attendants' rooms. 
IF OF THE PAVILION TYPE: — 
In the central part of the building : first floor to provide for a reception room and administrative offices. Second floor to provide a hall for lectures and other enter- 
tainments. 
In one wing : a gymnasium with the same accommodaiions as recommended for the block type. 
In the other wing : a swimming pool, the shower baths, and other features suggested for the block type. 
GENERAL:- 

In connection with the gymnasium a running track should be provided which will have not more than twenty four laps to the mile. Other gymnasium apparatus 

need not be indicated. 
Competitors are free to add any additional features to the plan and equipment which may seem desirable. 
The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terra cotta, employing color treatment in at least portions of the walls. It is suggested that large 
blank surfaces of gymnasium walls afford an excellent opportunity for design in terra cotta. 
The following points will be considered in judging the designs : — 
A. Rational and artistic treatment of the exterior. B. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. C. Excellence of plan. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural terra cotta. There is no limitation of cost, 
but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to be executed. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of architectural terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by reason of the material, 
will be taken largely into consideration. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 
On one sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a stale of S feet to the inch. On the same sheet, below the front elevation, the floor plans drawn at a scale of 
i(> feet to the inch. 

On a second sheet, at the top, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a scale of i6 feet to the inch ; immediately below half inch scale details of the most inter- 
esting features of the design. The details should indicate in a general manner tlte jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. The color scheme is to be indi- 
cated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the same sheet with the secondary elevation and details, at a size which will permit of two thirds reduction. 

The size of each sheet fthere are to be but two) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets, one inch from edges, giving 
a space inside the border lines 34 inches by 22 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 
Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is t" be signed by a »om de plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and con- 
taining the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of The Bkickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January 17, 1910. 
Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling 
and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brickbi'ilder, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their 
drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps, if on cardboard twenty-five cents in stamps. 
The designs will he judged by three or five well-known menibers of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. For the design placed second a prize of $200. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

There have been published in The BRiCKHuiLtiEn from time to time articles treating of the Pul)lic Bath and the Gymnasium, also illustrations of both types of build- 
ings. This data, which may be of assistanre to those wlio intend to enter this competition, will be found in the following issues : — 

1909. February, March, April, May. June. 1908. February, March, April, May, June, August, November. 

\Ve are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising 
columns of The Bkickbuilder. 

This competition is open to everyone. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVIII DECEMBER I909 Number 12 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, l>)iw, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

Sincle numbers .................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada .....,...,,., $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union . . , , . . . . , , , , . , $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVAK':;E 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the fbllowing order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ..,.'... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

„ Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



FACE 

Brick Enameled . . . . . . . . .Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

BLISS & FAVILLE; DELANO & ALDRICH; HARDINCi & SEAVER; CHARLES BARTON 
KEEN; PARISH & SCHROEDER; PEABODY & STEARNS; JAMES PURDON; 

ROBINS & OAKMAN. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AGB 

REMAINS OF A RESERVOIR BELONGING TO THE EMPEROR DOMITIAN'S VILLA Frontispiece 

THREE MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOLHOUSES Killiain k.:-' l!ot>/,iiis 243 

NEW SCHOOLHOUSE AT NEWTON, MASS liipley Cr Kiissell 247 

TERRA COTTA: ITS CHARACTER AND CONSTRUCTION — III Charles U. Thrall 249 

COMPOSITE HOLLOW TILE CONSTRUCTION Ccoro^e S. Dn-c 254 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS F. W . Wiiilfrhui n 257 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRI PTION ^ 259 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 261 




\riii<ui<ui<<<uuu<<<u<u<<<uiUi'(<<'(iiiu<i'>'>M->\'>^'>'>'>\\'>>>>y>>>>>}y^^^ 



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THE BRICKBVUDER 



VOL. 18 P. 12 DEVOTEDTO™iNTERE3TJ-Of-ARCHITECTVRMNMATERlAaoraAY- ,,,,„,,,,,, 





Three Massachusetts Schoolhouses. 

KILHAM & HOPKINS, ARCHITECTS. 



THE three school buildings illustrated in this article, 
the Salem High School, and the Williams and 
Shurtleff Schools in Chelsea, were all completed during 
the year 1909 and possess certain constructional features 
in common. The exteriors are of red water struck brick 
laid Flemish bond and terra cotta trimmings, with brick 
heat and vent ducts, and practically all brick interior 
walls. The boiler houses and considerable portions of 
the first floors are of reinforced concrete slabs on steel 
beams. The floors and roof frame are of steel girders 
and trusses, with Georgia pine joists, and are wire lathed 
throughout. The staircases are 
all fireproof, made of iron and 
slate and enclosed in brick walls. 
The roofs are of asphalt com- 
position, with copper flashing car- 
ried up parapet walls and under 
copings. The ventilation is by 
the mechanical system, which 
forces the fresh air through con- 
crete tunnels under the basement 
floor to the brick up-takes with 
automatic temperature control. 
The Salem High School has in 
addition a "forced hot water" 
heating apparatus. 

All interior finish is in oak. 
Individual ventilating closets and 
urinals with slate partitions are 
used in every case. The " smoke 
doors " enclosing the stairways 
and the double entrances to each 
school room are requirements of 
the local inspectors of the Massa- 
chusetts District Police. 

In these schools the intention 
was to have the costs moderate 
and the results most durable and 
attractive. While not strictly 
"fireproof" the buildings are 
nearly so in fact, and are fully as 
secure from fire danger. The 
costs per cubic foot given include 

in all cases general contract, plumbing, heating, ventila- 
ting, power plants, lighting fixtures, grading, seeding and 
curbing the grounds, granolithic outside walks and steps. 

High School, Salem. The building is located on a 
lot which is 25 feet above the level of the street. The 




l-lALF Plv-v^ oi.n:?pcH! .Mal.f.Pi_aa(-of. vSornx, 



DETAILS OF MAIN ENTRANCE, WILLIAMS 
SCHOOL. 

Killiam & Hopkins, Art-liitects. 



architects have used the Georgian style in order to have 
the school harmonize with the colonial buildings of old 
Salem. The plan is practically a hollow square with the 
assembly hall in the center, and is specially arranged to 
permit of a future wing across the rear of the building. 
The central pavilion emphasizes the vestibule and 
main entrance on the first floor, the school library on the 
second floor, and a large lecture room for science on the 
third floor. In addition to the library the second floor 
contains the gallery of the assembly hall, seven class 
rooms, four recitation rooms, and toilets. The third 
floor provides for three class 
rooms, four recitation rooms, labo- 
ratories for chemistry, physics, 
botany, and domestic science, as 
well as rooms for mechanical and 
freehand drawing. 

The building is arranged for 
"home" desks for 864 pupils, 
with ten extra recitation rooms, 
beside rooms for special branches. 
The proportion of recitation to 
class rooms depends upon the cur- 
riculum of the school and it would 
seem to be fair to rate the capac- 
ity of a high school by the total 
seating capacity of class and reci- 
tation rooms.* Figured in this 
way the building accommodates 
1,100 pupils and cost complete 
$272 per pupil. 

There are four entrances to the 
building and the same number of 
stairways that run from the base- 
ment floor to the third floor, with 
a width of 5 feet in the clear. The 
floors of the corridors are terrazzo, 
while all other flooring is of maple 
finished with two coats of oil. 
Quartered oak with antique stain, 
three coat work well rubbed down, 
is used throughout the interior for 
trimming, with the exception of 
the assembly hall, which is treated in white, with gray 
walls. The assembly hall seats 1,400 people. The walls 
of the class rooms are colored in two tones of buff, the 
darker shade being used on the burlap to prevent soiling, 

* Vide Boston Schoolliouse Commission Report, Vol. IV., page 2. 



244 



THE B R I C K R U I L D E R 




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SALEM HIGH SCHOOL, 

SALEM, MASS. 

Kiliuim A: Hopkins. 
Architects. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



247 



while the lighter shade is used on the plaster above on 
account of its restfulness to the eyes. 

The pupils' clothing is kept in individual ventilated steel 
lockers in two large and well lighted basement rooms. 
These lockers are 12 inches by 12 inches and 60 inches high. 
Basement entrances are arranged giving direct access 
to locker rooms. A complete chemical fire extinguish- 
ing plant is installed in the basement with ten stations 
throughout the building, equipped with hose reels and 
boxes, when by breaking the glass the ^pressure can be 
immediately applied. The building contains a complete 
independent electric lighting plant. 

The total cost, including all furnishings and equip- 
ment, was about $300,000, and the cost of the building, 
exclusive of furnishings, about 16 cents per cubic foot. 

Williams School, Chelsea. This building has been 
designed as the central structure of a future group of 
three and contains the assembly hall and boiler plant for 
the entire group. The other buildings are to have six- 
teen rooms each. The assembly hall is on the first floor 
and is arranged so that it may be readily used by the 
general public without entering the main building. 

The floors throughout the building are of rift Georgia 
pine. The general trim is slashed oak. Slate black- 
boards and dadoes of burlap are found in all class rooms. 
The stair construction consists of iron everywhere, except 
the treads, which are of slate. In addition to the regular 
stairs there is a special type of fire escape stairs which 
are enclosed in brick towers included within the outside 
walls of the building and yet entirely isolated from the 
interior. They are so planned that no one can enter 
them without first passing out of doors upon an open 
balcony. This precaution was taken so that the towers 
would always be free from smoke in case of fire. 

There are twenty class rooms which accommodate 50 
pupils each, making the total number of 1,000 scholars. 
There are also four fully equipped basement rooms. 

The cost of the entire building is $166,829, or approxi- 
mately 16>^ cents per cubic foot. The cost per pupil is 
therefore $166, which is high for the building already 
built but will be very moderate when the proportionate 



cost of the assembly hall is charged to the 1,600 addi- 
tional pupils who will occupy the remaining buildings of 
the group. 

Shurtleff School, Chelsea. This structure is one of 
two wings that have been planned and which will even- 
tually be connected by means of the low fireproof boiler 
house. Through this boiler house will run a wide cor- 
ridor, so that there will be easy access from one wing to 
the other. This plan gives an example of the H type of 
building, which affords a better opportunity of lighting 
the large rooms than the other well known types. The 
red water struck brick on the exterior blends harmoni- 
ously with the white terra cotta, presenting a very bold 
design at the corners as compared with the rather open 
and delicate style of the central feature. The mullioned 
windows are arranged so as to furnish the largest amount 
of light possible. 

There are twenty-nine class rooms, beside manual 
training and domestic science rooms, which accommo- 
date a total of 1,450 pupils. These rooms have burlap 
dadoes with tinted plaster above. The blackboards 
throughout are of slate. The floors are of rift Georgia 
pine, while the rest of the woodwork is of slashed oak. 
There are four stairways from the basement to the top 
floor, two of which are closed in and are only accessible 
from an open balcony, which allows of escape in case of 
fire by means of an avenue shut off from the rest of the 
building, and proof against smoke. 

The indirect system of steam heating by means of fans 
is used in this school together with an automatic device 
for temperature control. 

The cubical contents of the building is 1,041,646 cubic 
feet, while the entire cost is $161,203. The cost per cubic 
foot is about 16 cents and the cost per pupil about $114. 

Both the Shurtleff and Williams Schools are lighted 
throughout with Tungsten lights, with seven outlets to 
each class room. In addition gas is provided for all cor- 
ridors, stairways, and assembly hall. All electric lights 
in connection with exits are on a separate circuit from 
the rest of the building. Fire alarm, program clocks, 
and telephones are provided. 



New Schoolhouse at Newton, Mass., Nonantum District. 

RIPLEY & RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 



THE schoolhouse has a commanding site, situated on 
a small hill with ample grounds surrounding the 
building. A large athletic field has been planned on an 
adjacent lot, which, in connection with the large space 
given up to play rooms in the basement, assures the 
pupils of excellent opportunities for exercise. 

The exterior is a very frank expression of the plan, 
which is symmetrical in its general arrangement. The 
brick is red with wide white mortar joints, all of which 
harmonize with the limestone trimmings. Green slate 
has been used on the roof and copper on the dormers « 
and ridges. The windows are arranged to give the 
maximum amount of light. 

The floors throughout the building are of Georgia pine, 
with no finish on them. The walls of the class rooms 



consist of rough plaster with a burlap dado 7 feet 
high, the color of which is a light soft green. The halls 
are finished in gray with woodwork of birch, stained red. 
Two flights of stairs run from the basement to the third 
floor and are constructed of iron with asphalt treads. 
Special provision has been made in the basement for ten 
shower baths. The class rooms are provided with closets 
in addition to the wardrobes. 

The building is supplied with steam heat and is 
equipped with the " gravity" system of ventilation. 

The school accommodates 800 pupils and cost $100,000. 
The cost per cubic foot was 16.6 cents, which included 
clocks, telephones, and bells. Including the cost of grad- 
ing the extensive grounds, building walks, paths, etc., 
the cost per cubic foot was 17 cents. 



248 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





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Riplt-y & Russell, Architc(.ts. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 



Terra Cotta: Its Character and Construction — III. 



BY CHARLES U. THRALL. 



IT HAS been the custom in years past for manufac- 
turers to joint their terra cotta into comparatively 
small pieces, and this custom has been accepted by archi- 
tects as one of the necessary evils to be encountered in 
the use of the material. In a previous article it has been 
explained how very large pieces may at times be safely 
made, but ordinarily the best results are obtained when 
the blocks are not too large. 

In some instances pieces that are quite small do not 
detract from the appearance of a design, as shown on 
Plate IX., but when white glazed terra cotta is used it is 
often objectionable to have a large number of joints dis- 
cernible unless they carry out a structural idea, such as 
an arch, etc. Usually, in such a case, with a little care 
a design may be made so that many of the necessary 
joints may be hidden and the broad white surfaces give 
an impression of restfulness which would otherwise be 
lost. 

Plate VIII. shows an example of this kind and con- 
tains many suggestions which are very valuable to con- 
sider in the ordinary run of work. The horizontal joints 
are a feature of the design, they being 1 foot 2 inches 
apart, probably look better than if the distance were 
greater, and at the same time, to facilitate the manufac- 
ture of the pieces, practically all of the vertical joints are 
hidden where the internal corners occur. 

The first course to the pilasters, which acts as a base, 
has a projection so that if there is any irregularity in the 
shrinkage it will not be apparent, the course above being 
fully 2 inches less in length. This particular piece, 
although long, is a very safe one to make as it is almost 
square in section, and, being narrow, there is not much 
tendency to warp. The piece above this on which the 
moulding occurs is also made in one part in width, being 
very much the same kind of piece as that at the base, 
but it must coincide with the width of the one above it. 

The third course of the pilaster and all those above, 
up to the course underneath the cap, are each divided 
into three pieces, there being a plumb joint separating 
the outer moulding from the ashlar panel. Owing to the 
fact that bricks may be built into the open spaces at the 
back of the terra cotta there is no objection to such a 
plumb joint even if it ran through several stories. The 
old idea of breaking bond, as is necessary in stone work, 
does not apply to terra cotta. On the Flatiron Building, 
New York City, the round corner at the point of the 
building is so constructed that there is a plumb joint at 
the internal angle where this round corner connects with 
the main wall, this joint running from the bottom of the 
building up to the cornice. In many other of our tall 
buildings this method has been employed so that there 
need be no misgivings about jointing terra cotta in such 
a manner, especially as every piece as now made by the 
leading manufacturers has an anchor hole in the top bed 
into which may be inserted a strap anchor, which is built 
into the wall, as shown on Plate XI. This, together 
with the building of the bricks into open spaces in the 
back of the terra cotta, firmly ties the material to the 
wall ; in fact, it is unnecessary to use an anchor in every 



piece. Sometimes it is well to put one in every third 
piece, and at other times in every third or fourth course. 
On buildings of moderate height, where there is slight 
projection to the course, anchors are not necessary 
at all. 

The block at the corner, at the left of the pilaster at 
plan " A-A," is separated from the pilaster pieces with a 
plumb back-checked joint with the bond cut off at an 
angle. 

As each piece of terra cotta must be " turned out " of 
the mould when it is rather soft the edges and corners 
which will show at the building should have some 
protection. This bond being made at an angle is so 
arranged that no corner which is to be finished will 
rest on the board on which the piece is " turned out," 
and in that way all the corners are protected from being 
chipped. At the same time the joint between the corner 
piece and pila.ster is hidden by being back-checked. It 
is not necessary to run the bond of the moulding to the 
pilaster back of the face of the main wall pieces for any 
constructive reason, but simply to protect the edge which 
occurs at the internal corner from being marred when 
the pieces are "turned out" on the board, the bond 
being arranged in this manner for practically the same 
reason that the bond was cut off on an angle on the 
corner piece. Both of these pieces are so arranged that 
the open space is convenient for building the rough 
brick-work into the back of the terra cotta. 

The ashlar panel pieces are somewhat more difficult to 
manufacture, owing to the fact that they are so thin, and 
on that account there is a greater tendency to warp. This 
is obviated to some extent by making the courses narrow. 
By hiding the joint behind the curve of the moulding 
there is afforded opportunity for adjusting the piece to 
the proper dimension. For instance, if these pieces 
should shrink slightly more than the piece at the second 
course of the pilaster there would be a larger joint than 
would be desirable. If they did not shrink enough it 
would necessitate cutting the pieces in the yard, which, 
of -course, could be done, but by arranging a joint of this 
kind all the adjustment may be made, as a rule, without 
the expense of cutting, and still retain the appearance of 
tight joints. The pieces between the pilaster and the 
jamb of the window are arranged with the same idea so 
as to afford adjustment and protection to the edges. Up 
to the arch, therefore, no vertical joints are apparent. 
The arch is arranged with five voussoirs so as to main- 
tain practically the same size pieces as the jamb pieces. 

The frieze over the lintel is jointed in three pieces, but 
the joints are lost in the lines of the ornament. 

The cornice to the window is rather more difficult to 
manufacture on account of the various members that 
must " take up." With the exception of the miter pieces 
the joint is placed under the plinth so that trimming can 
be done at that point to make the work fit. 

The spandrel is so arranged that there is always a joint 
which may be trimmed and that there will be no two 
points which are so tied that they will not "take up." 
For instance, the piece at the side of the key in the span- 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



drel where the jib shaped portion of the sunken panel 
occurs, has two points which must "take up" with the 
adjoining piece, viz : where the sinkageof the panel occurs. 
But as there is a joint arranged on one side of this panel, 
following the curve of the circular jamb piece to the win- 
dow, there is opportunity to trim at this point. The inner 
arch is separated from the outer arch, and the ashlar por- 
tion of the large voussoirs to the main arch are separated 
by a joint around the outside line of the arch. This is also 
a matter of economy as each one of the arch pieces may be 
made from the same mould, whereas if the vovissoirs were 
attached there would be many more moulds necessary as 
each voussoir is different from the other. 

The pilaster piece directly under the caj) is made in 
one part for the same 
reasons that the pieces at 
the foot of the pilaster 
were made that way. 
The ornamental cap is 
jointed in the center, the 
joint following the line of 
the ornament and coming 
around and slightly un- 
derneath the rosette so 
that the joint is entirely 
hidden. The hidden 
joints are made, as shown 
by the detail, tight on the 
face and wide at the back, 
so that the pieces may be 
moved backward or for- 
ward and have the same 
appearance of tightness 
on the face. 

Observe that in this de- 
sign the terra colta is 
again used as a veneer, 
the bond of the material 
being very slight. If this 
design were made in stone 
it is very apparent that 
there would be much 
more weight imposed 
upon the wall. All of 
these joints are so ar- 
ranged that the pieces 
may be laid upon the 
rubbing bed and finished 
to an exact size, plumb, 
and square. A design 
similar to this is very 
economical if executed in 
terra cotta, especially if 
the widths of the bays and 
piers are all kept at prac- 
tically the same dimen- 
sions, as the duplication 
in such a design together 
with the lightness of the 
material would reduce 
the expense very largely. 
This design was actually 
executed in gray terra 



cotta, but it would look particularly well in white matt 
glaze material, and there are also features which, if 
treated in color, would make the design most attractive. 
In the example shown in Plate IX. the jointing is a 
feature of the design ' and therefore there is no good 
reason for an attempt to hide the joints. The rosettes 
are all made in separate pieces as they alternate in 
design. The ashlar pieces, although practically the same 
size as those shown on Plate VIII., are a more difficult 
proposition to manufacture, as each piece should be true 
at every joint. The simplest kind of a piece, the ashlar, 
is one of the most difficult to make properly in terracotta 
because it is thin in bond and therefore has a tendency 
to curl or warp. The fact that these pieces may shrink 




■Platsj^LAA 



-DETAIL'S'Jgi^T- 



T!o-coi5ceaJ.-a^ ■ n^a^oy ■ of ^bc- Joints ■ ».i ■ poiiibif — 
Tbii- njt^hodi of jcjirjlin^ ■ corjcff&ii- ojavny ■ iOioU-vuloiclj 
would a\)crwi:,e ■ show- io ■ tbc d^rirtjcoV {o V)c. 

■ - ■ < I fc^ 



.^pe: 



i>xe>Jocc • oT 



PLATE VIII. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



251 



irregularly in size can be easily overcome by use of the 
rubbing bed, but should a piece warp too much in the 
burning the only remedy is to make another one to 
replace it, and in this design the warping would be more 
noticeable than in the design shown in Plate VIII. 

If the dado moulding were not so wide it would be 
possible to obtain better results as to alignment. The 
soffit of the jamb is separated from the face so as to 
afford a place to be trimmed to properly fit the material. 
This design was carried out to some extent in the Hudson 
Terminal Concourse, New York City. It was made in 



ment is ^^sually of a high class for reasons explained in a 
previous article; second, the joints are more or less hid- 
den in the ornament; and third, the surfaces and lines 
are so broken up by this ornament that absolute align- 
ment is not so important and any slight inaccuracies in 
size or shape are undiscernible. When to the profuse 
ornamentation is added the effect of colored glazes, 
terra cotta becomes a medium for the expression of the 
highest type of architectural art. 

As an example of profuse ornamentation, combined 
with colors, the Academy of Music in Brooklyn has at- 




' E.L£VATl67.S "^ATtn^ COIJA ■ yAYTITI^/i - 



of ■ 3tde uia.ll/ , Ticket- ujindow etc -lt> c&n • bc' meude- 1-7 WHITE.- (7R- CRtAM • WHITE." GLAZE. ■ 
- u'vlb- dec^rAUoM/ rcNeued- \n ■ a.ny ■ colcr- de/trcd — (jLAZED -TERRA- (^£?TTA - i/-durd.ble, •ya.oLt'Arjr ■ 
■ aiSid rectuwej rio repair/ Irj-prt^pcr ct^lc'i/tby n7&.fcrta.\ dclc\/-^rrd.ilvt£? iKcLl(jHT-EFrE.cT5-£?E-J/iTER]i^5 - 



■• PARTITIiOT- WALLS vr)^f he butlf - 
&/• pcryl^ptcb, tbu/ .^btktnirT^ a-jTrt? n£ 
ujsJl on\j 4 ibi-ck u)tfl> Glazed - 
Terra (27TTA facing 00 eacb /idc ■ 



5Ej;TIOT-^F PAtfTlTliTAf - 
.5H<?WlNa -Tf.CTA-iS^TTA- HOLWW 
TILE -^"PLAiTElf-ttNJTPUCTIM 



PLATE I.\. 



white glazed material, the fields of the panels in the dado 
moulding and jambs being colored yellow. 

Terra cotta has many things to recommend it for pur- 
poses of this kind, especially for the interiors of railroad 
depots, ferry terminals, hotel and theater lobbies, de- 
partment store entrances, hospitals, etc., where a large 
number of people congregate. 

White or cream colored full lustrous glaze would lend 
brilliancy to light effects, which is particularly desirable 
in subway stations or other places which must have arti- 
ficial light during the daytime. As the material is hard 
and the glaze impervious to water, terra cotta is very 
sanitary, can be washed absolutely clean with water, and 
being durable does not require repairs. 

When there is profuse ornamentation, terra cotta 
always looks its best for three reasons: first, the orna- 



tracted much attention. Plate X., which illustrates the 
construction of the cornice for this building, suggests 
a most practical method of support for any cornice of 
this size and shape. »Steel outlookers in the form of 
channel irons in pairs, placed back to back with 1 inch 
space between, are located over every alternate modil- 
lion. These channels are supported by braces placed 
at an angle of 4.S''. Parallel with the wall are placed 
angle irons, supported by the outlookers, and from these 
angle irons are suspended or anchored the several courses 
which are not built into the wall, as shall be explained in 
detail. 

The first four courses are built into the wall in the 
regular way, the frieze being cut into two courses to 
afford adjustment in height. Care is exercised so that 
the bonds of not only these courses but all others as 



252 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



well shall clear the iron work by fully 1 inch, so that 
there shall be no undue cutting at these points. As the 
dentil course is firmly built into the wall its nib becomes 
the tipping point for the courses above, which need have 
only as much bond as it has projection. But as this 
course is not bonded into the brickwork it is anchored by 
a rod which is bent around a pin placed in the ends of 
the terra cotta pieces, the rod being confined in a groove 
in the joint. The rod is placed as far forward as possible 
but so as to clear the back of the bond of the piece above. 



the angles, or else wedges must be placed between the 
anchors and the angle iron. 

The cornice is now built up to the top of the modillions, 
forming a bed for the hanging style which is jointed so 
that the soffit pieces have sufficient support by resting 
on the sides of the modillions and on the panel pieces 
between the modillions. But as a safeguard two pipes 
parallel to the wall are passed through the pieces and 
anchors are hooked around these and carried up over the 
angles. Over the modillions the bond of the hanging 




I^EFLE-CTED PlAJS ~ 




The deciPTattuc 
pcjrttcjo roa^ be -treated 

U) COLOK pre/€r)tlog 
D-r) effect of ricbn^//- 

except - VatXCWU>/«£. 
TEifRA Corrp, ~ 



-IStCTl^n ~ 



S^cr\aM T Bracket 

- Tby Ci7rnt.ce o1 POLYCHROME GLAZED - 
'TEIfPA i^OTTA rra^y bfyterj or) the ACADEMY '"' MUMC - 

- Typica l C^rmice.- 

- 5Hgwmg Approved 6oy^5'xwci:\^M. '- 



PI.ATK X. 



The upper end of the rod is hooked around an angle 
iron placed conveniently for that purpose. 

As the egf>^ and dart course is now firmly built its nib 
forms the tipping point for the course above, therefore 
the bond of this course may also be short. The panels 
between the modillions are supported in the same man- 
ner as the egg and dart course, with dowel pins and 
hangers, but the modillions are carried on pipes extend- 
ing into the open space at the back. The rear end of 
each pipe may be built into the brickwork, the forward 
end being supported by a hanger passing through a hole 
made in the top of the modillion and between the two 
outer angles where it may be bent over- the angle or have 
a nut and washer, the washer being wide and resting on 
the web of the angles. By tightening the nut proper 
adjustment may be easily made, whereas without the nut 
greater care must be used in bending the anchors over 



style is cut away to allow space for the outlookers and 
anchors and also to reduce weight. Every alternate 
piece must be cut away in the back to allow for the end 
of the outlookers. 

The rosettes in the .soffit and those of the crown mould 
are made in separate pieces to facilitate manufacture and 
for convenience in setting. Being separate they will also 
permit an interchange of designs or colors if desired. As 
these rosettes are more frail than other pieces, especially 
when projecting so far as shown on this design, it is 
much better to have them separate so as to save breakage, 
which might delay the building. If desired the soffit 
and crown moulding pieces could all be set before setting 
any of the rosettes. 

The dowel at the back of the rosette is inserted in a 
hole made for that purpose and cemented fast, and in the 
case of the soffit rosettes there is a hole in the dowel 



252 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



well shall clear the iron work by fully 1 inch, so that 
there shall be no undue cutting at these points. As the 
dentil course is firmly built into the wall its nib becomes 
the tipping point for the courses above, which need have 
only as much bond as it has projection. But as this 
course is not bonded into the brickwork it is anchored by 
a rod which is bent around a pin placed in the ends of 
the terra cotta pieces, the rod being confined in a groove 
in the joint. The rod is placed as far forward as possible 
but so as to clear the back of the bond of the piece above. 



the angles, or else wedges must be placed between the 
anchors and the angle iron. 

The cornice is now built up to the top of the modillions, 
forming a bed for the hanging style which is jointed so 
that the soffit pieces have sufficient support by resting 
on the sides of the modillions and on the panel pieces 
between the modillions. But as a safeguard two pipes 
parallel to the wall are passed through the pieces and 
anchors are hooked around these and carried up over the 
angles. Over the modillions the bond of the hanging 







i 




- l^EFLE-CT£.D PLAJS 



^=5 




^eri\.c?n rr^ay be l^rc&tcd 
u) COLOl! pre/coUog 
a.15 effect o] ncboe/^ 

obta.in 10 ary tftbev 

except - Vi7LY6H15l?/ffi. 



Jecti^/j ^f Bracket 

'IhyCcrnUe of V£>]yCHROMf. GLAZED - 
'TEPFA Cotta nje^y be^-eeo or) fbe ACADEMY '"' A\U.51<: - 
Mtrri b TAiLAflT- AwHiTirTs - - ftsa^KLV/i ■ HY • 

-Typical C^rmice.- 

■' ^H^wmg Approved Co/^5iwc-x\an - 



PLATE X. 



The upper end of the rod is hooked around an angle 
iron placed conveniently for that purpose. 

As the egg and dart course is now firmly built its nib 
forms the tipping point for the course above, therefore 
the bond of this course may also be short. The panels 
between the modillions are supported in the same man- 
ner as the egg and dart course, with dowel pins and 
hangers, but the modillions are carried on pipes extend- 
ing into the open space at the back. The rear end of 
each pipe may be built into the brickwork, the forward 
end being supported by a hanger passing through a hole 
made in the top of the modillion and between the two 
outer angles where it may be bent over the angle or have 
a nut and washer, the washer being wide and resting on 
the web of the angles. By tightening the nut proper 
adjustment may be easily made, whereas without the nut 
greater care must be used in bending the anchors over 



style is cut away to allow space for the outlookers and 
anchors and also to reduce weight. Every alternate 
piece must be cut away in the back to allow for the end 
of the outlookers. 

The rosettes in the .soffit and those of the crown mould 
are made in separate pieces to facilitate manufacture and 
for convenience in setting. Being separate they will also 
permit an interchange of designs or colors if desired. As 
these rosettes are more frail than other pieces, especially 
when projecting so far as shown on this design, it is 
much better to have them separate so as to save breakage, 
which might delay the building. If desired the soffit 
and crown moulding pieces could all be set before setting 
any of the rosettes. 

The dowel at the back of the rosette is inserted in a 
hole made for that purpose and cemented fast, and in the 
case of the soffit rosettes there is a hole in the dowel 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 155. 




^'—^ "^ 






PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



J 



TOWN HALL, CLINTON, MASS. 

Peabody & Stearns,, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 156. 




PLANATR-IRJTJTDRY' 



DETAILS OF WINDOWS, MAIN ENTRANCE, AND TOWER. 

TOWN HALL, CLINTON, MASS. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 157. 








td It. 






ja 




DETAILS OF 

TOWN HALL, CLINTON, MASS. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDE R. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 158. 





Sectiom -THRO. D-D- • Section -LOOMNG- West- 

SHOWING-ELEVATIOM-Or- 
Cupola 



DINING HALL AT MOUNT HERMON BOYS' SCHOOL, MOUNT HERMON, MASS. 

Parish & Schroeder, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 12. PLATE 159. 




O ^ lo IS xo 

riRST FLOOR PLAN 



• • • • 

-SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 18. NO. 12. 



PLATE 160. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 12. PLATE 161. 




HOUSE AT BRYN MAWR, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Charles Barton Keen, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18. NO. 12. PLATE 162. 




HOUSE AT DOVER, MASS. 
James Purdon, Architect. 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 163. 




< . 

It 0= 

> < 

O 2 

Q § 

h ? 

CO 

u ^ 

w < 

O 




lllllllil lllllil I i!l21 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 164. 



. A-rr^ .■.!,. 




FKONT ELEVATION 




RUSSELL SAGE HALL, NORTHFIELD, MASS. 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDE R. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. ^ PLATE 165. 






(r> 




m 




< 




2 




Q 




J 




U 




t-H c/> 








H t 




K o 




O^ 




^ X 




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kJ q: 




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< < 




ffi^ 




w ? 




o ^ 




,< m 




4/5 ■'-' 




J 




J 


--J 


W 


, 1 


W 




w 


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a: 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 166. 






< 

q" 

Qi i 

Z X 

, o 

J 3 
< < 

u ° 
■<j lij 

J 

W 
CO 
C/) 

a: 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 167. 





tMA 



lt*t^ 




KjMf ^aiitta.i,mitmaid^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 18, NO. 12. PLATE 1< 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



253 



through which is pushed from the back a pin long- 
enough to have ample rest on the inside face of the soffit 
panel. 

The crown moulding is then set and anchored, as 
shown, after which the hollow brick bed for the wash 
courses is laid and the wash courses cemented, comple- 
ting a cornice which is characteristic of terra cotta, being 
very light in weight and properly jointed so as to be 
adjustable to its steel support. 

Plate XL shows a slightly different cornice with less 
of steel supports. This method of support is in uni- 



preferable to covered joints, being made wide so as not 
to interfere with the cutting of such joints as may be 
necessary. 

Covered joints are apt to be broken off before the 
work is finally set and it is difficult to get a tight mortar 
joint where covered joints are used because the cover 
interferes with pointing up. 

Finally terra cotta is a ceramic material as distinct 
from stone as it is from wood, therefore it has an indi- 
vidual character which gives it a value of its own and 
consequently it should not be used merely as an imita- 




REFLBCTE-D - PLAN 



'' The dec£?rd^Uye ■ 

vn COtOV prescntto^- 
aio ■ effect c?f rxchve//- 

■ ioX&My ■ \.royo//i.h\e. {e? ■ 

■ i^bta^vn - in &-r)y ■ cAher 
. but\d*.n^ Tr^o.Yeri.a.\ ■ 
.ex<rcpt ■ TJ?LY^HK^ME. • 




-.^ECTicyi. 



■" ^ECTl^/l • °^ -BkaC |<-ET 



- Typical- CORNICE. - 

• 5H^WlNa • APPRgVExDC(9A5TKUCTlg'/t 

- icACt- I I 1 1 FOOT - 



PLATE XI. 



versal practice for the ordinary cornice of about three 
feet projection, and consists of outlookers formed by two 
angle irons placed back to back, with an inch space be- 
tween to allow room for anchor bolt, and located over 
every modillion. The back end of the outlookers is held 
down by a continuous channel iron, bricked in and bolted 
down every 6 feet. By this means the location of the 
outlookers may be adjusted to suit the terra cotta. 

The modillions are supported in the same way as were 
those shown in Plate X. The dentil course is anchored 
with ordinary strap anchors. The chenneaux has dowel 
pins in the center of each piece and the top of the brick 
bed of the cornice is covered with copper, forming a gut- 
ter, the edge of which is flashed in the joint between the 
crown mould and the chenneaux. 

Raised joints are used on both cornices as these are 



tion of something else, but designed so as to display all 
of its special characteristics of color, form, and texture. 

Much of our recent work, and also many of the designs 
submitted in The Brickbuilder's Theater Competition of 
last year, demonstrate that when architects understand 
the character of terra cotta it can be used to produce 
works of art of a very high grade. 

A new era in terra cotta is opening before us which 
may result in a new era in architecture because the 
American architect is looking for opportunities for origi- 
nal conceptions and as the possibilities of original treat- 
ment of wood or stone are practically exhausted and of 
metal nearly so, he may find that terra cotta is the one 
and only material having possibilities of novel treatment 
producing beautiful effects thoroughly consistent with 
the highest type of his art. 



254 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Composite Hollow Tile 



AND REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS — A SUBSTITUTE FOR PLAIN REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

BY i;eor(;e s. drew, jr.* 



IN IT.S simplest form a floor slab of reinforced con- 
crete consists of a comparatively thin mass of concrete 
spanning from one wall or support to another, and hav- 
ing steel in some form, iisually rods, plain or deformed, 
incorporated in its lower surface as at " A " in the accom- 
panying diagram, Plate I. In such a slab only that por- 
tion of the concrete located above the "Neutral Axis" 
(b) can be said to actively resist compression, and in 
ordinary practice this constitutes about twenty-five per 
cent of the entire mass. Of the remaining portion only 
a small part, possibly another twenty-five per cent 
directly above and surrounding the reinforced rods, is 



them from fire. Then again in either ca.se in order to 
secure flat ceilings it is necessary to resort to some form 
of metal furring on steel members attached to the lower 
chords of the floor beams, adding greatly to the con- 
structive cost. 

Perhaps the simplest and most efficient method of 
overcoming these difficulties yet devised is the use of 
ordinary hollow terra cotta partition blocks in conjunc- 
tion with reinforced concrete in the manner illustrated 
in Plate III. 

In this system the hollow tile blocks are set end to end 
in continuous rows across the space to be spanned, the 



^<^-^/<'<!^;^-d::<y:^<y^^ J 





PLATE I. PLATE III. 

TYPICAL SECTION OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB. TYPICAL SECTION OF A COMPOSITE REINFORCED SLAB. 

a. Plane of Reinforcement or of Tensile Stress. />. Plane of Neutral A.xis. c. Plane of Mean Compressive Stress, d. Effective Depth of Slab. (1.) 
Distance from Neutral Axis to Plane of Maximum Compressive Stress. (.3d) v. Distance from Neutral Axis to Plane of Teasile Stre.ss. (.7d) 
r. Distance from Plane of Mean Compressive Stress to Plane of Tensile Stress. (.9d) 



subjected to a secondary activity in transmitting the 
tension stresses to the reinforcing steel. It is therefore 
obvious that fully one half of such a slab is composed of 
inert material doing no work and practically doubling 
the dead weight of an ideally constructed floor of the 
same strength. 

In order to save this waste of material and reduce the 
excessive dead weight of such structures, many de- 
vices and expedients, all purely mechanical, have been 
resorted to. 

The most obvious expedient for the reduction of the 
dead weight is to reduce the thickness of the slab, and in 
most of the systems now in use this is accomplished by 
a variety of methods whereby the length of the span of 
the reinforced slab is shortened, most of them involving 
the use of either steel or reinforced concrete beams spaced 
at varying intervals, as the main carrying system, some- 
what as illustrated at 
"A"and " B " in Plate II. 
These devices are all more 
or less open to the criti- 
cism that while the slabs 
are as thin as possible, 
they are still plain slabs 
and open to all the eco- 
nomic objections set forth 
above; that the center- 
ing is complicated and its cost increased by the use of 
concrete beams, and that if steel beams are used, their 
greater cost must be added and means taken to protect 

•Head of Architectural Department, Westinghou.se Church Kerr & Co., 
New York. 




PL A 

TYIMCAI. FORMS OF 



rows separated from 3 to 5 inches from each other and 
the edges of the tile supported on a simple centering 
of loose planks. The reinforcing steel is then placed in 
the spaces between the rows of tile and the interstices 
filled with concrete, which is also spread over the top 
of the tiles to the required depth to bring the neutral 
axis of this composite slab practically coincident with 
the upper surface of the tile and giving in reality a series 
of T-shaped reinforced concrete beams. 

A comparison of Plate I. with Plate III., the two being 
drawn to the same scale, illustrates clearly the compara- 
tive advantages of the latter over the former type of 
construction. 

The combined area of the tile and concrete in the one 
instance is only .55'/; of the area of the concrete in the 
other, with an equivalent saving in weight. This ap- 
proximates ideal conditions very closely by the almost 

complete elimination of 
the inert concrete of the 
simple slab, leplacing it 
with the hollow tile. The 
area of concrete in com- 
pression, i.e., that above 
the plane of the neutral 
axis, need not be dimin- 
ished and enough con- 
crete is retained between 
the tiles to fully develop the tensile strength of a steel 
rod of sufficient area to balance the resistance to com- 
pression exerted by the concrete above the tile. Further- 
more, this system beyond the saving in dead weight over 
a plain slab of equal strength affords a flat ceiling surface 




TE II. 

FLOOR CONSTRUCTION. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



255 






T 



^l 



F^ 






'JUT 



117 

il 



TTT 
il 



HI 



!H^^- 



ready to receive the plaster without resorting to furring 
or other costly expedients. 

A practical demonstration of these and other advan- 
tages inherent in this sys- 
tem of construction was 
recently afforded the 
writer in the erection of 
the Hotel Nassau, at 
Long Beach, L. I. 

When on the 11th day 
of November, 1908, the 
Nassau Hotel Company 
placed the work of erect- 
ing and equipping this 
hotel in the hands of 
Westinghouse Church 
Kerr & Co., two factors, 
those of speed and economy, were even more than usually 
accentuated in the problem presented. At that time the 
plans for the building above the foundations, which had 
already been built, had not been completely developed, 
and so many modifications of the original conception 
were required by the 
owners that it fell to 
the writer's lot as archi- 
tect for the constructing 
engineers to practically 
recast the entire con- 
ception both as to plan 
and method of construc- 
tion, so far as the limita- 
tions imposed by the 
foundations and reten- 
tion of some of the 
more essential features 
of the exterior treat- 
ment would permit. 

As originally pro- 
jected, the building con- 
sisted of an H-shaped 
structure 260 feet long by 140 feet wide, six stories and 
basement in height, and containing two hundred and 
forty-three guest rooms, eighty-three private baths, 
and two servants' dormitories, in addition to the public 
rooms and the various service departments. The south- 
erly courtyard formed by 
the wings of the H was 
entirely covered by a two- 
story structure contain- 
ing eleven shops fronting 
on the boardwalk, the 
roof forming an open ter- 
race overlooking the 
ocean and the promenade. 
The wings of the building 
were approximately 50 
feet in width, containing 
a central corridor with 
rooms on either side. The 
entire area covered amounted to nearly 32,000 square 
feet, and the total volume of the projected building to 
slightly more than 2,000,000 cubic feet. A diagram 
illustrating the arrangement of a typical floor is given in 
Plate IV. 



X" 



"X 



Tin 



— I ^- 



PLATE IV. 

Diaii;ram of typical floor of hotel as 
originally designed. 






:it\i: 




HOTEI, NASSAU. 
View from boardwalk looking west. 





- 








- 
































— 


























— 


























1 i 1 


1 i 1 ■ I 










\ 


















































/ 


/ 


s. 






^^ 


f 


~1 


/ 








PLATK V. 

Diagram of typical floor framing as 
originally designed. 















































In order to complete the building in tlie one hundred 
and eighty-three possible working days between the sign- 
ing of the contract and the 19th of June, 1909, the day 

set for the opening of 
the hotel to the public, 
and at the .same time 
observe the utmost econ- 
omy in construction, re- 
quired a most careful and 
thorough study and selec- 
tion of both the materials 
and methods to be em- 
ployed. 

The plans for the struc- 
tural steel which had been 
elaborately worked out 
contemplated the use of 
Bethlehem sections throughout, and these, it was at once 
found, could not be delivered early enough to permit of 
the completion of the building within the specified time. 
The substitution of standard shapes meant an increase 
of about twenty per cent in the tonnage and a corre- 
sponding increase in 
cost which both the own- 
ers and the engineers 
were loath to contem- 
plate. It was at this 
point that a systematic 
study of the proposed 
floor construction was 
undertaken with a view 
to securing greater 
economy, with the fol- 
lowing results : 

The typical floor con- 
struction as originally 
designed consisted of 
12 inch 36 pound I- 
beams, 8 feet apart on 
20 foot spans, carried 
by two lines of girders and columns coincident with the 
corridor partitions. A diagram illustrating this framing 
is given in Plate V. Between these floor beams and 
flush -with their upper flanges were 4}4 inch reinforced 
concrete slabs supported on the lower flanges by concrete 

haunches. Below the 
beams were suspended 
the metal lath and fur- 
ring for the plastered 
ceiling, substantially as 
shown at " A," Plate II., 
while above the beams 
was 2 inches of grano- 
lithic finish flush with 
the carpet nailing stri])s. 
The analysis of weights 
and costs for this con- 
struction was as follows: 



i ■ 

5 



i]W'iVA"fi"r 



Steel Hoor beams 

2 in. granolithic finish 25 

4yi in. reinforced concrete 

slab and haunches 60 

Hung ceiling plastered (3 coats) 10 

Total 100 



Weights. 
5 lbs. ])er. s(|. 



ft. 



Costs. 
.13 per s(|. ft. 

• O.S ,, 

• 34 ,, 
^0 ,, 

.65 ,, ,, 



256 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Calculation showed that by the use of 12 inch hollow 
tile blocks with 4 inch ribs of reinforced concrete, it would 
be possible to span directly from the walls to the girders, 
eliminating the entire system of floor framing. A com- 
parative analysis of the weights and costs by this system 
resulted as follows: 

Weights. Costs. 

2 in. granolithic finish 25 lbs. i)er s<j. ft. f .08 per sq. ft. 

12 in. tile and reinforced concrete 68 ,, ,, .37 ,, ,, 

Plastered ceiling (two coats) 7 ,, ,, .05 ,, ,, 



Total 



90 



$ .50 



It will be seen that the depth required for construction 
in both cases was the 
same, viz: 15 inches; 
that the dead weight was 
slightly in favor of the 
long span construction, 
thereby making it possi- 
ble to use the same 
amount of steel in girders 
and columns for either 
construction, and that 
the estimated cost was 
15 cents per s({uare foot 
of floor in favor of the 
hollow tile and reinforced 
concrete. Another con- 
sideration which led to 
the adoption of this 
method of construction 
was the additional stabil- 
ity given the exterior 
bearing walls by the prac- 
tically monolithic plate 
built in at every story 
and the equal distribu- 
tion of the floor loads, 
permitting a substantial 
reduction in the thick- 
ness of the lower wall 











- 


- 






i 1 












- 


.-- 




IT. ATE VI. 

Diagram of typical llnor framing as 
(.■(instriK-tL-d. 







Another advantage attending the i:se of this form of 
construction was the facility with which plumbing and 
other pipes and ducts could be incorporated and con- 
cealed in the floor construction by simply leaving out or 
breaking out a row of tile without impairing the sufficiency 
of the structure. 

In designing these floors they were calculated to 
carry safely a live working load of 80 pounds per 
square foot withotit the aid of the 2 inch finish which 
was not applied till after the partitions were set and tests 
oa various portions of the floors failed to produce a 
deflection of more than 'y'\v< of an inch at four times 

this load. 

To the unusual flexi- 
bility of design arising 
from the adoption of 
this type of construction 
was largely due our abil- 
ity to meet the changes 
and additions exacted 
during construction by 
the growing require- 
ments of the owners and 
lessees, which resulted in 
a much more elaborate 
and efficient equipment 
than was at first de- 
sired. 
As completed, the hotel 
proper contains two hun- 
dred and ninety guest 
rooms, one hundred pri- 
vate baths, sixty-two 
servants' sleeping rooms, 
two servants' dormi- 
tories, a roof garden, 
and a greatly elaborated 
service equipment. The 
typical floor plan of the 
hotel as erected is dia- 




sections and a corresponding further economy. The ex- grammed in Plate VII., and a fairly accurate idea of the 
perience of the field force during erection was found to proportions and size of the building is given by the 
fully justify the wisdom of this decision. accompanying illustrations. The three-story annex 

On December 15th, thirty-four days after signing the erected to the south of and adjoining the hotel proper 
contract, the erection of steel from this simplified design, contains in addition to the power plant and main 
illustrated in Plate VI. (involving less than one half the kitchen a large dining room and thirty servants' sleep- 
original tonnage), was begun and was pushed steadily on ing rooms. 

to completion. It was found that the costs both of hand- The cafe, cafe kitchen, and the bar were opened to the 

ling the tile and erect- public on Saturday, 

ing the centering were I 1 I May 29th, and the re- 

below those estimated mainder of the build- 

and that this part of ^^B^^^^Ll^ ings, with the exception 

the work could be A^lJ^^^^^Hr .„ of the roof garden which 

pushed with even By^ ^ ■ • I | jP^— — ,^ j^009K^^^ was not finished till July 

greater celerity than jW'- t H i f; | ^'T^^'^-'^^^^^'^Bli^^^^^^T ^'^^^y on Saturday, June 

had been .supposed, it (■lNbs ii^isLiaTl' » - ' ■ V IfflT^! ' £ 19, 1909, no inconsider- 

havmg been found quite b£^^^j* S Fi n S 5 ■Li.i • | i ^j^ ItSSE ' • • ' ' ^'^Ai ''^'^'^ achievement when 

possible to center and 'I^BQkS 'i£^' ''^' '^' ^^l^^^t^^^i^t^''^^^^'^^ the location, transpor- 

lay an entire floor con- TSSk^SlKi^^^^a^ ^!^\ T 11 ^ ^ UmbMI II Y r "^ i' 1" f^tion facilities, and 
taining 22,000 square ^^^^K^^ ^^i>HiS^r^mA,^m^m^m^m^iamKSm¥f ^^^ weather conditions 

feet in two days, (juite *?-^^ '. ^^'' prevailing through the 

as fast as the masons 2_ most inclement season 

could carry up the walls hotel nassau. of the year are taken 

to receive the floors. General view from the beach into account. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Specifications for Office Buildings. 



257 



BY FREDERICK \V. WINTERIU; RN. * 



THE secret of writing a good specification, if there 
is any secret about it, is intimate knowledge and 
infinite care, with concentration of thought upon every 
detail and requirement of the building in hand until one 
can see it in his mind's eye, complete in every respect. 
It is also not enough that one shall thus discern it but he 
must also describe it in terms that will be understood by 
all concerned in the construction. 

Specifications should be confined strictly to describing 
what it is impractical to show on the drawings. This 
brings the specification within its legitimate compass, 
i.e , specific instructions. They should be pertinent, 
concise, and positive. The writer should know what is 
wanted and state it clearly. He should have an intimate 
knowledge of the requirements of the building, the cost, 
kinds and qualities of materials, as well as the quanti- 
ties that will be required and whether procurable in 
order that they may be had on time and in quantity. 

When the best material obtainable is called for or 
when a less costly grade will do, the author must be 
familiar with the vernacular of the several trades that 
enter into the construction, in order that the mechanics 
may understand him. It is especially important that he 
be familiar with the traditions of the trades and the 
workmen and, as far as may be, the rules of the trade 
unions, so that disputes may be avoided, for such a con- 
tention between unions delays the building just as surely 
as a strike. 

A general knowledge of the law in relation to building 
is required — not alone the local building laws, but the 
common or general law as well. Rights of owners, con- 
tractors, workmen, tenants, adjoining premises, and 
other legal questions are likely to arise, as well as what 
the courts have generally enforced, and what they will 
not, for strange as it may seem the general specifications 
of to-day contain clause after clause that it would be im- 
possible to enforce by law. 

The architect must remember that he stands between 
client and contractor ; that each will read and inter- 
pret from his own point of view. General clauses will 
mean but little to the contractor, but to the owner they 
will loom large and beget great expectations that will 
later lead to disappointment. It is of little use to 
give an elaborate description, say of all locks, and then 
fail to state what doors shall be provided with them. 
The young architect should guard against elaborate gen- 
eral clauses ; he should be specific, mandatory, finish- 
ing if possible by a general clincher which will take care 
of all overlooked items. 

Care must be taken to not say too much, for many a 
clause has been nullified by having too many words. 
Take this instance. "The contractor shall cut off 
smoothly, all mason and brick work from adjoining 
buildings that project over the property lines." In this 
case a concrete wall had to be trimmed and iron beams 
cut off, for which the contractor claimed an extra on the 
plea that concrete was not masonry in trade parlance and 
iron beams were neither masonry nor brick work. It will 

* Of the firm of Clinton & Russell, architects, New York City. 



be seen at a glance that a stroke of the pen through the 
words "mason and brick " would have cured the defect. 
The better way would have been to make the clause more 
concise and say, "Cut off all projections." That would 
have been specific, inclusive, and shut off all argument 
as to interpretation of what was called for. This the 
architect must constantly bear in mind and carefully 
scan his clauses to see that while all things necessary are 
included he has not gone beyond the safety line and 
added confusion that will not fail to plague and vex him 
in the near future. 

Another fault should be avoided ; having generally 
included certain work in a specific clause do not go on 
and partially specialize. For instance, "All walls and 
ceilings throughout shall be plastered three coats, " and 
then go on to say that " basement ceilings shall be plas- 
tered." In this case the contractor does not plaster the 
basement walls, claiming that basement ceiling only was 
called for. He wants extra for basement walls, as he 
did not figure for them. You can see his contention is 
sound. If you had stopped with the simple first clause, 
it would have included every wall and ceiling and shut 
off all controversy and the dreaded extra. 

Another vexation is the guarantee. If you want the 
contractor to build a waterproof cellar and guarantee it 
free of expense to the owner for a set term of months or 
years, say so, and then stop right there. If you go on 
and carefully particularize manner and materials he shall 
use, he will carefully follow your instructions. When 
the cellar leaks, you order him to make good, but he 
claims that the work is as per specifications and his re- 
sponsibility ceased when he did what was called for. 
The owner following your advice refuses to pay. The 
contractor then sues and much to your surprise and the 
owner's disgust, wins his case. This at first glance seems 
unfair and unjust, but when carefully considered we find 
the courts are right. You cannot enforce a penalty for a 
failure of resajts and at the same time compel a specific 
performance of the work as it should be done in your 
judgment. If you are an expert you must assume the 
responsibility. If you shift the responsibility upon the 
contractor then you must stand aside, for he now as- 
sumes the responsibility, relying on his own judgment 
as an expert as to what is recpiired to attain the result 
called for. 

Many attempts have been made to prepare a set of 
skeleton specifications that could be filled out to suit 
different buildings, and the writer himself has spent 
much time in preparing them for use in the office, but 
the results were unsatisfactory and a second lot never was 
printed. The general clauses to our specifications how- 
ever have been in use for many years. We have edited 
them from time to time, adding and cutting out, always 
striving for simplicity and directness. In practice we 
have found them equal to every occasion and have many 
times seen them copied in specifications of other archi- 
tects, even including the errors which we had weeded out 
later. 

The following fourteen clauses are generally necessary 



258 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



for all classes of buildings. They are for the "Masons' 
Specifications," and the same are used for all other con- 
tractors with slight modification. 

Drawings and Specifications. The drawings and 
specifications shall be carried out to the letter, and are 
intended to cooperate, i.e., anything shown on the 
drawings and not mentioned in these specifications, or 
vice versa, shall be done the same as if both specified 
and shown. 

Figured dimensions shall govern over scale measure- 
ments. 

Variations from the plans or specifications shall not 
be made without written authority from the architects 
covering every instance. 

Wherever the words, "this contractor" appear in the 
specification, they shall designate the contractor for the 
work under the specification. 

If this contractor observes errors or inconsistencies in 
the drawings or specifications, he shall without delay 
notify the architects that proper adjustment be made. 

Measurem?;nts. This contractor shall verify at the 
building all measurements relating to his work and shall 
adjust the joining and fitting of his work to the other 
works. When building is up to curb level, this contrac- 
tor shall employ a city surveyor to verify the walls and 
certify that they do not trespass on adjoining property or 
streets. 

Permits. Building permit will be obtained by the 
architects. Vault permit, if required, by the owner. 
Water permit and all other permits and privileges neces- 
sary for the prosecution of the work herein specified, 
shall be obtained and paid for by this contractor. 

Watchman. The building will be considered as in 
charge of this contractor, and he shall keep a watchman 
on the premises continuovisly from the time work is 
turned over by the excavating contractor, until build- 
ing is completed and delivered over to the owner. 

Responsihimty. This contractor shall make his work 
conform to the law, to the City Ordinances, and to the 
requirements of the Superintendent of Buildings. 

This contractor shall be responsible for all loss or 
damage to life, limb, or property that may happen 
through any operations under his charge; and shall hold 
the owner harmless against all loss or damage from such 
cause or causes. 

This contractor shall guard all dangerous places by 
suitable railings, danger lights, etc., as required by the 
law and the police regulations, or as directed by the 
architects. 

Administration. This contractor shall give the work 
personal supervision and keep a competent superintend- 
ent in charge on the building during the progress of the 
work. He shall supply a sufficient number of strong 
ladders, firmly braced, and maintain access to all parts 
of construction. 

He shall maintain a sufficient number of steam or 
electric power hoists to elevate required materials for 
the rapid progress of his work. 

He shall maintain an office, with telephone connection 
on the premises; this office shall have in conjunction 
with his own accommodations, a table for plans and a 
drawer with lock, for the use of the architects. 

This contractor shall co-operate with the other con- 



tractors on the several works, so that work will be pros- 
ecuted in proper sequence and will not have to be taken 
down to allow the construction of work that should have 
had precedence. 

The permanent elevator wells shall be left free and no 
one will be allowed to use them except the contractors 
for elevator work. 

Extra Work. No work shall be considered as extra, 
unless same is done under a written order from the 
architects, said order stating the amount or manner of 
compensation. 

Defects. This contractor shall make good any defect- 
ive materials or workmanship which may occur in his 
work within twelve ( 12 ) months after the completion of 
this contract, and the issuance of the final certificate by 
the architects shall in no way exempt this contractor 
from the obligation of remedying and correcting defects 
within the twelve months aforesaid. 

CuTTiNc; AND PATCHING. This Contractor shall do all 
required cutting of his work for other trades and shall do 
all patching and repairing of his part of the work after 
them, that may be necessary. He shall leave all his work 
sound, clean, and perfect at completion of the building. 

Rubbish Removal. During construction and up to full 
completion of the building, this contractor shall clean 
up and remove all rubbish whatsoever resulting from 
his own part of the work, or from the work of all other 
contractors; he .shall keep the building broom clean and 
shall not let rubbish or waste materials accumulate on 
the premises or streets, removing same whenever di- 
rected by the architects. 

Materials, Etc. This contractor shall furnish suffi- 
cient labor, materials, plant, tools, scaffolding, and 
appliances whatsoever necessary for the complete carry- 
ing out of his work as herein set forth. Where not spe- 
cifically called for, all materials shall be of the best kind 
and quality suitable for the work. 

Workmanship shall be the best. 

Water in Cellar. This contractor shall keep the 
excavations or cellar free of water, emptying same when- 
ever called upon to do so by the architects. 

Bridge. Build a strong bridge over all sidewalks. This 
bridge to have a roof strong enough for the stone masons 
to set their work from. It shall be kept in repair during 
the progress of the building and removed when ordered 
by the architects. 

Old Cisterns, Trimming, Etc. Fill in with concrete 
and masonry any old cisterns or wells that may be dis- 
covered on the premises. Cut and trim off smoothly any 
projections found on adjoining walls, so that walls may 
be carried up plumb and close to lot line from the 
bottom. 

As specifications invariably have to be prepared in a 
hurry, it will be found a great convenience as well as a 
saving of time to write the specifications over a former 
one. Extra copies of all specifications are written and 
filed away. Then when one has to be prepared, a copy 
is selected as close to the type as possible and used as a 
form, from which, by ctitting out, interlining and sub- 
stituting new clauses with desired additions, copies for 
the typewriters can be prepared very quickly. These 
will require very careful attention in correcting. 

Care should be taken of all instances where clauses are 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



259 



found to be defective during construction, also of word- 
ing that allows different interpretation, or is easily mis- 
construed. Note all useless clauses, mistakes, omissions, 
and blunders. The same error should never be tolerated 
again. 

It is better practice to group the different trades in 
separate specifications around the general contractors 
specifications, which always include all mason work. 
This is a help, both to the general contractor, as it allows 
him to hold the subcontractors down to strict performance 
of the work, as well as the contractors themselves, who 
may know definitely what they are estimating on. vSuch a 
course entails great care on the architect's part to see that 
no discrepancies occur between the different trades, and 
again the warning comes not to depend on general clauses 
to cure this. The better way is to be exact, make all the 
points meet. The more definite and plain the drawings 
and specifications are made, the closer the estimates will 
run. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 

Town Hall, Clinton, Mass. The building is situated 
at the corner of two principal streets and faces a large 
park. The heavy foliage as well as the proximity of an 
old wooden church made the selection of color for the 
building an important item, while the character of the 
neighborhood influenced the scale. Buff brick in two 
tones has been used for the exterior together with trim- 
mings of terra cotta shaded to match the lighter or body 
bricks. Five-eighths inch joints deeply ruled are used 
throughout together with considerable pattern brickwork. 
In the upper part of the tower three colors are intro- 
duced in glazed terra cotta. The roof is of red shingle 
tile. The Town Hall proper, which contains the cus- 
tomary offices, is connected by the main hall to the 
large auditorium, so planned as to be used either with 
the main building or separately. The auditorium is a 
special feature of the building, being provided with 
a stage, dressing rooms, supper room, etc., large enough 
to accommodate the social needs of the town as well as 
the town meeting. The color scheme is green and gold 
with an ivory tinted vaulted ceiling which is divided into 
panels and ornamented in low relief. 

The Dining Hall at Mount Hermon Boys' School. 
The building is of Harvard brick with granite wall 
trimmings, wood cornice, and portico columns. The 
foundation walls are of concrete and have been surfaced 
back by hand with bush hammer to effect a harmonious 
treatment with the granite water table. The interior 
arrangement is T shaped in plan, formed by large dining 
hall in the center of the main building, 50 feet by 162 feet, 
and with large vestibules or anterooms at each end. 
The wing contains a kitchen, storage rooms, etc., on the 
main floor, and a bakery, servants' dining room, toilet, etc., 
in the basement. The main dining hall accommodates 
eight hundred persons and is of sufficient height to be in 
good proportion with the large dimensions in plan. The 
interior walls are faced with Harvard b